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U.S. MARINE CORPS 

CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 

America's Expeditionary Force in Readiness 




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INCLUDES THE MARINE CORPS ALMANAC 



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CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 



2011 




ORPS 




A MESSAGE FROM THE COMMANDANT 
OF THE MARINE CORPS 

The United States Marine Corps continues to defend 
our Nation amidst a world of ever-increasing instability and 
conflict. In the rugged Helmand River Valley of Afghani- 
stan, onboard naval amphibious ships and in countless other 
locations, Marines are fighting our enemies and assisting 
our friends. All the while, we remain poised to respond to 
crisis in any clime or place. As Americas Expeditionary Force 
in Readiness, we have a statutory responsibility to be prepared 
at a moment's notice to respond "as the President may direct" 
across the range of military operations, from humanitarian 
assistance missions to major combat operations. Our notion 
of "Expeditionary" is more than a slogan. It is a state of mind 
that drives the way we organize our forces, how we train, and 
what kind of equipment we buy. 



II I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



This past fall, our Corps conducted 
a comprehensive force structure review 
to ensure we are optimally postured for 
the emerging and future security envi- 
ronment. The results of that detailed 
study will have bearing on the programs 
and equipment we procure, now and 
into the future. This edition of Concepts 
and Programs serves as an encyclopedic 
reference of all our major programs 
and operational concepts for 2011. 
Yet, let me be clear... our focus is not 
only on equipment. Marines and their 
families are central to everything we do. 
This publication also includes a com- 
prehensive Almanac, detailing demo- 
graphics and other important statistics 
of our force. 

America s Marines provide a large 
range of capabilities for the modest in- 
vestment of our nation's scarce resourc- 
es. In the most recent months and years, 
in locations all over the globe - Paki- 
stan, Haiti, the Caribbean, the U.S. Gulf 
Coast, South America, the Gulf of Aden, 
the Philippines, and Afghanistan - Ma- 
rine Corps forces were either engaging 
with our allies, conducting full spec- 
trum counter-insurgency operations, 
enabling the Joint Force and Interagen- 
cy Non-governmental Agency elements, 
providing humanitarian assistance and 
disaster relief, deterring aggression or 
contributing to assured access. Today's 



Marine Corps is a "middleweight force." 
We fill the void in our nation's defense 
for an agile force that is comfortable op- 
erating at the high and low ends of the 
threat spectrum or the more likely am- 
biguous areas in between. We will con- 
tinue to support our national objectives 
in Afghanistan. Concurrently, we will 
reset and reconstitute our equipment in 
order to provide a balanced air-ground- 
logistics team that is forward deployed 
and forward engaged; shaping, training, 
deterring and responding to a wide va- 
riety of global crises and contingencies. 
As an elite and balanced air-ground- 
logistics team, the Marine Corps is 
ready to respond, along with the Navy 
— and as part of the joint force — to 
today's crisis with today's force. . .today!. 
Despite the challenges of the future, 
one thing will remain constant... the 
United States Marine Corps will con- 
tinue to be "the most ready when the 
nation is least ready." 



Semper Fidelis, 




James F. Amos 
reneral, U.S. Marine Corps 



FORWARD 




U.S. MARINE CORPS 



CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

A MESSAGE FROM THE COMMANDANT OF THE MARINE CORPS . . .ii 

CHAPTER 1: America's Expeditionary Force in Readiness 1 

CHAPTER 2; Organization 13 

Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) 14 

Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps 21 

Operating Forces 24 

Supporting Establishment 44 

Marine Corps Embassy Security Group 54 

Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C 55 

CHAPTER 3: Programs 57 

Part 1 : Equipping the Marine 60 

Infantry Automatic Rifle (IAR) 62 

Modular Weapons System (MWS) 63 

Semi-Automatic Sniper System (SASS) 64 

Multi-Shot Grenade Launcher 65 

Shoulder Launched Multi-purpose Assault Weapon (SMAW II) 66 

Handheld Radios Family of Systems (FOS) 67 

Marine Enhancement Program (MEP) 69 

iv I JSMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



Marine Expeditionary Rifle Squad (MERS) 70 

Infantry Combat Equipment (ICE) 72 

Tactical Hydrographic Survey Equipment (THSE) 75 

Day Optics Systems 76 

Thermal Optics Systems 78 

Laser Targeting and Illumination Systems 79 

Part 2: Command and Control 80 

Marine Corps Information Enterprise (MCIENT) Strategy 82 

Marine Corps Enterprise Information Technology Services (MCEITS) 86 

Global Command and Control System (GCCS) 87 

Global Combat Support System - Marine Corps (GCSS-MC) 88 

Defense Readiness Reporting System - Marine Corps (DRRS-MC) 90 

Common Aviation Command and Control System (CAC2S) 91 

Theater Battle Management Core System (TBMCS) 92 

Tactical Combat Operations (TCO) System 93 

Composite Tracking Network (CTN) 94 

Combat Operations Center (COC) 95 

Mobile Modular Command and Control (M2C2) System 97 

Joint Battle Command Platform (JBC-P) 98 

Joint Tactical Common Operational Picture (COP) Workstation (JTCW) 99 

Blue Force Tracker (BFT) Family of Systems 100 

Warfighter Network Services-Tactical (WFNS-T) 101 

The Assault Amphibious Vehicle-Command; C2 Upgrade Program 102 

Multi-Band Radio (MBR) 103 

High Frequency Radio (HFR) 104 

Part 3: Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance 106 

Marine Corps Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Enterprise (MCISR-E). ... 107 

Distributed Common Ground System-Marine Corps (DCGS-MC) Ill 

Communication Emitter Sensing and Attacking System (CESAS) 112 

Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (JSTARS) 
Common Ground System (CGS) 113 

Counterintelligence (CI) and Human Intelligence (HUMINT) 
Equipment Program (CIHEP) 114 

TABLE OF CONTENTS I V 



Sensitive Compartmented Information Communications (SCI Comms) 115 

Intelligence Analysis System (IAS) Family of Systems 117 

Technical Control and Analysis Center (TCAC) 118 

MAGTF Secondary Imagery Dissemination System (MSIDS) 119 

Team Portable Communications System-Multi Platform Capable (TPCS-MPC) 121 

Expeditionary Intelligence Support (EIS) 123 

Part 4: Ground Combat and Tactical Vehicles 124 

Ground Combat Tactical Vehicle (GCTV) Strategy 125 

Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) 127 

Assault Amphibious Vehicle (AAV7A1) Family Of Vehicles (FOV) Survivability Initiative . .128 

Mine-Resistant Ambush-Protected (MRAP) Vehicle 129 

Marine Personnel Carrier (MPC) 132 

Internally Transportable Vehicle (ITV) 134 

Light Armored Vehicle (LAV) Program 135 

High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) 
Expanded Capacity Vehicle (HMMWV ECV) 137 

Joint Light Tactical Vehicle ( JLTV) Family of Systems 138 

Medium Tactical Vehicle Replacement (MTVR) 140 

Logistics Vehicle System Replacement (LVSR) 142 

Route Reconnaissance and Clearance (R2C) Family of Systems 143 

Part 5: Fire Support 144 

Ground Indirect Fires 145 

Lightweight 155mm Howitzer (LW155) 146 

High-Mobility Artillery Rocket System (HIMARS) 148 

Expeditionary Fire Support System (EFSS) 149 

Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System (AFATDS) Family of Systems 150 

Target Location, Designation, and Hand-off System (TLDHS) 152 

Family of Target Acquisition Systems (FTAS) 153 

Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program ( JNLWP) 154 

Hailing and Warning Green Beam Laser Systems 155 

VENOM™ Non-Lethal Tube Launched Munitions System (NL/TLMS) 156 

Mission Payload Module Non-Lethal Weapons System (MPM-NLWS) 157 

Escalation of Force Mission-Module (EoF-MM) 158 

Vi I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 201 1 



Part 6: Aviation 160 

Aviation Strategy 161 

Aviation Combat Element (ACE) Legacy Aircraft Modernization 162 

Aviation Ground Support (AGS) 166 

Aviation Training Systems (ATS) 169 

F-35B Lightning II Short Take-Off Vertical Landing (STOVL) 
Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) 171 

Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Transition Plan 173 

MV-22B Osprey 174 

H-l Upgrade (UH- 1Y Venom/ AH- 1Z Viper) 176 

KC-130J Hercules 178 

CH-53K Heavy Lift Helicopter 179 

Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) 180 

Operational Support Airlift (OSA) 183 

Marine Aviation Logistics Transformation 185 

Ground/ Air Task Oriented Radar (G/ATOR) 186 

Marine Air Command and Control System (MACCS) Sustainment 188 

Mobile Tactical Air Operations Module (MTAOM) 189 

Remote Video Viewing Terminal 190 

P-19 Aircraft Rescue and Firefighting (ARFF) Vehicle Replacement 191 

Part 7: Expeditionary Logistics 192 

Expeditionary Logistics Strategy 193 

Logistics Modernization 198 

Total Life Cycle Management 199 

Sense and Respond Logistics 200 

Electronic Maintenance Support System (EMSS) 202 

Embedded Platform Logistics System (EPLS) 203 

Autonomic Logistics - Marine Corps Services (ALS) 204 

Naval Logistics Integration (NLI) 205 

Joint Precision Aerial Delivery System - Ultra Light Weight ( JPADS-ULW) 206 

Marine Air Ground Force (MAGTF) Distribution 207 

Feeding Marines 208 

Mobile Trauma Bay (MTB) 209 

TABLE OF CONTENTS I vii 



Family of Field Medical Equipment (FFME) 210 

Marine Corps Family of Power and Family of Environmental Control Equipment 211 

Test Measurement and Diagnostic Equipment (TMDE) 212 

Expeditionary - Water Packaging System (E-WPS) 213 

Lightweight Water Purification System (LWPS) 214 

Conventional Ground Ammunition (CLASS V (W)) 215 

Communication Electronics Equipment Maintenance 
Complex (CEEMC) Rigid Wall Shelter 217 

Family of Tactical Soft Shelters (FTSS) 219 

Part 8: Maritime Support 220 

Maritime Support to Expeditionary Operations 221 

Amphibious Warships 225 

Joint High Speed Vessel (JHSV) 227 

Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC)/Ship-to-Shore Connector (SSC) 228 

Evolution of Maritime Prepositioning 229 

Naval Surface Fire Support (NSFS) Initiatives 231 

Mine Countermeasures (MCM) 233 

Part 9: Training and Education 236 

Individual and MAGTF Training 238 

Joint, Interagency, and Multinational (JIM) Training 241 

Pre-deployment Training Program (PTP) 242 

Mission-Capable Training Ranges 244 

Modeling and Simulation (M&S) 246 

Collective Training Systems 248 

Range Training Systems 250 

Individual Training Systems 265 

Marine Corps Distance Learning (MCDL) 267 

Marine Corps University and (MCU) and Professional Military Education (PME) 268 

Marine Corps History Division 270 

National Museum of the Marine Corps (NMMC) 271 

Part 10: Installations 274 

Installations and Military Construction 276 

Viii I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 201 1 



Environmental, Natural, and Cultural Resources Stewardship 277 

Housing 278 

Continuous Process Improvement (CPI) 279 

Part 11: Force Protection 280 

MAGTF CBRN Assessment and Consequence Management Set 

(MAGTF CBRN ACM Set) 282 

Ground-Based Air Defense Transformation (GBAD-T) 283 

AN/TPS-59(V)3 Radar System 284 

Identity Dominance System (IDS) 285 

Counter Radio-Controlled Improvised Explosive Device (RCEID) 
Electronic Warfare (CREW) 286 

Improvised Explosive Device Detector Dog (IDD) 287 

Ground-Based Operational Surveillance System (Expeditionary) (G-BOSS(E)) 288 

Mission Assurance 289 

Part 12: Marines and Families 290 

Taking Care of Marines and Families 291 

Quality of Life (QOL) 294 

Manpower Recruiting 295 

Marine Corps Recruiting Information Support System (MCRISS) 298 

Marine Corps Retention 299 

Civilian Marines 301 

Marine Corps Reserve 303 

Wounded Warrior Regiment (WWR) 304 

Part 13: Energy 306 

Expeditionary Energy 307 

Installations Energy 310 

CHAPTER 4: Marine Corps Almanac 312 

INDEX 332 



TABLE OF CONTENTS I ix 




CHAPTER 1 




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THE UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS 

AMERICAS EXPEDITIONARY FORCE IN READINESS 



Our experiences since September 11, 2001 — at home and abroad, in crisis-re- 
sponse operations and in combat — have earned today's Marines the right to stand 
proudly in the long and illustrious line of those who have gone before. In Al Anbar 
Province, we defeated a determined insurgency, proved to the world that Al Qaeda's 
violent extremism could be beaten, and helped shape a brighter future for the Iraqi 
people. We then rapidly re-focused on Afghanistan, where 20,000 Marines continue 
to fight our Nation's battles in another tough "neighborhood," the Helmand Province. 
Just as important, is the fact that since September 11, 2001 the Navy-Marine Corps 
Team has been the Nations primary response force for the world outside Iraq and Af- 
ghanistan. Since 1990, the Marine Corps has conducted over 104 amphibious opera- 
tions around the world. These missions ranged from Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster 
Relief in such varied places as New Orleans, Haiti and Pakistan; to Crisis Response in 
Lebanon and the Ivory Coast; to Security Cooperation and Counter Terror operations 
in Latin American, Georgia, the Philippines, Horn of Africa and elsewhere. All of these 
took place while we were also operating in Iraq and Afghanistan. Tomorrow, America's 
Marines will continue to stand ready to respond to a broad spectrum of challenges and 
threats to our homeland, our citizens, our interests, and our allies and friends. 

In short, we are Americas Expeditionary Force in Readiness, organized, trained, and 
equipped to rapidly respond to crisis, yet also able to conduct discrete engagement ac- 
tivities with an expanding set of international partners or to merge with other members 
of the joint team to conduct major operations and campaigns. While we remain focused 
on combat operations in Afghanistan, we must consider the likely challenges of the fu- 
ture and how the Corps is likely to meet them. The security environment is different 
from the world we knew prior to the attacks of September 2001 and through innovation 
and a willingness to adapt, so is the Marine Corps. As such the Marine Corps has devel- 
oped certain critical specialized capabilities commonly referred to as "enablers." When 
integrated with a general purpose force in relatively small proportions, enablers provide 
that force the ability to execute a mission that is different from its original purpose. 

CHAPTER 1: THE USMC AMERICA'S EXPEDITIONARY FORCE IN READINESS I 1 



As an example, providing trained advisors 
from the Marine Corps Training and Advi- 
sory Group (MCTAG) to a general purpose 
infantry unit, enhances that units ability to 
conduct theater security cooperation mis- 
sions more effectively. By making good use 
of our enablers, we increase the aggregate 
utility of standard Marine units to the geo- 
graphic combatant commanders because 
they can be better task-organized for the 
precise responses required. They have resi- 
dent experts and trainers integrated into 
the larger unit.We will ensure our Marines 
maintain the counterinsurgency skills they 
honed in Iraq and Afghanistan, while also 
staying true to our traditional expedition- 
ary ethos. We will shape the Corps to be 
our Nation's "middleweight" force, op- 
timized for forward-presence and rapid 
crisis response. We will be light enough 
to leverage the flexibility and capacity of 
amphibious ships, yet heavy enough to ac- 
complish the mission when we get there. 
Sea-based forces, in particular, will be in- 
valuable for discreet engagement activi- 
ties, rapid crisis response, and sustainable 
power projection. 

The current fiscal realities of the Na- 
tion will drive us to address many difficult 
choices. At the end of the day, however, 
the Marine Corps will make the neces- 
sary adjustments in force structure, pro- 
curement objectives, and posture to con- 
tinue to provide a viable, agile, and lethal 
fighting force capable across the range of 
military operations and able to operate in 
austere environments. 



THE FUTURE SECURITY 
ENVIRONMENT 

As we look ahead, we see a world of 
instability, crisis, and conflict, character- 
ized by poverty, competition for increas- 
ingly scarce resources, urbanization, over- 





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population, and extremism. Failed states 
or those that cannot adequately govern 
their territories can become safe havens for 
terrorists, insurgents, and criminals that 
threaten the United States and our allies. 

Globalization will continue to in- 
crease interdependence among nations 
and place a premium on access to the 
global commons — sea, air, space, and cy- 
ber. Furthermore, the maritime and land 
domains converge in the littorals, where a 
majority of the world's population lives. 
These densely populated, turbulent ur- 
ban littorals can, if left unattended, pro- 
vide sanctuary for our adversaries. 

The developing world is trending 
toward a more youthful demographic. 
Already pressurized by lack of educa- 
tion and job opportunities, the marked 
increase of radicalized young men and 
women in underdeveloped countries may 
swell the ranks of disaffected groups, gen- 
erating even greater distinctions between 
the "haves" and "have-nots." At the same 
time, increasing competition for scarce 
natural resources — fossil fuels, food, and 
clean water — will likely lead to tension, 
crisis, and conflict. 

The rise of new powers and shifting 
nature of international relationships will 
create greater potential for competition 
and friction. The rapid proliferation of 



2 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



new technologies, cyber warfare and ad- 
vanced precision weaponry amplify the 
risks and empower state and non-state 
actors as never before. 

These trends will influence signifi- 
cantly the future security environment 
and, in turn, the ever-changing character 
of warfare, which looks to be a "hybrid" 
mix of conventional and irregular threats. 
The Secretary of Defense has described 



"hybrid" warfare as the "lethality of state 
conflict with the fanatical and protracted 
fervor of irregular warfare, where Micro- 
soft coexists with machetes, and stealth 
is met by suicide bombers." This is the 
world in which we will live. This is where 
we will defend our citizens, our interests, 
and our allies and friends. This is where 
America's Marines will operate. 



THE ROLE OF THE MARINE CORPS 



The Marine Corps is America's Expeditionary Force in Readiness — a 
balanced air-ground-logistics team. We are forward deployed and forward 
engaged: shaping, training, deterring, and responding to all manner of crises 
and contingencies. We create options and decision space for our Nation's lead- 
ers. Alert and ready, we respond to today's crisis with today's force... Tot... 
Responsive and scalable, we team with other Services, interagency partners, 
and allies. We enable and participate in joint and combined operations of any 
magnitude. A middleweight force, we are light enough to get there quickly, but 
" Leavy enough to carry the day upon arrival, and capable of operating indepen- 
dent of local infrastructure. We operate throughout the spectrum of threats 
- irregular, hybrid, conventional — or the shady areas where they over- 
lap. Marines are ready to respond whenever the Nation calls... wherever the 
President may direct. 

- 35th Commandant's Planning Gun 



The Marine Corps has long pro- 
vided the Nation with a force adept at 
rapidly and effectively solving complex, 
multifaceted, and seemingly intractable 
security challenges — so much so that 
"Send in the Marines" connotes both a 
demand for action and a presumption of 
success. While the American public may 
not be conversant with exactly what the 
Marine Corps is or does, our fellow citi- 



zens display an intuitive understanding 
that in times of trouble the Marines stand 
ready to do whatever has to be done. In 
recent years, their confidence has been 
reinforced by the performance of Ma- 
rines in helping topple the regime in Iraq, 
eradicating the ensuing endemic violence 
within that country's Al Anbar Province, 
diminishing the influence of the Taliban 
in southern Afghanistan, and in numer- 



CHAPTER 1 : THE USMC AMERICA'S EXPEDITIONARY FORCE IN READINESS I 3 



ous humanitarian-assistance operations 
worldwide. This flexibility and depend- 
ability has been captured in the expres- 
sion, "No better friend, and no worse en- 
emy." While Marine Corps forces perform 
a variety of missions across the range of 
military operations, two stand at the fore- 
front of what we do. 

First, as part of the naval team, we re- 
spond to crisis. Responding to crisis has 
traditionally required a high degree of 
readiness along with flexible, comprehen- 
sive skill sets. Crisis response operations 
span the spectrum of military operations 
from humanitarian assistance/disaster 
relief, to non-combatant evacuations, 
support of counter-terrorism or counter- 
piracy operations, and on to "small war" 
contingencies and major combat opera- 
tions — all with little warning and mini- 
mal response times. 

Second, we are partnered with the 
joint community to assure littoral access 
by bridging the difficult seam between 
operations at sea and on land. When ac- 
cess to critical regions or allies is denied 
or in jeopardy, forward deployed, rap- 
idly employable Marine Corps forces 
are ready to execute amphibious opera- 
tions to overcome enemy defenses and to 
swiftly project and sustain combat power 
ashore in the face of armed opposition. 
We leverage available joint and naval ca- 
pabilities, project sustained power ashore, 
and secure entry for any follow-on forces 
required. This capability contributes to 
overcoming diplomatic, geographic, and 
military challenges to access, and assists 
the Nation in achieving the strategic ob- 
jectives of deterring threats, preventing 
conflict, protecting national interests, and 
defeating aggression. 



Interoperability with joint forces and 
familiarity with interagency partners are 
key ingredients to success in both crisis re- 
sponse and assuring access. This interop- 
erability mandates the establishment of 
enduring relationships and the orchestra- 
tion of diverse capabilities, organizations, 
and cultural awareness activities across all 
aspects of an operation. Our future op- 
erating environment includes complex 
problems for which purely military solu- 
tions will not always suffice — the fun- 
damental causes of the conflict are often 
a complicated combination of security, 
economic, political, cultural, and social 
issues. Marine Forces must be ready to 
integrate all capabilities at their disposal 
to enable national elements of power to 
meet those complex challenges. 

CONCEPTUAL BASIS FOR 
CAPABILITY DEVELOPMENT 




In fulfilling the role of the Marine 
Corps, numerous strategy, policy, and 
concept documents guide future capabil- 
ity development. Within the framework 
provided by national strategy and De- 
partment of Defense publications — and 
consistent with the role articulated by the 
35th Commandant — three key docu- 
ments guide Marine Corps capability de- 



4 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



velopment. The first of these, A Coopera- 
tive Strategy for 2 1st Century Seapower (the 
maritime strategy), was co-signed by the 
Chief of Naval Operations, Commandant 
of the Marine Corps, and Commandant 
of the Coast Guard in 2007. The others 
include another tri-Service publication, 
Naval Operations Concept 2010: Imple- 
menting the Maritime Strategy (NOC), 
and our concurrently published Marine 
Corps Operating Concepts (MOC) Third 
Edition. 

The maritime strategy notes that 
while the Sea Services provide many ca- 
pabilities, six comprise our core capabili- 
ties. The NOC elaborates on these in a 
sequence designed to describe how glob- 
ally dispersed naval forces conducting an 
array of steady state activities designed 
to prevent war will, when required, come 
together to prevail in crisis response or 
combat operations. Forward presence 
shapes, enables and deters; facilitating 
our ability to perform all other missions. 
Maritime security involves partnering 
with others to promote safety, economic 
security, and homeland defense in depth. 
Humanitarian assistance and disaster 
response applies naval power to mitigate 
human suffering. The ability to establish 
sea control and conduct power projection 
is essential to conducting expeditionary 
operations, which may take place under 
conditions ranging from permissive, to 
uncertain, to openly hostile. The abil- 
ity of naval forces to perform all of these 
missions contributes to an expanded con- 
cept of deterrence. 



The Marine Corps Operating Concepts 
provides our Service-specific conceptual 
basis for force development. It calls for 
embracing our enduring characteristics 
while evolving the capabilities necessary 
to ensuring the Marine Corps is relevant 
to the current and future security envi- 
ronment. Five major, inter-related Ma- 
rine Corps tasks can be distilled from the 
content of the MOC. 

• Conduct military engagement. The 
routine contact and interaction be- 
tween individuals or elements of the 
Armed Forces of the United States and 
those of another nation's armed forces, 
or foreign and domestic civilian au- 
thorities or agencies builds trust and 
confidence, shares information, coordi- 
nates mutual activities, and maintains 
influence. Our ability to conduct mili- 
tary engagement is essential to building 
partner capability and capacity, forging 
solid relationships across cultural bar- 
riers, and promoting diplomatic access. 
Sea-based military engagement also 
facilitates interaction while treading 
lightly on partner-nation sensibilities. 
Our forward posture is critical to pro- 
viding effective engagement, as well as 
ensuring responsiveness. 

• Respond to crises, whether natural or 
man-made. Crisis-response operations 
are conducted to alleviate or mitigate 
the impact of an incident or situation 
that threatens a nation, its territories, 
citizens, military forces, possessions or 
vital interests. Crises usually develop 
rapidly and create a condition of such 



CHAPTER 1 : THE USMC AMERICA'S EXPEDITIONARY FORCE IN READINESS I 5 



diplomatic, economic, political, or mil- 
itary importance that the commitment 
of military forces and resources is war- 
ranted to achieve national objectives. 
In addition to those forces postured 
forward, a high state of expeditionary 
readiness is essential to rapidly project 
additional Marine Corps capabilities in 
response to crises. 

• Project power, as the situation requires. 
Power projection comprises the ability 
of a nation to apply all or some of its 
elements of national power — politi- 
cal, economic, informational, or mili- 
tary — to rapidly and effectively deploy 
and sustain forces in and from multiple 
dispersed locations to respond to crises, 
contribute to deterrence, and enhance 
regional stability. The Marine Corps 
leverages and contributes to a larger, 
"whole-of-government" system of 
power projection to support the range 
of military operations. 

• Conduct littoral maneuver, the abil- 
ity to transition ready-to-fight combat 
forces from the sea to the shore in or- 
der to achieve a position of advantage 
over the enemy. It can be applied to 
deny adversaries sanctuary, seize or de- 
stroy critical enemy capabilities, recover 
personnel or sensitive equipment, safe- 
guard weapons of mass destruction or 
associated materials, seize infrastruc- 
ture or lodgments for the introduction 
of additional joint or combined forces, 
or to pose a continuous coastal threat 
which causes an adversary to dissipate 
his forces. 

• Counter irregular threats, the modern 



manifestation of our "small wars" legacy. 
These military operations are undertak- 
en under executive authority — usually 
in combination with the other elements 
of power — in the internal or external af- 
fairs of another state whose government 
is unstable, inadequate or unsatisfactory 
for the preservation of life and of such 
other interests as are determined by the 
foreign policy of the Nation. The appli- 
cation of purely military measures might 
not, by itself, restore peace and orderly 
government because the fundamental 
causes of the condition of unrest may 
be economic, political, cultural or social. 
Often these operations occur in response 
to crisis and are carried out in austere 
conditions, conditions that frequently 
result in the direction to "send in the 
Marines!" 

THE WAY FORWARD 

Marines launched a historic assault 
400 miles into land-locked Afghanistan 
from six amphibious ships in response to the 
terrorist attacks of September 2001. We fol- 
lowed with a rapid supporting attack north 
to Baghdad in March 2003; then demon- 
strated successful counter-insurgency oper- 
ations in Al Anbar, and ongoing operations 
in Helmand. From Hurricane Katrina to 
earthquake relief in Haiti; and from human- 
itarian-aid operations in Pakistan or Japan 
to the recapture of the pirated ship Magel- 
lan Star. . .we have stayed true to our naval 
heritage and answered the Nation's call... 
meeting every challenge along the way. Our 
past is prologue for our future. 



6 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 201 



I 



Looking ahead, the Marine Corps Vi- 
sion and Strategy 2025 is clear. "To remain 
the Nation's force in readiness," our Vision 
states, "the Marine Corps must continu- 
ously innovate. This requires that we look 
across the entire institution and identify 
areas that need improvement and effect 
positive change." Responding to our future 
challenges will surely require spirited in- 
novation and institutional flexibility, just as 
our past challenges have; and it will require 
us to focus on key priorities as we move 
forward. 



Priorities of the 35th Comman- 
dant of the Marine Corps: 

• We will continue to provide 
the best- trained and -equipped 
Marine units to Afghanistan. 
This will not change. This re- 
mains our top priority! 

• We will rebalance our Corps, 
posture it for the future and 
aggressively experiment with 
and implement new capabili- 
ties and organizations. 

•We will better educate and 
train our Marines to suc- 
ceed in distributed operations 
and increasingly complex 
environments. 

• We will keep faith with our 
Marines, our Sailors, and our 
families. 



Provide the Best-Trained and 
-Equipped Marines 

Our top priority is to ensure that the 
Marine units that deploy to Afghanistan 
are the best-trained and -equipped units 
in the Corps. We have made great prog- 
ress in Afghanistan during the past year. 
Our fellow citizens expect no less of us for 
the duration of the war. We will ensure 
that every Marine and Sailor is prepared to 
succeed in the many types of missions we 
are conducting in this complex, dynamic, 
and dangerous operating environment. 

The Marine Corps is also resourcing 
its forces to meet global combatant com- 
mander requirements. Deploying units 
must report the highest levels of readiness 
for their assigned missions. However, 
high- deployed unit readiness has come at 
the expense of other non-deployed units. 
Many non-deployed units thus have re- 
ported degraded or non-deployable lev- 
els of readiness. The largest contributing 
factor to decreased readiness in non-de- 
ployed units is a shortage of equipment 
supply. This lack of equipment constrains 
the ability of non- deployed forces to re- 
spond to other potential contingencies 
and to train to its mission-essential tasks. 
The impact of nine years of war has been 
significant, and the wear and tear on our 
equipment has taken a toll. The Marine 
Corps will require additional funding for 
several years after the end of operations in 
Afghanistan to reset our equipment. 

That said, we will continue to ensure 
that our Marines deployed in harm's way 
have everything they need to fight and 
win. This means looking to their welfare 
and providing them the best training, 
equipment, and support. 



CHAPTER 1: THE USMC AMERICA'S EXPEDITIONARY FORCE IN READINESS I 7 



I 



Rebalance the Corps and 
Posture for the Future 

To meet combatant commander 
needs and to satisfy strategic objectives, 
we have conducted a comprehensive force 
structure review. Our purpose was to de- 
velop the organization, posture, and ca- 
pabilities that will preserve and enhance 
America's Expeditionary Force in Readi- 
ness in a post- Operation Enduring Free- 
dom-Afghanistan and fiscally-constrained 
environment. The entire Marine Corps 
— with active, reserve, and civilian com- 
ponents — was examined in this evalu- 
ation which incorporated recent lessons 
learned in wars in Iraq and Afghanistan 
and addressed evolving threats and their 
impact on the future force. 

The demand for military forces with 
specialized capabilities will continue to 
expand. To help meet this demand, we 
will better resource organizations like 
the Marine Corps Training and Advisory 
Group (MCTAG) and consolidate oth- 
ers to improve their synergies and reduce 
redundancies. We will also further insti- 
tutionalize the Marine Corps Tactics and 
Operations Group (MCTOG) to enhance 
its contribution and relevance to the train- 
ing of our Ground Combat Element. We 
will fully embrace the Marine Corps Spe- 
cial Operations Command (MARSOC) 
and capitalize on its unique capabilities, 
while we strengthen the relationships be- 
tween our operating forces and all U.S. 
special operations forces. We will increase 
our capability and capacity to conduct cy- 
ber warfare and meet joint and Marine Air 
Ground Task Force (MAGTF) demands 
for vital cyber capabilities. 

We will further organize and deploy 
forces to enhance the development of 

8 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



partnerships required for effective en- 
gagement. This will include expanding 
forward-presence force operations, ex- 
ploiting all forms of lift (organic, theater 
and strategic), and establishing habitual 
relationships with other members of the 
joint and interagency communities, es- 
pecially our Navy and special operations 
forces counterparts. 

The future security environment 
also requires a mindset geared toward 
increased energy efficiency and reduced 
consumption. The Marine Corps recog- 
nizes that a central enhancement across 
all elements of the MAGTF is reducing 
operational energy requirements. Re- 
duced dependence on traditional sources 
of energy will allow the MAGTF to travel 
lighter and faster in a distributed manner 
under austere conditions. It will also save 
lives by getting Marines out of harm's way 
when transporting fuel and water across 
main supply routes. The Marine Corps 
will aggressively continue its pioneering 
efforts in energy efficiencies through the 




I 



Expeditionary Energy Office, with goals 
of reduced demand in our platforms and 
systems, self-sufficiency in our battlefield 
sustainment, and a reduced expeditionary 
footprint on the battlefield. 

Lessons learned during the past de- 
cade in Afghanistan and Iraq confirm the 
importance of unit cohesion. Combat ef- 
fectiveness and the lives of our Marines 
and Sailors depend on it. There is no sub- 
stitute for having the right people, par- 
ticularly key leaders, in deploying units at 
the right time. Accordingly, we will adjust 
our manpower management, education 
and training processes to achieve this goal 
as we meet the challenges of the future. 

Procuring new aircraft, vehicles, sys- 
tems, and equipment, while maintain- 
ing current readiness, is a continual and 
long-term process. The eventual reset of 
equipment from Afghanistan, coupled 
with required procurement to replace 
equipment destroyed or damaged beyond 
economical repair, will help increase our 
home-station readiness levels. Within 
that reset effort, we will prioritize equip- 
ment that will allow us to quickly fill 
our updated equipment requirements for 
a "middleweight" capability. Lightening 
the MAGTF is imperative to remaining 
an expeditionary, middleweight force. To 
better coordinate our procurement and 
modernization efforts, the Marine Corps 
is pursuing several functional strategies to 
achieve rebalancing and posturing of the 
force for the future. These strategies and 
their associated programs are highlighted 
in Chapter 3. 



Enhance Education and Training 




****«*»» 




The conflicts of the 2 1 st Century place 
tremendous burdens on Marines and Sail- 
ors, but these are not the only sources of 
great stress on our men and women. To 
improve their resilience, we will work ag- 
gressively and creatively to build a training 
continuum that better prepares them for 
the inevitable stress of combat operations 
and to equip them with the necessary skills 
required to deal with the widely varying 
challenges of life as a Marine. Instruction 
founded and focused on our core values 
helps provide some of this resilience and 
enables effective operations, especially 
in a complex irregular or hybrid warfare 
environment. Our Values-Based-Training 
thus will be central to a Marine's profes- 
sional development and expanded beyond 
its current entry-level focus. We will infuse 
it throughout our training and education 
system, ensuring our core values remain 
central throughout our service. 

We will better educate and train our 
Marines to succeed in distributed opera- 
tions and increasingly complex, dynamic 
and fluid environments. We will invest 
more in the education of our non-com- 
missioned and junior officers, as they have 
assumed vastly greater responsibilities in 
both combat and garrison. We will mark- 



CHAPTER 1: THE USMC AMERICA'S EXPEDITIONARY FORCE IN READINESS I 9 



I 



edly increase opportunities for Marines to 
attend resident Professional Military Edu- 
cation, civilian fellowships, and advanced 
education programs, as well as to serve in 
Foreign Area Officer, Regional Area Of- 
ficer and other joint and interagency as- 
signments. We will also develop the Ma- 
rine Corps University into a world-class 
institution. 

Keep Faith with Marines, 
Sailors, and Families 

We will keep faith with our Marines, 
our Sailors, and our families. The strains of 
war require robust, effective support for the 
needs of our families and Marines. These 
efforts will not be reduced when combat 
operations in Afghanistan conclude. They 
will require sustained support to ensure 
that we honor the sacred trust the Nation 
has with those who serve, but particularly 
those who pay the heaviest price. 

The essential elements impacting the 
quality of life for our Marines, Sailors, 
and families are deployment-to-dwell 
time, housing, schools, medical care, and 
community services. Our quality- of- life 
goals are to ensure that our people and 
their families have availability and access 
to quality facilities and family-support 
programs and resources and benefits that 
afford a respectable, decent and healthy 
standard of living. 

We must ensure that we maintain a 
deployment-to-dwell ratio of about 1:2 
for our force while fighting a war. Be- 
low this level increases the stress on our 
people and their families and limits our 
ability to be ready for the broad range 
of threats and challenges the Nation will 
face. Despite high operational tempo and 
multiple combat operations, retention of 



active duty and reserve Marines has not 
been adversely affected. We are meet- 
ing our retention goals across the Marine 
Corps, and some of our highest retention 
rates come from units that have deployed, 
including some that have experienced 
multiple deployments. Our stated goal 
during peacetime is a 1:3 deployment-to- 
dwell ratio, but as long as we maintain a 
deployment-to-dwell ratio of about 1:2 
we do not foresee adverse impacts on 
retention or quality of life for our Active 
Component. 

The Reserve Component will contin- 
ue its nominal pattern of 1-year mobiliza- 
tion followed by 5 -years of dwell. This is 
in keeping with current law and with the 
"social contract" the Marine Corps has 
with America's communities and busi- 
nesses to share the services of our Reserve 
Marines in ways that remain sustainable. 
Reserve Component Marines can also ex- 
pect closer training relationships with Ac- 
tive Component units, and some regularly 
scheduled training and operational de- 
ployments as part of their Reserve duties. 

Our approach to caring for Marines, 
Marine families, and relatives of our fallen 
Marines is based on our unwavering loy- 
alty; this will not change. For example, we 
will enhance the capabilities of the highly 
successful Wounded Warrior Regiment 
to provide added care and support to our 
wounded, injured and ill. The Wounded 
Warrior Regiment provides non-medical 
care management services to wounded, 
ill, and injured Marines and their families 
throughout the phases of recovery. Ad- 
ditionally, our assessments have shown 
positive satisfaction levels in important 
care areas, such as our Recovery Care Co- 



1 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 201 1 



I 



ordination Program — executed by the 
Regiment's Recovery Care Coordinators 
— and our family- support staff. We will 
also advocate for better diagnostic and 
increased treatment options for Marines 
with severe injuries, including Post-Trau- 
matic Stress and Traumatic Brain Injury. 

We will ensure that Marines, Sailors, 
and their families have availability and ac- 
cess to quality facilities and support pro- 
grams, as well as resources and benefits 
that provide a quality standard of living. 
This same effort will be applied equally to 
our single Marines, who comprise half of 
our Corps. We will focus on the sustain- 
ment of vital Marine Corps Community 
Services programs and expansion of new- 
er programs showing promising signs of 
success, particularly programs supporting 
our single Marines. 

To ensure continued effectiveness and 
efficiency, however, we will evaluate all 
Marine and family support programs to 
determine where they require expansion 
to assist more effectively our families and 
where they can be streamlined to reduce 
redundancy. We will make concerted ef- 
forts at attracting, mentoring and retain- 
ing the most talented men and women 
who bring a diversity of background, 
culture and skill in service to the United 
States. Finally, we are focusing efforts to 
more fully integrate Behavioral Health 
programs to protect and strengthen the 
health and well being of Marines and 
their families. We are also conducting a 
thorough "bottom up" assessment of our 
Transition Assistance Program to ensure 
we are providing the right educational and 
occupational assistance to Marines leav- 
ing our active-duty ranks, thus fulfilling 



our commitment to return better citizens 
to communities throughout the Nation. 

THE NATION'S EXPEDITIONARY 
FORCE OF CHOICE 

The major challenges we face today 
center on continuing to provide America's 
Marines fighting in Afghanistan the very 
best training, equipment, and support 
possible while ensuring the Marine Corps 
is ready for the uncertain threats of the 
future, all during what will be a very chal- 
lenging fiscal climate at home. 

We are at war and that must be our 
highest priority. At the same time, we 
must balance our capabilities to do what 
the nation will likely ask of its Marines in 
the coming decades. As the Nation's Ex- 
peditionary Force of Choice, the Marine 
Corps must always be ready to answer the 
President's call to "Send in the Marines!" 



CHAPTER 1: THE USMC AMERICA'S EXPEDITIONARY FORCE IN READINESS I 11 




CHAPTER 2 





I 



ORGANIZATION 



INTRODUCTION 

The Marine Corps is a task-organized, multi-capable military organization. It 
is a middleweight force that lies between our Special Operations Forces and our na- 
tion's heavier forces in the Army with a force that compliments both. It is scalable and 
adaptive and it provides our Nation with a force that is capable across the range of 
military operations. As the Marine Corps grew during the last several years to 202,100 
Active Component Marines, the organization of the Corps has changed and adapted to 
the current fight, while retaining the flexibility and agility to respond to future needs. 
During this period of rapid growth, the Marine Corps has maintained balanced, 
combined arms capabilities adapted to the new demands of recent conflicts while 
developing agile and capable forces to meet future hybrid threats as well. 

Chapter 2 outlines the Marine Corps' combined-arms structure and organization 
and highlights the unique capabilities that Marines bring to the fight. 



CHAPTER 2: ORGANIZATION I 13 



I 



MARINE AIR GROUND TASK FORCE (MAGTF) 



The MAGTF is the Marine Corps' prin- 
cipal organization for conducting missions 
across the range of military operations. 
MAGTFs provide combatant command- 
ers with scalable, versatile expeditionary 
forces able to respond to a broad range of 
contingency, crisis and conflict situations. 
They are balanced combined- arms force 
packages containing organic command, 
ground, aviation, and logistics elements. A 
single commander leads and coordinates 
this combined-arms team from pre-deploy- 
ment training through all phases of deploy- 
ment and employment. MAGTF teams live 
and train together, further increasing their 
cohesion and fighting power. 

MULTI-CAPABLE MAGTFS 

MAGTFs will effectively respond 
across the range of military operations 
with their capacity tailored to combatant 
commanders' requirements. They will be 
optimized to operate as an integrated sys- 
tem through the air, land, maritime and 
cyberspace domains, as well as the infor- 
mation environment. The naval character 
of MAGTFs enhances their global mobili- 
ty, lethality, and staying power. Embarked 
on board amphibious ships, multi-capa- 
ble MAGTFs provide U.S. civilian and 



military leaders with the ability to do the 
following: 

• Move forces into crisis areas without 
revealing their exact destinations or 
intentions 

• Provide continuous presence in inter- 
national waters 

• Commence execution of a mission 
within six to 48 hours of receiving a 
warning order 

• Provide immediate national response 
in support of humanitarian and natu- 
ral disaster-relief operations 

• Provide credible but non-provocative 
combat power over the horizon from a 
potential adversary for rapid employ- 
ment as the initial response to a crisis 

• Support diplomatic processes for 
peaceful crisis resolution before em- 
ploying immediate-response combat 
forces 

• Respond to crises through measured 
degrees of combat power ashore — day 
or night and under adverse weather 
conditions 

• Introduce additional forces sequen- 
tially into a theater of operations 

• Operate independent of established 
airfields, basing agreements, and over- 
flight rights 

• Conduct combat operations ashore, us- 
ing organic combat service support that 
is brought into the area of operations 




14 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



I 



• Enable the introduction of follow-on 
forces by securing staging areas ashore 

• Operate in rural and urban environ- 
ments, and during chemical, biologi- 
cal, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) 
situations 

• Withdraw rapidly at the conclusion of 
operations 

• Participate fully in the joint planning 
process and successfully integrate 
MAGTF operations with those of the 
joint force 

• Provide a broad range of support to 
Special Operations Forces 

• Support Service, joint and national ef- 
forts to maintain freedom of action in 
cyberspace 

MAGTF COMPOSITION 

The Marine Corps task-organizes for 
combat in accordance with its statutory 
mandate to provide forces of combined 
arms, including aviation, by forming in- 
tegrated combined-arms MAGTFs. As 
the name indicates, MAGTFs are orga- 
nized for the specific tasks at hand and 
specifically tailored by mission, for rapid 
deployment by air and/or sea. However, 
no matter what their mission or mode 
of deployment, MAGTFs comprise four 
deployable elements that are supported 
from Marine Corps bases and stations. 

Command Element (CE): The CE 
contains the MAGTF headquarters and 
other units that provide intelligence, 
communications, and administrative 
support. As with all other elements of the 
MAGTF, the CE is scalable and task orga- 
nized to provide the command, control, 
communications, computers, intelligence 
(C4I), and joint interoperability neces- 
sary for effective planning and execution 
of operations. 



Ground Combat Element (GCE): 

The GCE is task organized to con- 
duct ground operations to support the 
MAGTF mission. This element includes 
infantry, artillery, reconnaissance, armor, 
light armor, assault amphibian, engineer, 
and other forces as needed. The GCE can 
vary in size and composition. It can con- 
sist of a light, air- transportable reinforced 
company; a relatively heavy and mecha- 
nized unit that includes one or more Ma- 
rine divisions; or other type of Marine 
Corps ground combat unit that meets the 
demands of a particular mission. 

Aviation Combat Element (ACE): 
The ACE conducts offensive and defen- 
sive air operations and is task organized 
to perform the six functions of Marine 
aviation required to support the MAGTF 
mission — Assault Support, Anti- Aircraft 
Warfare, Offensive Air Support, Elec- 
tronic Warfare, Control of Aircraft and 
Missiles, and Aerial Reconnaissance. This 
element is formed around an aviation 
headquarters with appropriate air-con- 
trol agencies, combat, combat-support, 
and combat-service support units. The 
ACE can vary in size and composition 
from an aviation detachment of specifi- 
cally required aircraft to one or more Ma- 
rine aircraft wings (MAW) comprising 
multiple fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft 
of several types and capabilities. 

Logistics Combat Element (LCE): 
The LCE is task-organized to provide the 
full range of combat logistics functions 
and capabilities necessary to maintain 
the continued readiness and sustainabil- 
ity of the MAGTF as a whole. It is formed 
around a combat logistics headquarters 
and may vary in size and composition 
from a support detachment to one or 
more Marine logistics groups (MLG). 

CHAPTER 2: ORGANIZATION I 15 



I 



TYPES OF MAGTFS 




Four types of MAGTFs can be task or- 
ganized: the Marine Expeditionary Force; 
Marine Expeditionary Brigade; Marine 
Expeditionary Unit; and Special Purpose 
MAGTF. 

Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF). 
The MEF is the principal Marine Corps 
warfighting organization during larger 
crises or contingencies. It is normally 
commanded by a lieutenant general. A 
MEF can range in size from less than one 
division and aircraft wing to multiple di- 
visions and aircraft wings, together with 
one or more logistics groups. MEFs are 
capable of amphibious operations and 
sustained operations ashore in any geo- 
graphic environment. With appropriate 
augmentation, the MEF command ele- 
ment is capable of performing as a joint 
task force (JTF) headquarters. 

MEFs are the primary "standing 
MAGTFs" in peacetime and wartime. In 
201 1, the Marine Corps is organized with 
three standing MEFs, each with a Ma- 
rine division, aircraft wing, and logistics 
group. The I Marine Expeditionary Force 
(I MEF) is located at bases in California 
and Arizona. The II Marine Expedition- 



ary Force (II MEF) is located at bases in 
North Carolina and South Carolina. The 
III Marine Expeditionary Force (III MEF) 
is located at bases in Okinawa, mainland 
Japan, and Hawaii, with future plans 
for Guam. 

MEFs are the "reservoirs" from which 
all other Marine Corps capabilities ema- 
nate. Marine component headquarters, 
Marine Corps Forces Command (MAR- 
FORCOM) and Marine Corps Forces, 
Pacific (MARFORPAC) can form smaller 
MAGTFs from these MEFs. A MEF will 
normally deploy in echelon and will 
designate its lead element as the MEF 
(Forward). 

Marine Expeditionary Brigade 
(MEB) or MEF (Forward). The MEB 
is the mid-sized MAGTF (up to 20,000 
Marines) and is normally commanded 
by a brigadier general. The MEB pro- 
vides transitional capability between the 
forward-deployed Marine expeditionary 
unit (MEU) and the MEF, which is the 
Marine's principal warfighting force. A 
reinforced infantry regiment, a compos- 
ite Marine aircraft group (MAG) and a 
combat logistics regiment (CLR) com- 
prise a notional MEB. The command ele- 
ment of the MEB is embedded within the 
command element of its parent MEF; the 
deputy MEF commander normally serves 
as the MEB commander. 

MEBs provide supported combatant 
commanders with a scalable warfighting 
capability across the range of military 
operations. As an expeditionary force, it 
is capable of rapid deployment and em- 
ployment via amphibious shipping (nor- 
mally 17 amphibious ships), strategic air/ 



16 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



I 



sealift, geographic or maritime pre-posi- 
tioning force assets, or any combination 
of these. With 30 days of accompanying 
supplies, MEBs can conduct amphibious 
assault and sustained operations ashore 
in any geographic environment. A MEB 
can operate independently or serve as the 
forward echelon of a MEF. With addi- 
tional MEF command element augmen- 
tation, a MEB is also capable of acting as a 
joint task force (JTF) headquarters. Cur- 
rently, all three MEFs source MEB com- 
mand elements with personnel from the 
MEF staff, it subordinate commands, and 
through individual augmentation. 

Marine Expeditionary Unit. For- 
ward-deployed MEUs embarked aboard 
amphibious ready groups (ARG) operate 
continuously in the areas of responsibil- 



ity of various unified combatant com- 
manders. Overall these units provide 
the President and the unified combatant 
commanders a forward-deployed, flex- 
ible sea-based MAGTF, capable of con- 
ducting amphibious operations, crisis 
response, limited contingency operations, 
the introduction of follow-on forces, and 
designated special operations forces. In 
effect they provide an afloat "on-station" 
force capable of responding to any situa- 
tion that may arise. MEUs are character- 
ized by their sea-based forward presence, 
expeditionary nature, ability to plan and 
respond to crises, combined arms integra- 
tion, and their interoperability with joint, 
combined and special operations forces. 

The MEU is commanded by a colonel 
and deploys with 15 days of accompany- 



GEOGRAPHIC COMBATANT COMMANDS 



.^ 






— 



USPACOM 




CHAPTER 2: ORGANIZATION I 17 



I 



ing supplies. Prior to deployment, a MEU 
undergoes an intensive six-month training 
program, focusing on its mission essential 
task list (METL) and interoperability with 
MARSOE The training culminates with 
a thorough evaluation and certification 
as "Operationally Ready to Deploy." The 
organic capabilities of the MEU are as 
follows: 

• Amphibious Operations 

- Amphibious Assault 

- Amphibious Raid 

- Small Boat Raid (Specific To 
31st MEU) 

- Maritime Interception Operations 

- Advance Force Operations 

• Expeditionary Support to Other 
Operations/Crisis Response and 
Limited-Contingency Operations 

- Noncombatant Evacuation 
Operations 

- Humanitarian Assistance 

- Stability Operations 

- Tactical Recovery of Aircraft and 
Personnel 

- Joint and Combined Operations 

- Aviation Operations from 
Expeditionary Sites 

- Theater Security Cooperation 
Activities 

- Airfield and Port Seizures 

- Visit, Board, Search and Seizure 

Special Purpose MAGTF (SPMAGTF). 

A SPMAGTF is task organized to ac- 
complish a specific mission, operation, 
or regionally focused exercise. They are 
designated as SPMAGTF with a mission, 
location, or exercise name for example, 
"SPMAGTF Afghanistan." SPMAGTFs 

18 I JSMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



can be organized, trained, and equipped 
with Marine forces to conduct a wide va- 
riety of expeditionary operations rang- 
ing from peacetime missions, to training 
exercises, and responses to contingencies 
and crises. SPMAGTFs can support com- 
batant commander engagement, security 
cooperation, and civil military operations 
requirements. The SPMAGTF will have 
capabilities, mobility, and sustainability 
commensurate with its requirements to 
increase interoperability with, and pro- 
vide training to, less developed military 
forces. The SPMAGTF can be tasked with 
building partner nation security capac- 
ity and supporting partner nation se- 
curity efforts in specific regional areas. 
The SPMAGTF provides the combatant 
commander with a flexible expedition- 
ary force employment option that further 
augments the traditional capabilities pro- 
vided by the Marine Corps. 

The Nation's MAGTFs thus provide a 
continuum of capabilities to support na- 
val, unified combatant commander, and 
national requirements. These MAGTFs 
are joined by other special-purpose forc- 
es and unique Marine forces to help the 
Corps deal with a full range of conven- 
tional, unconventional, and irregular/hy- 
brid threats and assignments. 

UNIQUE COMBATANT 
COMMANDER SUPPORT 

Each region is strategically impor- 
tant to the United States, but each Global 
Combatant Commander (GCC) has dif- 
ferent Marine Corps capability and capac- 
ity requirements. The MAGTF construct 
remains the core organizing concept for 



I 



Marine Corps operating forces. The larg- 
est and most capable MAGTF is the Ma- 
rine expeditionary force (MEF), which 
may be employed in its entirety or used as 
the basis for task-organizing smaller for- 
mations tailored to the GCC's evolving 
mission requirements as outlined below. 

a. Deployable Training Teams and Spe- 
cial Purpose MAGTFs provide specific 
or unique capabilities to support Navy/ 
maritime component commanders, 
joint task forces, SOF, or regional part- 
ners in implementing the GCCs' en- 
gagement plans. 

b. Forward- deployed ARG/MEUs patrol 
key regions as a flexible, self-sustained 
crisis response force. During these pa- 
trols they conduct a variety of theater 
engagement activities and exercises 
with our regional friends and allies. 

c. Alert contingency MAGTFs (ACM) are 
normally available within 1 8 hours for 
world wide deployment by strategic 
airlift. An ACM can be reinforced as 
necessary with equipment from mari- 
time prepositioning squadrons (MPS) 
or amphibious forces. 

d. A MAGTF fly-in echelon which, to- 
gether with a Navy support element 
and one or more MPS, form a mari- 
time prepositioning force (MPF). 
Each MPS contains the equipment set 
for a Marine expeditionary brigade 
(MEB) to respond to crisis. These ca- 
pabilities are also used in engagement 
and exercises to support partners and 
enhance access. 

e. Landing forces, scalable in size from a 
reinforced rifle platoon all the way up 
to the assault echelons of two MEBs, 
and embarked in amphibious ships 



provide the mobility, endurance, com- 
mand and control, flight decks, well 
decks, and sustainment capabilities 
necessary to conduct littoral maneu- 
ver. These landing forces can conduct 
a variety of missions (from denying 
terrorist sanctuary to securing a lodg- 
ment for the joint force) when the 
security environment is uncertain or 
hostile. These landing forces can then 
be reinforced by one or more MPF to 
establish a full MEF of over 70,000 Ma- 
rines to conduct major operations or 
campaigns, 
f. A combatant commander or subor- 
dinate joint force commander might 
also require Marine forces that do not 
have all elements of a MAGTF. These 
forces are not given a specific MAGTF 
designation. Examples are installation 
security forces, engineer and medi- 
cal support teams for humanitarian 
operations, deployments for training 
and mobile training teams, and law- 
enforcement operations. 
In addition, we will establish at least 
one standing MEB CEs subordinate to 
each MEF. Each of these stand-alone MEB 
CEs will consist of a core staff (notionally 
85 Marines) and will be led by a brigadier 
general. Standing MEB CEs will not have 
assigned forces, but will establish habitual 
relationships with the associated major 
subordinate elements through planning 
and exercises. The MEB CE will be region- 
ally focused to provide the GCC, through 
the Marine component, a relevant, ready 
"crisis response" headquarters; however, 
it will require augmentation for the com- 
mand and control of larger contingency 
operations. 

CHAPTER 2: ORGANIZATION I 19 



I 



MAGTF SUSTAINABILITY 

A fundamental characteristic of a 
MAGTF is its ability to operate for ex- 
tended periods as an expeditionary 
force, relying on internal resources for 
sustainment. All MAGTFs have inher- 
ent sustainability that allows them to be 
self-sufficient for planned periods. Larg- 
er MAGTFs have a deeper, broader, and 
more capable organic support capability. 
Different-sized MAGTFs deploy with suf- 
ficient accompanying supplies to support 
joint operations. MAGTFs can augment 
their organic sustainability by using ex- 
ternal support from Navy organizations, 
host-nation support agreements, inter- 
service support agreements, and in-the- 
ater cross-service agreements. 

MARITIME PREPOSITIONING 
FORCE (MPF) 




The MPF is a strategic power-pro- 
jection capability that combines the lift 
capacity, flexibility, and responsiveness of 
surface ships with the speed of strategic 
airlift. Strategically positioned around the 
globe, the maritime prepositioning ships 
(MPS) of the MPF provide geographic 
combatant commanders with persistent 
forward presence and rapid crisis response 
by prepositioning the combat equipment 



and supplies to support up to three MEBs 
for 30 days. The MPF includes govern- 
ment owned ships and one long-term 
leased ship that operate under charters to 
Military Sealift Command (MSC). When 
needed, these ships move to a crisis region 
and offload either in port or offshore via 
in-stream offload. Offloaded equipment 
and supplies are then married up with 
Marines arriving at nearby airfields. The 
end result is a combat-ready MAGTF rap- 
idly established ashore, using minimal in- 
country reception facilities. The MAGTF 
combat capability provided by MPF sup- 
ports geographic combatant commander 
military operations that defeat adversar- 
ies and win wars, but has also supported 
regional crises that require rapid and 
effective humanitarian assistance and 
disaster relief. 



MARINE CORPS 
PREPOSITIONING PROGRAM- 
NORWAY (MCPP-N) 

MCPP-N enhances all geographic 
combatant commanders' operational re- 
sponsiveness by providing mission-tai- 
lored, prepositioned war-reserve materiel 
that supports global Marine Corps expe- 
ditionary operations. MCPP-N materiel is 
stored in six caves and two airfields spread 
across Norway and is available for rapid 
preparation and marshalling at aerial, 
sea, or rail ports of debarkation in sup- 
port of deploying MAGTFs. This forward 
prepositioning reduces reaction time 
and continental U.S. (CONUS)-based lift 
requirements. 



20 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



HEADQUARTERS, U.S. MARINE CORPS (HQMC) 



I 



Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps 
(HQMC) consists of the Commandant of 
the Marine Corps and those staff agencies 
that advise and assist him in discharging 
his responsibilities prescribed by law. The 
Commandant is directly responsible to 
the Secretary of the Navy for the total 
performance of the Marine Corps. This 
includes the administration, discipline, 



internal organization, training, require- 
ments, efficiency, and readiness of the ser- 
vice. Also, as the Commandant is a mem- 
ber of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, HQMC 
supports him in his interaction with the 
Joint Staff. The Commandant also is re- 
sponsible for the operation of the Marine 
Corps material support system. 




EL FOR Tl 
MMANDAN1 



K CHAPLAIN OF 
E MARINE CORPS ■" 

B3EANT MAJOR OF 
E MARINE CORPS ■" 

■UNE CORPS COMBAT 
LOPMENT COMMAND | 

I ? 



MARINE CORPS 
NATIONAL CAPITAL 
REGION COMMAND 



■ MARINE CORPS 
RUITING COMMAND | 



ARINE BARRACKS 
ASHINGTON, D.C. 



M « /s ?s 

COMMANDANT OF THE 
MARINE CORPS 



assist; 



STANT COMMAN 
HE MARINE COI 



r] 



ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF 

THE NAVY RESEARCH 

DEVELOPMENT & ACQUISITION 



E 



"1 



MARINE CORPS 
STEMS COMMAND 



DIRECTOR 
| MARINE CORPS STAFF 




DC, INSTALLATIONS 
& LOGISTICS 

DIRECTOR 
j COMMAND, CONTROL 

I COMMUNICATIONS & COMPUTERS 

DIRECTOR "1 \~ll 
INTELLIGENCE 



DIRECTOR EXPEDITIONARY 
ENERGY OFFICE 



CHAPTER 



I 21 



I 



MANPOWER & RESERVE 
AFFAIRS (M&RA) 

Located in Quantico, VA, M&RA is 
the largest department within HQMC. 
The mission of M&RA is to provide com- 
manders with the right Marines — in a 
timely manner — and using a process 
that is fair, that maximizes the potential 
of the force and the individual Marine, 
and that incorporates effective quality 
of life programs and services for all who 
serve and their families. To accomplish 
this mission, the Deputy Commandant, 
M&RA is in charge of a far-reaching 
slate of manpower and personnel activi- 
ties including: active and reserve assign- 
ments, promotions, and retention; senior 
leadership management; military awards; 
military and civilian personnel policies 
and plans; personnel and family readi- 
ness; casualty assistance; Marine Corps 
Community Services (MCCS); pay and 
personnel administration; wounded war- 
rior non-medical care and support; and 
reserve personnel policies and plans. 



MARINE CORPS RECRUITING 
COMMAND (MCRC) 




Headquartered in Quantico, VA, 
MCRC conducts operations to recruit 
qualified individuals for enlistment or 
commissioning into the United States 
Marine Corps and Marine Corps Reserve. 
The goal is to attain the assigned Total 
Force personnel requirements by compo- 
nent and category in accordance with the 
applicable fiscal year Marine Corps ac- 
cessions strategy (Manpower Accessions 
Plan Memoranda), the Military Person- 
nel Procurement Manual, and as other- 
wise directed by the Commandant of the 
Marine Corps. MCRC consists of two 
recruiting regions with three recruiting 
districts each. MCRC has approximately 
3,000 Marine Corps recruiters operating 
out of 48 recruiting stations, 616 recruit- 
ing sub-stations, and 72 officer-selection 
sites throughout the continental United 
States, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and 
Guam. 



22 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



I 



MARINE CORPS COMBAT 
DEVELOPMENT COMMAND 
(MCCDC) 

Located in Quantico, VA, the Deputy 
Commandant, Combat Development 
and Integration is also the Commanding 
General, MCCDC. He is tasked to develop 
fully integrated Marine Corps warfight- 
ing capabilities — doctrine, organization, 



training and education, materiel, leader- 
ship, personnel, and facilities (DOTM- 
LPF) — to enable the Marine Corps to 
field combat-ready forces. In addition to 
these duties, he is Commander, Marine 
Corps Forces Strategic Command and 
Marine Corps Forces Cyber Command. 




i EDUCATION MARINE CORPS MARINE CORPS 



CHAPTER 2: ORGANIZATION I 23 



I 



OPERATING FORCES 




Operating forces — the heart of the 
Marine Corps — comprise the forward 
presence, crisis response, and combat 
power that the Corps makes available 
to U.S. unified combatant commanders. 
The Marine Corps has established three 
permanent combatant-level service com- 
ponents in support of unified commands 
with significant Marine forces assigned: 
U.S. Marine Corps Forces Command 
(MARFORCOM); U.S. Marine Corps 
Forces, Pacific (MARFORPAC); and U.S. 
Marine Corps Forces, Special Operations 
Command (MARSOC). The Command- 
er, MARFORCOM, is currently assigned 
to the Commander, U.S. Joint Forces 
Command (JFCOM). MARFORCOM 
will revert to service control during 
1 August 201 1. He provides the II Marine 
Expeditionary Force (II MEF) and other 
unique capabilities to JFCOM. Like- 
wise, the Commander, MARFORPAC 
is assigned to the Commander, U.S. Pa- 



cific Command. He provides I MEF and 
III MEF to PACOM. The Commander, 
MARSOC is assigned to the Commander, 
Special Operations Command (SOCOM) 
and provides assigned forces to SOCOM. 

These assignments reflect the peace- 
time disposition of Marine Corps forces. 
Marine forces are apportioned to the 
remaining geographic combatant com- 
mands — the U.S. Southern Command 
(SOUTHCOM);U.S.Northern Command 
(NORTHCOM); U.S. European Com- 
mand (EUCOM); U.S. Central Command 
(CENTCOM); U.S. Africa Command 
(AFRICOM); U.S. Strategic Command 
(STRATCOM); and U.S. Forces Korea 
(USFK) — for contingency planning, and 
are provided to these commands when di- 
rected by the Secretary of Defense. 

The following sections highlight 
some of these organizations and several 
of the other unique organizations in the 
operating forces. 



24 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 201 



I 



MARINE CORPS FORCES 
COMMAND (MARFORCOM) 

Located in Norfolk, VA, MAR- 
FORCOM is the Marine component 
to JFCOM. The Commander, MAR- 
FORCOM coordinates Marine Corps 
support to JFCOM in the development of 
joint training, integration, readiness, joint 
concept development and experimenta- 
tion efforts, and in executing global force 
management to synchronize the gen- 
eration and provision of mission-ready, 
joint-capable Marine forces for present 
and future joint force requirements in or- 
der to support combatant commanders' 



global execution of the National Military 
Strategy. The Commander's peacetime 
combat forces and supporting establish- 
ment total approximately 55,000 Marines 
and Sailors. 

The future structure and mission of 
MARFORCOM will be affected by the 
disestablishment of JFCOM in FY12. Ex- 
actly how MARFORCOM will be affect- 
ed has yet to be determined, but details 
from the JFCOM disestablishment plan 
along with recommendations from the 
Force Structure Review Group will help 
shape the future structure and direction 
of MARFORCOM. 



CHAPTER 2: ORGANIZATION I 25 



I 



U.S. MARINE CORPS FORCES COMMAND, MARINE CORPS BASES ATLANTIC 




II MARINE 

EXPEDITIONARY 

FORCE 




MARINE CORPS 

INSTALLATIONS 

EAST 



1 
1 
1 



2D 
MARINE AIRCRAFT WING 




US MARINE CORf 
TRAINING AND 
)VISORY GROUr 



2D MARINE 
LOGISTICS GROUP 



2D MARINE 
EDITIONARY BRIGADE 



22 D, 24TH, 26TH 

IARINE EXPEDITIONARY 

UNITS 



1 



CHEMICAL BIOLOGICAL 
CIDENT RESPONSE FORCE 



MARINE CORPS BASE 
CAMP LEJEUNE, NC 



E MARINE CORPS 
LOGISTICS BASE 
ALBANY, GA | 




UNE CORf 
STATION 



STATION 




1 



ARINE CORPS SECURI 
FORCE REGIMENT 



E MARINE CORPS 
AIR FACILITY 
QUANTICO, VA | 

E CORPS 
r FACILITY 



MARINE 
SUPPORT 
BLOUNT 



26 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



U.S. MARINE CORPS FORCES COMMAND UNITS 



I 



II Marine Expeditionary Force 



II Marine Expeditionary Force 

Marine Corp Base, Camp Lejeune, NC 

II Marine Expeditionary Force Headquarters Group 

8th Communications Battalion 

2d Intelligence Battalion 

2d Radio Battalion 

2d Air and Naval Gunfire Liaison Company 

2d Marine Expeditionary Brigade 

22d Marine Expeditionary Unit 

24th Marine Expeditionary Unit 

26th Marine Expeditionary Unit 

Marine Corps Security Force Regiment 
Norfolk, VA 

Chemical Biological Incident Response Force 
Indian Head, MD 



2d Marine Division 
MCB Camp Lejeune, NC 



Headquarters Battalion 

2d Marine Regiment 
1st Battalion 
2d Battalion 
3d Battalion 
2d Battalion, 9th Marines 

6th Marine Regiment 
1st Battalion 
2d Battalion 
3d Battalion 
3d Battalion, 9th Marines 

8th Marine Regiment 
1st Battalion 
2d Battalion 
3d Battalion 
1st Battalion, 9th Marines 



10th Marine Regiment 
1st Battalion 
2d Battalion 
3d Battalion 
5th Battalion 

2d Tank Battalion 

2d Assault Amphibian Battalion 

2d Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion 

2d Combat Engineer Battalion 

2d Reconnaissance Battalion 

2d Marine Aircraft Wing 
Marine Corps Air Station, 
Cherry Point, NC 

Marine Wing Headquarters Squadron 2 

Marine Aircraft Group 14 

Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron 14 
Marine Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron 1 
Marine Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron 2 
Marine Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron 3 
Marine Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron 4 
Marine Attack Squadron 223 
Marine Attack Squadron 231 
Marine Attack Squadron 542 
Marine Attack Training Squadron 203 
Marine Aerial Refueler Transport Squadron 252 

Marine Aircraft Group 26 
MCAS New River, NC 

Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron 26 

Marine Medium Tiltrotor Squadron 162 

Marine Medium Tiltrotor Squadron 261 

Marine Medium Tiltrotor Squadron 263 

Marine Medium Tiltrotor Squadron 264 

Marine Medium Tiltrotor Squadron 266 



CHAPTER 2: ORGANIZATION I 27 



I 



U.S. MARINE CORPS FORCES COMMAND UNITS 



II Marine Expeditionary Force (cont.) 



Marine Medium Tiltrotor Squadron 365 
Marine Medium Tiltrotor Training Squadron 204 

Marine Aircraft Group 29 
MCAS New River, NC 

Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron 29 

Marine Light Attack Helicopter Squadron 167 

Marine Light Attack Helicopter Squadron 269 

Marine Light Attack Helicopter Squadron 467 
MCAS Cherry Point, NC 

Marine Light Attack Helicopter Squadron 567 

Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron 366 
MCAS Cherry Point, NC 

Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron 461 

Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron 464 

Marine Heavy Helicopter Training Squadron 302 

Marine Aircraft Group 3 1 
MCAS Beaufort, SC 

Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron 31 

Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 115 

Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 122 

Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 251 

Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 312 

Marine All Weather Fighter Attack Squadron 224 

Marine All Weather Fighter Attack Squadron 533 

Marine Fight Attack Training Squadron 501 
Eglin Air Force Base, FL 

Marine Air Control Group 28 

Marine Tactical Air Control Squadron 28 
Marine Air Control Squadron 2 
Marine Aircraft Support Squadron 1 
Marine Wing Communications Squadron 28 
2d Low Altitude Air Defense Battalion 
Marine Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Squadron 2 



Marine Wing Support Group 27 

Marine Wing Support Squadron 271 

Marine Wing Support Squadron 272 
MCAS New River, NC 

Marine Wing Support Squadron 273 
MCAS Beaufort, SC 

Marine Wing Support Squadron 274 



2d Marine Logistics Group 
MCB Camp Lejeune, NC 

Combat Logistics Regiment 2 

Combat Logistics Battalion 2 
Combat Logistics Battalion 6 
Combat Logistics Battalion 8 

Combat Logistics Regiment 25 

2d Maintenance Battalion 

2d Medical Battalion 

2d Supply Battalion 

Combat Logistics Company 21 
MCAS Cherry Point, NC 

Combat Logistics Company 23 
MCAS Beaufort, SC 

Combat Logistics Regiment 27 

Combat Logistics Battalion 22 
Combat Logistics Battalion 24 
Combat Logistics Battalion 26 

8th Engineer Support Battalion 
2d Dental Battalion 



28 I JSMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 20-11 



I 



MARINE CORPS FORCES, 
PACIFIC (MARFORPAC) 

Located at Camp H. M. Smith, HI, 
MARFORPAC is the Marine component 
to PACOM. The Commander, MARFOR- 
PAC commands all Marine Corps forces 
assigned to PACOM, accomplishes as- 
signed operational missions, advises the 
PACOM commander on the proper em- 
ployment, capabilities and support of 



Marine Corps forces and provides com- 
bat ready forces to other commands, as 
required. He also serves as Command- 
ing General, Fleet Marine Forces, Pacific 
and Commander for U.S. Marine Corps 
Bases, Pacific. MARFORPAC is the largest 
field command in the Marine Corps. The 
Commander's peacetime combat forces 
and supporting establishment total ap- 
proximately 86,000 Marines and Sailors. 



CHAPTER 2: ORGANIZATION I 29 



I 



U.S. MARINE CORPS FORCES PACIFIC, MARINE CORPS BASES PACIFIC 




30 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



U.S. MARINE CORPS FORCES PACIFIC UNITS 



I 



I Marine Expeditionary Force 



I Marine Expeditionary Force 
Marine Corps Base, 
Camp Pendleton, CA 

I Marine Expeditionary Force Headquarters Group 

9th Communications Battalion 

1st Intelligence Battalion 

1st Radio Battalion 

1st Air and Naval Gunfire Liaison Company 
1st Marine Expeditionary Brigade 
1 1th Marine Expeditionary Unit 
13th Marine Expeditionary Unit 
15th Marine Expeditionary Unit 

1st Marine Division 
MCB Camp Pendleton, CA 

Headquarters Battalion 

1st Marine Regiment 
1st Battalion 
2d Battalion 
3d Battalion 
1st Battalion, 4th Marines 

5th Marine Regiment 
1st Battalion 
2d Battalion 
3d Battalion 
2d Battalion, 4th Marines 

7th Marine Regiment 

Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center, 
29 Palms, CA 

1st Battalion 
2d Battalion 
3d Battalion 
3d Battalion, 4th Marines 

1 1th Marine Regiment 
1st Battalion 
2d Battalion 
3d Battalion 

MCAGCC, 29 Palms, CA 



5th Battalion (HIMARS) 

1st Tank Battalion 

MCAGCC, 29 Palms, CA 
3d Assault Amphibian Battalion 

Company D 

MCAGCC, 29 Palms, CA 
1st Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion 
3d Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion 

MCAGCC, 29 Palms, CA 
1st Combat Engineer Battalion 
3d Combat Engineer Battalion 

MCAGCC, 29 Palms, CA 
1st Reconnaissance Battalion 

3d Marine Aircraft Wing 
Marine Corps Air Station, 
Miramar, CA 

Marine Wing Headquarters Squadron 3 

Marine Aircraft Group 1 1 

Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron 1 1 
Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 232 
Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 314 
Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 323 
Marine All Weather Fighter Attack Squadron 121 
Marine All Weather Fighter Attack Squadron 225 
Marine Aerial Refueler Transport Squadron 352 
Marine Fight Attack Training Squadron 101 

Marine Aircraft Group 13 
MCASYuma,AZ 

Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron 13 
Marine Attack Squadron 2 1 1 
Marine Attack Squadron 214 
Marine Attack Squadron 3 1 1 
Marine Attack Squadron 513 

Marine Aircraft Group 16 

Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron 16 
Marine Medium Tiltrotor Squadron 161 
Marine Medium Tiltrotor Squadron 561 
Activation planned for FY 201 1 



CHAPTER 2: ORGANIZATION I 31 



I 



U.S. MARINE CORPS FORCES PACIFIC UNITS 



I Marine Expeditionary Force (cont. 



Marine Medium Tiltrotor Squadron 562 

Activation planned for FY2012 
Marine Medium Tiltrotor Squadron 163 
Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 165 
Marine Medium Tiltrotor Squadron 166 
Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron 361 
Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron 462 
Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron 465 
Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron 466 

Marine Aircraft Group 39 
MCAS Camp Pendleton, CA 

Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron 39 
Marine Light Attack Helicopter Squadron 169 
Marine Light Attack Helicopter Squadron 267 
Marine Light Attack Helicopter Squadron 367 
Marine Light Attack Helicopter Squadron 369 
Marine Light Attack Helicopter Squadron 469 
Marine Light Attack Helicopter Training 

Squadron 303 
Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 268 
Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 364 
Marine Medium Helicopter Training Squadron 164 

Marine Air Control Group 38 

Marine Tactical Air Control Squadron 38 
Marine Air Control Squadron 1 

MCAS Yuma, AZ 
Marine Aircraft Support Squadron 3 

MCAS Camp Pendleton, CA 
Marine Wing Communications Squadron 38 
3d Low Altitude Air Defense Battalion 

MCAS Camp Pendleton, CA 
Marine Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Squadron 1 

MCAGCC 29 Palms, CA 
Marine Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Squadron 3 

MCAGCC 29 Palms, CA 

Marine Wing Support Group 37 

Marine Wing Support Squadron 371 

MCAS Yuma, AZ 
Marine Wing Support Squadron 372 

MCAS Camp Pendleton, CA 
Marine Wing Support Squadron 373 



Marine Wing Support Squadron 374 
MCAGCC 29 Palms, CA 



1st Marine Logistics Group 
MCB Camp Pendleton, CA 

Combat Logistics Regiment 1 

Combat Logistics Battalion 1 

Combat Logistics Battalion 5 

Combat Logistics Battalion 7 

MCAGCC 29 Palms, CA 

Combat Logistics Regiment 15 
1st Maintenance Battalion 
1st Medical Battalion 
1st Supply Battalion 
Combat Logistics Company 1 1 

MCAS Miramar, CA 
Combat Logistics Company 16 

MCAS Yuma, AZ 

Combat Logistics Regiment 17 

Combat Logistics Battalion 1 1 
Combat Logistics Battalion 13 
Combat Logistics Battalion 15 

7th Engineer Support Battalion 

1st Dental Battalion 



32 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



U.S. MARINE CORPS FORCES PACIFIC UNITS 



I 



111 Marine Expeditionary Force 



III Marine Expeditionary Force 

Marine Corps Bases, Okinawa, Japan 

III Marine Expeditionary Force Headquarters Group 

7th Communications Battalion 

3d Intelligence Battalion 

3d Radio Battalion 

MCB Kaneohe Bay, HI 

5th Air and Naval Gunfire Liaison Company 
3d Marine Expeditionary Brigade 
31st Marine Expeditionary Unit 

3d Marine Division 
Marine Corps Bases, Okinawa, Japan 

Headquarters Battalion 

3d Marine Regiment 

MCB Kaneohe Bay, HI 

1st Battalion 

2d Battalion 

3d Battalion 
4th Marine Regiment 

Units sourced via Unit Deployment Program(UDP) 

12th Marine Regiment 
1st Battalion 

MCB Kaneohe Bay, HI 
3d Battalion 

3d Combat Assault Battalion 

3d Reconnaissance Battalion 

1st Marine Aircraft Wing 
Marine Corps Bases, Okinawa, Japan 

Marine Wing Headquarters Squadron 1 

Marine Aircraft Group 12 
MCAS Iwakuni, lapan 

Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron 12 

Marine All Weather Fighter Attack Squadron 242 

Marine Aircraft Group 24 
MCAS Kaneohe Bay, HI 

Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron 24 
Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron 362 
Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron 363 
Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron 463 



Marine Wing Support Detachment 
Activation planned for FY2012 

Marine Aircraft Group 36 

MCAS Futenma, Okinawa, lapan 

Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron 36 
Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 262 
Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 265 
Marine Aerial Refueler Transport Squadron 151 

Marine Air Control Group 1 8 
MCAS Futenma, Okinawa, Japan 

Marine Tactical Air Control Squadron 18 
Marine Air Control Squadron 4 
Marine Aircraft Support Squadron 2 
Marine Wing Communications Squadron 18 

Marine Wing Support Group 1 7 
MCAS Futenma, Okinawa, Japan 
Marine Wing Support Squadron 171 

MCAS Iwakuni, Japan 
Marine Wing Support Squadron 172 

3d Marine Logistics Group 
Marine Corps Bases, Okinawa, Japan 

Combat Logistics Regiment 3 

Combat Logistics Battalion 3 

MCB Kaneohe Bay, HI 
Combat Logistics Battalion 4 
Combat Logistics Company 33 

MCB Camp Pendleton, CA 

Combat Logistics Regiment 35 
3d Maintenance Battalion 
3d Medical Battalion 
3d Supply Battalion 
Combat Logistics Company 36 
MCAS Iwakuni, Japan 

Combat Logistics Regiment 37 

Combat Logistics Battalion 31 

9th Engineer Support Battalion 

3d Dental Battalion 



L-HAr I hn I 



ORGAN: I 33 



I 



MARINE CORPS FORCES, 
RESERVE (MARFORRES) 

Headquartered in New Orleans, LA, 
MARFORRES is responsible for provid- 
ing trained units and qualified individu- 
als for active-duty service in times of war, 
national emergency, or in support of con- 
tingency operations. Marine Corps force 
expansion is made possible by activation 
of the Marine Corps Reserve. It also pro- 
vides personnel and operational tempo 
relief for active component forces during 
times of peace. Like the active compo- 
nent, MARFORRES consists of a com- 
bined-arms force with balanced ground, 
aviation, and logistics combat-support 
units. This capability (Marines Reserves) 
is managed through MARFORCOM in 
meeting his global force-management 
responsibilities to the Joint Force Provid- 
er (JFP). After the disestablishment of JF- 



COM in August of 201 1, MARFORCOM 
will meet his global force-management 
responsibilities to the Joint Staff. Com- 
mander, MARFORRES is also Command- 
er, Marine Forces Northern Command 
(MARFORNORTH) and serves as the 
Marine component of NORTHCOM. 

MARFORRES units are located at 
187 training centers in 48 states, Puerto 
Rico, and the District of Columbia. The 
Marine Corps Reserve, in keeping with 
the Marine Corps' Total Force concept, 
has been an integral force provider across 
the spectrum of combat and peacetime 
engagement. The ethos for the Marine 
Corps Reserve is mobilization and com- 
bat readiness. This ensures the men and 
women of the Marine Corps Reserve 
stand ready, willing and able to answer 
the Nation's call at home and abroad at a 
moment's notice. 




G 



4TH MARINE 

DIVISION 

EW ORLEANS, LA 



4TH MARINE 

AIRCRAFT WING 

NEW ORLEANS, LA 



3D CIVIL 
AFFAIRS CROUP 
CAMP PENDLETON, 



)UP [■ 

n 



TH MARINE 
LOGISTICS GROUP 
ORLEANS, LA 



^w 




INTELLIGENCE 
SUPPORT BATTALI 
NEW ORLEANS, 



n 

ION 



34 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 201 



U.S. MARINE CORPS FORCES RESERVE UNITS 



I 



Intelligence Support Battalion 


New Orleans, LA 


3d Air and Naval Gunfire Liaison Company 


Bell, CA 


4th Air and Naval Gunfire Liaison Company 


West Palm Beach, FL 


3d Civil Affairs Group 


MCB Camp Pendleton, CA 


4th Civil Affairs Group 


Washington, DC 


4th Marine Division 


New Orleans, LA 


23d Marine Regiment 


San Bruno, CA 


1st Battalion 


Houston, TX 


2d Battalion 


Pasadena, CA 


3d Battalion 


Belle Chasse, LA 


24th Marine Regiment 


Kansas City, MO 


1st Battalion 


Mount Clemens, MI 


2d Battalion 


Chicago, IL 


3d Battalion 


Bridgeton, MO 


25th Marine Regiment 


Ft. Devens, MA 


1st Battalion 


Ft. Devens, MA 


2d Battalion 


Garden City, NY 


3d Battalion 


Brook Park, OH 


14th Marine Regiment 


Fort Worth, TX 


2d Battalion (HIMARS) 


Grand Prairie, TX 


3d Battalion 


Philadelphia, PA 


5th Battalion 


Seal Beach, CA 


Anti-Terrorism Battalion 


Bessemer, AL 


3rd Force Reconnaissance Company 


Mobile, AL 


4th Force Reconnaissance Company 


Alameda, CA 


4th Tank Battalion 


San Diego, CA 


4th Assault Amphibian Battalion 


Tampa, FL 


4th Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion 


MCB Camp Pendleton, CA 


4th Combat Engineer Battalion 


Baltimore, MD 


4th Reconnaissance Battalion 


San Antonio, TX 


4th Marine Aircraft Wing 


New Orleans, LA 


Marine Transport Squadron 




DetVMR Andrews AFB 


Andrews Air Force Base, MD 


DetVMR Belle Chase 


Joint Reserve Base New Orleans, LA 


Marine Aircraft Group 41 


JRB Fort Worth, TX 


Site Support Edwards AFB 


Edwards AFB, CA 


Site Support Forth Worth 


JRB Forth Worth TX 


Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron 41 


JRB Forth Worth, TX 


Site Support MCAS Miramar 


MCAS Miramar, CA 


Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 764 


Edwards AFB, CA 


Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 112 


JRB Fort Worth, TX 


Marine Aerial Refueler Transport Squadron 234 


JRB Fort Worth, TX 


Marine Fighter Training Squadron 401 


MCAS Yuma, AZ 



CHAPTER 2: ORGANIZATION I 35 



I 



U.S. MARINE CORPS FORCES RESERVE UNITS 



Marine Aircraft Group 49 


McGuire AFB, NJ 


Site Support McGuire AFB 


McGuire AFB, NJ 


Site Support Robins AFB 


Warner Robins AFB, GA 


Site Support Stewart ANG Base 


Stewart ANG Base, NY 


Site Support Belle Chasse 


JRB New Orleans, LA 


Site Support NAS Norfolk 


NAS Norfolk, VA 


Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron 49 


Stewart ANG Base, NY 


Marine Aerial Refueler Transport Squadron 452 


Stewart ANG Base, NY 


Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 774 


NAS Norfolk, VA 


Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron 772 


McGuire AFB, NJ 


Marine Light Attack Helicopter Squadron 773 


Warner Robins AFB, GA 


Detachment A 


JRB New Orleans, LA 


Detachment B 


McGuire AFB, N J 


Marine Air Control Group 48 


Great Lakes, IL 


Marine Tactical Air Control Squadron 48 


Great Lakes, IL 


Marine Air Control Squadron 23 


Buckley AFB, CO 


Marine Air Control Squadron 24 


Virginia Beach, VA 


Marine Aircraft Support Squadron 6 


Westover Air Reserve Base, MA 


Marine Wing Communications Squadron 48 


Great Lakes, IL 


Marine Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Squadron 4 


Fort Hood, TX 


Site Support Fort Hood 


Fort Hood, TX 


Det MCAS Yuma 


MCAS Yuma, AZ 


Site Support MCAS Yuma 


MCAS Yuma, AZ 


Marine Wing Support Group 47 


SelfridgeANGBase,MI 


Marine Wing Support Squadron 471 


Minneapolis, MN 


Detachment A 


Johnstown, PA 


Detachment B 


SelfridgeANGBase,MI 


Marine Wing Support Squadron 472 


McGuire AFB, NJ 


Detachment A 


Wyoming, PA 


Detachment B 


Westover Air Reserve Base, MA 


Marine Wing Support Squadron 473 


MCAS Miramar, CA 


Detachment A 


Fresno, CA 


Detachment B 


JRB Fort Worth, TX 


4th Marine Logistics Group 


New Orleans, LA 


Forward East 


MCB Camp Lejeune, NC 


Forward West 


MCB Camp Pendleton, CA 


Headquarters and Service Battalion 


Marietta, GA 


4th Supply Battalion 


Newport News, VA 


6th Communications Battalion 


Brooklyn, NY 


4th Maintenance Battalion 


Charlotte, NC 


4th Landing Support Battalion 


Fort Lewis, WA 


4th Dental Battalion 


Marietta, GA 


4th Medical Battalion 


San Diego, CA 


6th Motor Transport Battalion 


Red Bank, NJ 


6th Engineer Support Battalion 


Portland, OR 



36 



ISMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



I 



MARINE CORPS FORCES, 
SPECIAL OPERATIONS 
COMMAND (MARSOC) 




•_*: 






Headquartered at Camp Lejeune, 
NC, MARSOC is the Marine Corps com- 
ponent of USSOCOM. As such, MAR- 
SOC trains, organizes, equips, and, when 
directed by the Commander SOCOM, 
deploys task organized, scalable and re- 
sponsive Marine Corps special opera- 
tions forces (SOF) worldwide in support 
of combatant commanders and other 
agencies. 

In October 2005, the Secretary of De- 
fense directed the Marine Corps to form 
a service component of SOCOM and be- 
gin providing forces to the commander 
of SOCOM. Formally established on 24 
February 2006, MARSOC currently has 
approximately 2,600 Marines, Sailors, and 
civilian employees. In late 2010, based on 
Geographic Combatant Commander de- 
mands and USSOCOM's request, the Ma- 
rine Corps began developing options for 
increasing MARSOC's operational, logis- 
tics, and support capability by assigning 
additional Marines, beyond the current 
build plan. In January 2011, the Com- 
mandant of the Marine Corps approved 
a Primary MOS for MARSOC enlisted 
operators in order to professionalize the 
force and enable Manpower to effec- 



tively manage their careers. MARSOC 
includes three subordinate commands: 
the Marine Special Operations Regiment 
(MSOR), which consists of three Marine 
special operations battalions (1st MSOB 
at Camp Pendleton, CA, and 2d and 3d 
MSOB at Camp Lejeune, NC); the Ma- 
rine Special Operations Support Group 
(MSOSG); and the Marine Special Op- 
erations School (MSOS). 

A Marine Corps major general com- 
mands MARSOC with a supporting staff 
designed to be compatible in all function- 
al areas within SOCOM and Headquar- 
ters, U.S. Marine Corps. The MARSOC 
headquarters is responsible for identify- 
ing Marine special operations-unique 
requirements, developing Marine SOF 
tactics, techniques, procedures and doc- 
trine; and executing assigned missions in 
accordance with designated conditions 
and standards. 

From August 2006 to early 2011, 
MARSOC conducted 107 operational 
overseas unit deployments, continuous- 
ly deploying Marine special operations 
teams (MSOTs) and Marine special op- 
erations companies (MSOCs) in support 
of the geographic combatant command- 
ers. Missions have included conducting 
combat operations in Afghanistan and 
training foreign SOF in Africa, South East 
Asia, South America, Central Asia, and the 
Middle East. In December 2009, MAR- 
SOC deployed its first Special Operations 
Task Force HQ (SOTF HQ) to Afghani- 
stan, led by the 1st MSOB Commander. 
That SOTF was replaced in July 2010 by 
MARSOC's second SOTF HQ, led by the 
2d MSOB Commander. These MARSOC 
SOTFs have provided command, control, 
coordination and support to multiple 



CHAPTER 2: ORGANIZATION, I 37 



I 



SOF elements from both MARSOC and 
U.S. Army Special Operations Command 
throughout Afghanistan. 

MARSOC Core Activities 

MARSOC is tasked by SOCOM with 
providing units specially trained in the 
following primary SOF core capabilities: 

• Direct action (DA) 

• Special reconnaissance (SR) 

• Security Force Assistance (SFA) 

• Counterinsurgenqr (COIN) 

• Foreign internal defense (FID) 

• Counterterrorism (CT) 

• Information Operations (10) 

MARSOC is also tasked with training, 
equipping, planning for and providing 
forces to execute SOF command and con- 
trol. Finally, MARSOC is tasked to pro- 
vide support for Civil Affairs, Military 
Information Support Operations, and 
Counter Proliferation operations. 



MARSOC Subordinate Units 

Marine Special Operations Regi- 
ment (MSOR). MSOR consists of a head- 
quarters company and three Marine spe- 
cial operations battalions (1st, 2d, and 
3d). The Regiment provides tailored, 
military combat-skills training and advi- 
sor support for identified foreign forces, 
in order to enhance their tactical capa- 
bilities and to prepare the environment as 
directed by SOCOM as well as the capabil- 
ity to form the nucleus of a joint special 
operations task force. Marines and Sail- 
ors of the MSOR train, advise, and assist 
host nation forces — including naval and 
maritime military and paramilitary forces 
— to enable them to support their gov- 
ernments' internal security and stability; 
to counter subversion; and to reduce the 
risk of violence from internal and external 
threats. MSOR deployments are coordi- 
nated by MARSOC through SOCOM, in 
accordance with engagement priorities for 
overseas contingency operations. MSOR 
HQ is located at Camp Lejeune, XC. 




INE 
SPECIAL 
OPERATIONS 
REGIMENT 





1ST MARINE 
SPECIAL 

OPERATIONS 
BATTALION 

L 



SPECIAL 

OPERATIONS 

SUPPORT 

GROUP 



2D MARINE 

SPECIAL 
OPERATIONS 
BATTALION 



1 

NE 

L 



3D MARINE 

SPECIAL 
OPERATIONS 
BATTALION 





BATTAL 



LOGISTICS 
COMPANY 




38 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



I 



Marine Special Operations Battal- 
ions (MSOB). The 1st, 2d, and 3d MSOBs 
are organized, trained, and equipped to 
deploy for worldwide missions. The bat- 
talions are commanded by a Marine lieu- 
tenant colonel and consist of four MSOCs, 
which, when designated for deploy- 
ment, are task organized with personnel 
uniquely skilled in special equipment sup- 
port, intelligence, and fire-support. Each 
MSOC is commanded by a Marine major 
and is capable of deploying task-orga- 
nized, expeditionary Marine SOF provid- 
ing the SOF core capabilities in support of 
the geographic combatant commanders. 
MSOCs are also uniquely organized and 
tailored to conduct distributed operations 
in the littorals with counter-insurgency 
expertise and language and cultural ca- 
pability. Each team within the company 
is designed and capable of limited split- 
team operations and trained to conduct 
FID, DA, and SR missions both unilater- 
ally and with partner-nation forces. 1st 
MSOB is located at Camp Pendleton, CA, 
and the 2d and 3d MSOBs are located at 
Camp Lejeune, NC. 

Marine Special Operations Support 
Group (MSOSG). The MSOSG provides 
support capabilities for worldwide spe- 
cial operations missions as directed by 
the MARSOC commander. The MSOSG 
specifically provides all-source intelli- 
gence fusion, combined arms coordina- 
tion, multi-purpose canine capability, 
special operations communications, and 
limited combat service support capability 
to MARSOC forces. The MSOSG deploys 
these capabilities in tailored operational 
support detachments, either independent- 
ly or as part of a MSOC. MSOSG is locat- 



ed at Camp Lejeune, NC, but also main- 
tains a detachment at Camp Pendleton to 
provide direct support to 1st MSOB. 

Marine Special Operations School 
(MSOS). MSOS screens, assesses, selects, 
and trains Marines and Sailors for spe- 
cial operations assignments in MARSOC; 
provides both initial and advanced indi- 
vidual special operations training; and 
serves as MARSOC's training and educa- 
tion proponent in support of MARSOC 
requirements. MSOS is located at Camp 
Lejeune, NC. 

MARINE CORPS FORCES, 
CYBER COMMAND 
(MARFORCYBER) 

In response to the significance of the 
cyber domain to national security, the Sec- 
retary of Defense directed the establish- 
ment of U.S. Cyber Command (CYBER- 
COM) as a sub-unified command under 
U.S. Strategic Command. The primary ob- 
jective of CYBERCOM is to integrate the 
computer network operations capabilities 
of the services and agencies in support of 
the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace 
(NSSC). In response, the Marine Corps es- 
tablished U.S. Marine Corps Forces Cyber 
Command (MARFORCYBER) in Octo- 
ber 2009, with headquarters located at 
Fort Meade, MD. The objective of MAR- 
FORCYBER is to integrate existing USMC 
and MAGTF cyber capabilities with joint 
efforts for unity of effort, a common cy- 
ber operating picture, and a more efficient 
construct that permits the MAGTF and 
joint forces to operate, defend, and re- 
spond at "network speed." MARFORCY- 
BER achieved initial operational capability 
on 1 October 2010. 



CHAPTER 2: ORGANIZATION I 39 



I 



MARFORCYBER Subordinate Units 

Marine Corps Network Operations 
and Security Center (MCNOSC). The 

MCNOSC's mission is to direct global net- 
work operations and defense of the Ma- 
rine Corps Enterprise Network (MCEN) 
and provide technical leadership to fa- 
cilitate seamless information exchange 
in support of Marine and joint forces 
operating worldwide. The MCNOSC is 
the Corps' nucleus for enterprise data 
network operations and defense, network 
support to deploying forces, and tech- 
nical development of network-enabled 
Information Technology (IT) solutions. 
The MCNOSC operates and defends 
the enterprise aspects of the MCEN, col- 
lects and shares Global Information Grid 
(GIG) situational awareness, reports and 
directs actions in response to operational 
incidents, and provides technical leader- 
ship to ensure Marine Corps and joint 
capabilities leverage new technologies to 
the advantage of the Marine warfighter. 
MCNOSC personnel monitor MCEN 
operations around the clock through an 
array of strategically positioned sensors 



to ensure the availability and security of 
the network. Under operational control 
of MAREORCYBER to defend the MCEN 
against cyber attack, the MCNOSC con- 
ducts preventative actions, attack detec- 
tion, and incident response to the rapidly 
increasing and complex number of threats 
to Marine Corps' use of cyberspace. 

Company L, Marine Cryptologic 
Support Battalion. Assigned operational 
control to MARFORCYBER, Company L 
provides Title 10 full spectrum cyber ca- 
pabilities in support of USCYBERCOM 
and USMC requirements. Company L 
also deploys Marines to provide tailored 
subject matter expertise in support of 
MEF and MAGTF operations. 

MARINE CORPS TRAINING AND 
ADVISORY GROUP (MCTAG) 

Assigned to MARFORCOM and 
headquartered at Joint Expeditionary 
Base Little Creek-Fort Story, VA, MCTAG 
will achieve FOC in FY12. MCTAG was 
formed in 2007 to assist in coordinating 
Marine Corps Security Force Assistance 




40 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



I 



(SFA) and Security Cooperation (SC) 
efforts, to provide conventional training 
and advisor support to partner nation 
security forces (PNSF) or to general-pur- 
pose forces (GPF) partnering with PNSF, 
and to provide planning assistance to 
regional Marine component commands 
(MARFORs) in assessing, developing, 
and executing partner-nation training 
programs in order to build partner ca- 
pacity in support of geographic combat- 
ant commander's (GCC) SFA and SC 
objectives. MCTAG provides specialized 
engagement capability, creates effective 
advisors to conduct SFA/SC missions, 
assists MARFORs in assessing PNSF ca- 
pabilities and developing and executing 
PN training plans, and establishes and 
maintains long-term, persistent rela- 
tionships with country teams and PNSF. 
MCTAG is the link between MARFORs 
and supporting forces providing assess- 
ment, planning, coordination, and liaison 
support. As assigned, MCTAG provides 
oversight, coordination, and synchroni- 
zation for the execution of Marine Corps 
SFA activities and enabling support to 
the operating forces, supporting estab- 
lishment, and reserve forces. Advisor and 
trainer teams comprise officers and staff 
non-commissioned officers that are re- 
gionally focused, providing support to 
MARFORs supporting theater SFA/SC 
plans. MCTAG trains and deploys task- 
organized advisor and trainer teams to 
support operational requirements. The 
pre-deployment training program for ad- 
vise, train, and assist teams consists of in- 
dividual, core, unit, and mission specific 
training based upon region, country, and 



mission requirements as determined by 
the GCC, MARFORs, and MCTAG. 

CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL 
INCIDENT RESPONSE FORCE 
(CBIRF) 




The Marine Corps' Chemical Biolog- 
ical Incident Response Force (CBIRF) is 
a unique capability that maintains a high 
state of readiness to respond to asym- 
metric enemy action at home or abroad. 
Established in 1996 and headquartered in 
Indian Head, MD, CBIRF is a subordinate 
unit of II Marine Expeditionary Force, 
Marine Forces Command. Its mission is 
to respond to a credible threat of a chemi- 
cal, biological, radiological, nuclear, or 
high-yield explosive (CBRNE) incident 
in order to assist local, state, or federal 
agencies and designated combatant com- 
manders in the conduct of consequence- 
management operations by providing 
capabilities for agent detection and iden- 
tification, casualty search, rescue, person- 
nel decontamination, emergency medical 
care, and stabilization of contaminated 
personnel. 

CBIRF consists of approximately 580 
Marines, Sailors and civilian employees. 
CBIRF is organized into two permanent 
companies: a Headquarters and Service 

CHAPTER 2: ORGANIZATION I 41 



1 



Company and a Reaction Force Compa- 
ny. For contingency operations, CBIRF is 
task organized into two incident-response 
forces (IRFs) that can deploy by land, sea, 
or air, together or individually, on short 
notice to a pre-designated staging site in 
response to a credible threat or an ap- 
proved request for support. Normally 
these missions are in support of National 
Special Security Events (NSSEs). 

Each IRF has the following capabili- 
ties: all hazard reconnaissance, casualty 
search and extraction; medical, decon- 
tamination, and technical rescue; explo- 
sive ordnance disposal (EOD); command 
control, communications, computer, and 
intelligence (C4I); and self-sustainable 
logistics. A newly developed DOTMLPF 
change request will serve to baseline both 
existing and future program require- 
ments. 

The Marine Corps' CBIRF has de- 
ployed in support of many notable NS- 
SEs, including presidential inaugurations, 
state funerals, the President's State of 
the Union Address, G-20 and NATO 
summits, diplomatic visits, and the 
Olympic Games. 

MARINE CORPS SECURITY 
FORCE REGIMENT 

The 2,200 Marines and Sailors of the 
regiment serve U.S. bases and interests 
worldwide. Re-designated in 2008, the 
regiment has evolved from its legacy mis- 
sion of physical security for worldwide 
naval bases. Marines no longer greet visi- 
tors to naval bases or stations, nor do they 
maintain security detachments on board 

42 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



naval ships. Instead, Marine Corps Secu- 
rity Force Regiment is a dedicated securi- 
ty and anti/counter-terrorism unit of the 
Marine Corps. Its mission is to organize, 
train, equip, and provide expeditionary 
anti-terrorism and security forces in sup- 
port of regional combatant commanders 
and naval commanders in order to con- 
duct security operations, and to provide 
security for strategic weapons and vital 
national assets. 

Headquartered in Norfolk, VA and 
a subordinate unit of II MEF, Marine 
Corps Security Force Regiment is one 
of the Marine Corps' most diverse regi- 
ments. It provides a national security ele- 
ment with a global-deploying force. The 
regiment consists of two security force 
battalions and three fleet antiterrorism 
security team (FAST) companies. Secu- 
rity Force Battalions Kings Bay, GA and 
Bangor, WA provide fixed-site installation 
security with the missions of protecting 
key naval assets — including strategic 
weapons, command and control facilities, 
and other naval support activities — and 
recapturing of compromised strategic as- 
sets. The security force battalion mission 
is extremely challenging as it is conducted 
365 days a year and in all weather condi- 
tions. This vital mission requires the fin- 
est national asset; well-trained Marines 
and Sailors. All personnel assigned receive 
special training in basic and advance se- 
curity techniques and are continuously 
vetted through the personnel reliability 
program. 

Established in 1987, FAST compa- 
nies provide a worldwide rapidly deploy- 
able force with the mission to deter and 



I 




defend against terrorist threats to naval 
installations and vessels and reinforce- 
ment of U.S. government installations 
(primarily U.S. embassies) worldwide. 
Currently, Marine Corps Security Force 
Regiment has three FAST companies 
with eight FAST platoons and company 
headquarters elements forward deployed 
in support of U.S. naval forces compo- 
nent commands in Europe, Pacific, and 
Central Command, as well as at Guan- 
tanamo Bay, Cuba. Trained in infantry 
skills, FAST platoons receive additional 
training in antiterrorism, close quarter's 



battle, precision marksmanship, and 
use of nonlethal weapons, site security, 
and convoy operations. Highly trained 
and ready to conduct short-notice mis- 
sions, in recent years FAST Marines have 
proven themselves in more than 70 spe- 
cial security missions, from OPERATION 
DESERT SHIELD/STORM, to the port- 
security mission following the attack 
on the USS Cole, to missions in Liberia, 
Panama, Cuba, Kenya, Haiti, Afghanistan, 
and Iraq. 



CHAPTER 2: ORGANIZATION I 43 



] 



SUPPORTING ESTABLISHMENT 



The Supporting Establishment — 
Marine Corps Installations, Recruiting 
Activities, Reserve Support Activities, and 
Special Supporting Activities — provides 
the foundation and framework for Ma- 
rine Corps readiness in the 21st Century. 
The programs discussed in this section 
are vitally important to the Marine Corps 
and the Nation. They are fundamental 
to the combat readiness of Marine Corps 
operating forces and are integral to the 
support of individual Marines, Sailors 
and their families. 

TRAINING AND EDUCATION 
COMMAND (TECOM) 

Located in Quantico, VA, TECOM is 
a key component of MCCDC. TECOM is 
tasked with the development, coordina- 
tion, resourcing, execution, and evalua- 
tion of training and education concepts, 
policies, plans, and programs to ensure 
Marines are prepared to meet the chal- 
lenges of present and future operational 
environments. Some of the unique orga- 
nizations within TECOM that carry out 
this mission are described below. 

The Security Cooperation Education 
and Training Center (SCETC) 

A directorate of Training and Edu- 
cation Command, SCETC coordinates, 
manages, implements, and evaluates se- 
curity cooperation and civil affairs (SC/ 
CA) education and training and provides 
Service-level (DOTMLPF) partner-nation 
security force assessments and security 
cooperation planning in support of the 
Marine Corps and regional Marine Com- 
ponent Commands' security cooperation 



objectives. SCETC is tasked with the full 
range of Security Cooperation (SC) and 
Security Assistance (SA) missions and 
Civil Military Operations (CMO) train- 
ing and education that support partner 
nation capacity building. 

SCETC is actively involved in help- 
ing to "operationalize" SC in conjunction 
with the Defense Department's Guidance 
for the Employment of the Force (GEF), 
transitioning DoD planning from a "con- 
tingency-centric" to a "strategic-centric" 
approach, enabling commanders to focus 
on SC and shaping activities as the basis of 
their theater campaign plans and a model 
for resources application. This paradigm 
shift requires dedicated assessment and 
planning constructs. SCETC has been at 
the forefront of developing this capability 
for the Marine Corps by coordinating SC 
activities from the Supporting Establish- 
ment and conducting comprehensive as- 
sessments and engagement plans of part- 
ner nation security forces capabilities and 
capacities as part of the Marine Compo- 
nent Commands' (MARFOR) Theater 
Security Cooperation planning efforts. 

By sourcing training teams from 
the Supporting Establishment, including 
TECOM training venues and schoolhous- 
es, SCETC coordinates the sourcing of 
more than 60 SC engagements with some 
50 partner nations worldwide annually. 
Additionally, SCETC International Pro- 
grams Branch coordinates international 
military student attendance at Marine 
Corps schools. These engagements ul- 
timately build capacities well beyond 
the capability of the operational forces 
to "train, advise, and assist" with regard 
to institution building and support the 



44 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



I 



GEF's strategic planning focus. 

SCETC also assists the MARFORs 
in the conduct of Service-level Doctrine, 
Organization, Training, Material, Leader- 
ship, and Education, Personnel and Facil- 
ities (DOTMLPF) assessments to identify 
capacity and capability gaps and require- 
ments of a Partner Nation Force or orga- 
nization. From this analysis, a multi-year 
Security Cooperation Engagement Plan 
(SCEP) is developed and integrated into 
a Country Action or Country Engage- 
ment Plan for inclusion in the MARFOR's 
Campaign Support Plan. The MARFOR's 
SC activities are then synchronized with- 
in the geographic combatant command- 
ers' campaign plans and U.S. embassies' 
mission strategic plans to produce insti- 
tutional changes for a PNF. 

SCETC supports SC education and 
training through the conduct of the Se- 
curity Cooperation Planners' Course 
that provides planners with a functional 
knowledge of SC policies, procedures, le- 
gal authorities, and SC engagement plan- 
ning considerations that focus on man- 
aging and ultimately training to build 
multi-year SCEP. The course focuses on 
Marine Corps planners but routinely sup- 
ports attendance from the sister Services 
and within the Interagency. Addition- 
ally, the SCETC Civil Military Operations 
Branch is the Marine Corps focal agen- 
cy for institutionalizing and managing 
CMO education and training in support 
of overseas contingency operations. In 
2009, CG TECOM directed SCETC was 
to establish a Marine Corps "Civil Affairs 
School" to provide CA training for CA 
staff sections and CA detachments and 
teams within the operating forces. As a 



Military Occupation Specialty (MOS) 
qualifying course for both officers and 
enlisted, by early 2011 the CA school has 
trained more than 200 Marines. SCETC 
also conducts a CMO Planners' Course 
for planners and CA Marines, to better 
integrate CMO into MAGTF operations, 
and is partnering with the U.S Agency for 
International Development (USAID) and 
the Marine Corps Training and Opera- 
tions Group (MCTOG) to conduct Sta- 
bility Operations Mobile Training Teams 
in conjunction with USAID-led District 
Stability Framework (DSF) training for 
units as part of their pre-deployment 
training plan. 

The SCETC International Programs 
Branch supports Marine Corps SC and 
SA efforts by managing international 
military students attending Marine Corps 
schools under a variety of programs and 
will routinely field requests for over 1100 
Marine Corps school seats from 99 coun- 
tries. In FY10, SCETC coordinated 724 
international students from 74 countries. 
In conjunction with the College of Dis- 
tance Education and Training, SCETC has 
coordinated the addition of new profes- 
sional military education programs that 
have increased opportunities for interna- 
tional students, to include participation 
at The Marine Corps War College, and 
attendance in the Command and Staff 
College (C&SC) and the Expeditionary 
Warfare School (EWS) Blended Seminars 
Program, effectively doubling the num- 
ber of international military students 
participating in this level of professional 
military education. 



CHAPTER 2: ORGANIZATION I 45 



I 



The Center for Advanced Operational 
Culture and Learning (CAOCL) 

A TECOM directorate and the USMC 
center of excellence for operational cul- 
ture and language familiarization, CAO- 
CL is tasked with ensuring that Marines 
are regionally focused, globally prepared, 
and effective at navigating and influenc- 
ing culturally complex 21st-century op- 
erating environments. CAOCL provides 
operationally relevant products and ser- 
vices and accomplishes its mission by en- 
suring a comprehensive response to the 
Corps' needs through various means: 

CAOCL Liaison. CAOCL Liaison of- 
ficers at each MEF assist Marine forces in 
accessing resources, scheduling training, 
and fulfilling culture and language train- 
ing requirements. 

Policy and Planning: CAOCL sup- 
ports the Marine Corps in formulating 
policies, plans, and strategies to address 
regional understanding, operational cul- 
ture, and language familiarization re- 
quirements across DOTMLPF concerns. 

Training and Education Continu- 
um. CAOCL serves as the administra- 
tor and coordinator of the Marine Corps 
Regional, Cultural, and Language Famil- 
iarization (RCLF) Program. Through 
the RCLF Program, the Marine Corps 
develops cross- culturally competent Ma- 
rines with diverse regional understanding 
and language capacity to ensure that the 
Corps has assets within each unit to assist 
in operational planning and execution 
in all operationally significant regions 
of the world. This program encompass- 
es career-long education and training 
that begins at accession and continues 
throughout a Marine's professional life. 

46 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



In order to meet home-station sustain- 
ment training requirements or specific 
operational requirements, CAOCL is es- 
tablishing Language Learning Resource 
Centers (LLRCs), which are computer 
labs equipped with culture and language 
study materials and software, at all eight 
major Marine Corps bases to facilitate 
culture and language training for indi- 
vidual Marines and units. In order to 
provide an assortment of additional op- 
portunities to Marines for operational 
culture and language self-study, CAOCL 
provides access to a number of distrib- 
uted learning computer-based products, 
in early 201 1 including: 

• CL-150 Technology Matrix for Critical 
Languages, designed to support learning 
of all languages determined to be of na- 
tional security interest and consisting of 
software programs that provide a blend 
of cultural training, regional under- 
standing, and language familiarization 
for specific countries around the world 
(these programs can be downloaded to 
a computer or viewed on the web) 

• Rosetta Stone Language Learning Soft- 
ware, providing 150 hours of self-paced 
computer-based language-familiariza- 
tion in numerous languages (available 
to all active-duty and reserve Marines 
via Marine Net) 

• Tactical Language Training System 
(TLTS), which include high-end, inter- 
active, video simulations using comput- 
erized characters, or "avatars," in a vari- 
ety of tactical scenarios, and providing 
language and culture training via the 
four modules of Tactical Iraqi, Tactical 
Pashto, Tactical Dari, and Tactical Sub- 
Saharan Africa French 



I 



Pre-deployment Training Program 
(PTP). CAOCL provides pre-deployment 
training and resources to ensure each Ma- 
rine is equipped with the specific regional 
knowledge and understanding necessary 
to navigate and influence a specific op- 
erating environment to accomplish the 
mission. Training includes tactical lan- 
guage familiarization, specific regional 
awareness, and specific operational cul- 
ture concerns. CAOCL provides training 
for commanders and key unit leaders in 
Key Leader Engagement, including tacti- 
cal language, use of interpreters, non-ver- 
bal communications, and cross-cultural 
communications. CAOCL makes its staff 
available to brief deploying forces and 
offers numerous computer-based prod- 
ucts and other materials. Mobile training 
teams (MTTs) deliver operational culture 
classes and briefs and tactical language 
classes at home station or underway. 

Operational Support. CAOCL pro- 
vides subject matter experts (SMEs) in di- 
rect support of the operating forces. These 
SMEs are designed to assist commanders 
in understanding the cultural terrain of 
the battlespace and in planning operations. 
Cultural Advisors (CULADs) to MEF and 
GCE commanders serve as special staff of- 
ficers during pre-deployment training and 
deploy with the units as integral members 
of operational staffs to provide personal 
advice to commanders and to assist in 
integrating operational culture concerns 
into the planning process. 

Curriculum Coordination and Inte- 
gration. CAOCL assumed responsibility 
for coordination and integration of op- 
erational culture training and education, 
and language familiarization. 



Research Center. The research center 
supports CAOCL's activities by providing 
the scientific basis and scholarship, spe- 
cifically oriented on Marine Corps mis- 
sions and guidance, required for training, 
education, policy, and programming. In 
support of the Marine Corps mission 
to be both regionally focused and glob- 
ally deployable, the center conducts the 
work necessary to ensure that the glob- 
ally applicable concepts and skills of so- 
cial science are operationalized for use 
by Marines, as well as providing regional 
expertise and leveraging expertise from 
other organizations. The center brings to- 
gether scientists with critical disciplinary 
backgrounds that are uncommon in DoD 
and makes their work directly relevant to 
Marine Corps needs. The center also has 
responsibility for developing valid as- 
sessment platforms to ensure CAOCL's 
activities are meeting the needs of the op- 
erating forces. 

Marine Corps Tactics and 
Operations Group 

The Marine Corps Tactics and Oper- 
ations Group (MCTOG) was created on 
6 February 2008 under the cognizance of 
CG, TECOM in order to implement the 
Operations and Tactics Training Program 
(OTTP). Located aboard Marine Corps 
Air Ground Combat Center, Twentynine 
Palms, CA, MCTOG is now a subordinate 
organization to Marine Air Ground Task 
Force Training Command. 

MCTOG's mission is to provide stan- 
dardized advanced training and certifica- 
tion to Ground Combat Element (GCE) 
Operations Officers, Operations Chiefs, 



CHAPTER 2: ORGANIZATION I 47 



I 



and select other GCE training specialists 
in GCE operations, combined arms plan- 
ning and integration, and unit readiness 
planning at the company, battalion, and 
regiment levels to support GCE Training 
and Readiness (T&R) events. This is ac- 
complished through the Tactical MAGTF 
Integration Course (TMIC). MCTOG 
provides advanced collective training to 
company through regiment battle staffs 
by executing the Battle Staff Training 
Program (BSTP). MCTOG serves as the 
proponent lead to develop specified GCE 
publications, ensures GCE doctrine is 
nested and consistent both horizontally 
and vertically within the MAGTF con- 
struct, and ensures GCE doctrine and 
individual and collective T&R events are 
mutually supporting in order to enhance 
the combat readiness of GCE units. 

Operations and Tactics Training 
Program. The OTTP increases combat 
effectiveness by developing a professional 
training culture, institutionalizing stan- 
dardization, and accelerating innovation 
at all levels within the GCE. The three 
pillars of the OTTP are the TMIC, the 
BSTP, and the synchronization of GCE 
Doctrine and T&R events. The desired 
end state of the OTTP is to: 

(a) Ensure full interoperability of GCE 
units through standardization of 
Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures 
(TTPs) in publications and in prac- 
tice in the operating forces. 

(b) Inculcate GCE companies, battalions, 
and regiments with a higher level of 
training capability and rigor across 
the warfighting functions. 

(c) Codify and provide the training re- 
quirements for key GCE staff mem- 

48 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



bers in order to build expertise in the 
training, preparation, and employ- 
ment of GCE units on the complex 
battlefields of the future. 

(d) Implement mechanisms to ensure 
GCE doctrine, standards, training, 
and requirements maintain pace with 
the changing threat environment and 
emerging operational concepts. 

(e) Enhance GCE unit preparation/per- 
formance in combat operations. 
Tactical MAGTF Integration 

Course. TMIC is the method used to 
train and certify OTIs for the GCE. The 
GCE Operations Officer (OpsO) and Op- 
erations Chief (Ops Chief) must be cer- 
tified as an OTI prior to being assigned 
to their designated billet. OTIs are pro- 
ponents of standardization and as such 
assist the commander in the preparation 
of the unit for combat, tactical planning, 
and command and control of operations. 
OTIs assist their commanders with the 
identification of unit-specific training re- 
quirements and deficiencies as a result of 
evolving operational and threat environ- 
ments. OTIs support the GCE by being: 

(a) Master training designers able to im- 
plement and manage the Unit Readi- 
ness Program. 

(b) Skilled in the art and science of plan- 
ning and executing operations in 
complex environments. 

(c) Skilled in the art and science of com- 
mand & control across the range of 
military operations. 

(d) Proponents of standardization to en- 
able integration and interoperabil- 
ity with external organizations and 
enablers. 



I 



(e) Advocates of best practices, lessons 

learned, resources, and emerging 

concepts. 

Battle Staff Training Program. The 
BSTP is the method by which MCTOG 
assists commanders and OTIs in training 
units in advanced collective (Battle Staff) 
Command and Control (C2) and plan- 
ning skills. BSTP prepares units to inte- 
grate Service, joint, and interagency assets 
in support of their anticipated missions 
during deployment. BSTP uses tailored 
unit training packages, exercise support, 
and unit defined Mobile Training Team 
(MTT) support packages to train unit 
battle staffs either at the MCTOG Battle 
Lab, or in support of Home Station Train- 
ing. MCTOG is focused on the regiment, 
battalion, or company commander and 
staff in the information management, 
problem solving and resolution processes 
encountered in the current and future 
operating environments. 

Synchronization of GCE Doctrine 
and Training and Readiness. MCTOG 
is the critical link between the GCE Ad- 
vocate (the Deputy Commandant for 
Plans, Policies, and Operations) and the 
means by which the doctrine, TTPs, train- 
ing standards, curricula, and institutional 
training programs are established and 
kept current. MCTOG will assist the GCE 
Advocate in developing standardized GCE 
individual and collective capabilities that 
are linked to best practices, current TTPs, 
and emerging requirements. MCTOG will 
remain engaged in supporting the GCE 
Advocate through participation in vari- 
ous GCE advocacy venues, symposiums 
and working groups described below. 



Marine Corps Logistics Operations 
Group (MCLOG) 

CG TECOM, in coordination with 
DC I&L, will establish a Marine Corps Lo- 
gistics Operations Group (MCLOG) as an 
0-6 command organization reporting to 
CG, MAGTF TC. MCLOG will synchro- 
nize logistics and LCE doctrine, tactics, 
techniques and procedures in order to 
enhance preparation and performance 
of logisticians and LCE units in support 
of MAGTF operations. Additionally, 
MCLOG will become the training agent 
of standardization for the logistics com- 
munity, and will synchronize C2, training 
and doctrine refinement with MCTOG 
and Marine Aviation Weapons and Tactics 
Squadron (MAWTS), further enabling the 
interaction of the LCE with the MAGTF. 

MARINE CORPS LOGISTICS 
COMMAND (MCLC) 

Headquartered in Albany, GA, MCLC 
provides worldwide, integrated logistics/ 
supply chain and distribution manage- 
ment; maintenance management; and 
strategic prepositioning capability in 
support of the operating forces and other 
supported units. The services and support 
provided by MCLC maximize supported 
unit readiness, synchronize distribution 
processes, sustainability and to support 
Marine Corps enterprise and program- 
level total life cycle management. MCLC 
is fully engaged in supporting the in- 
creased critical requirements to expedite, 
track, and process incoming and outgoing 
equipment requirements related to the 
retrograde of equipment from OPERA- 
TION NEW DAWN (OND), the support 



CHAPTER 2: ORGANIZATION I 49 



I 



of ongoing OPERATION ENDURING 
FREEDOM (OEF) logistics and equip- 
ment requirements, and the execution of 
the OIF ground equipment reset efforts. 
MCLC is structured to execute its core 
competencies via three permanent sub- 
ordinate commands strategically located 
in Georgia, Florida, and California; a the- 
ater-specific command operating in the 
CENTCOM Area of Operations (AOR); 
through MEF Support Teams co-located 
with each MEF and Marine Forces Re- 
serve Headquarters; and via liaison of- 
ficers in the National Capital Region, at 
Marine Corps Systems Command and 
the Defense Logistics Agency. 

Blount Island Command 




Blount Island Command (BIC), lo- 
cated in Jacksonville, FL ensures that 
ground equipment and supplies associ- 



ated with Marine Corps prepositioning 
programs afloat and ashore are of the 
highest state of readiness. BIC services 
the Marine Corps' entire 16-ship mari- 
time prepositioning fleet within a three- 
year period and also services the Marine 
Corps' equipment maintained in the Nor- 
wegian caves as part of the Marine Corps 
Prepositioning Program-Norway. The 
BIC facility is being expanded to handle 
the demands of the future Maritime Prep- 
ositioned Force program over the long 
term. In addition to the MPF mission, 
BIC is heavily engaged in the conduct of 
field level Maintenance required to reset 
equipment retrograded from OIF. 

Maintenance Center Albany and 
Maintenance Center Barstow 

MCLC's other two subordinate com- 
mands, Maintenance Center Albany 
(MCA), located in Albany, GA and Main- 
tenance Center Barstow located in Bar- 
stow, CA repair, rebuild, and modify all 
types of Marine Corps ground-combat, 
combat-support, and combat-service 
support equipment. These two depot 
maintenance facilities have rapidly re- 
aligned capability and capacity to meet 
the immediate needs of the warfighter as 
with the ongoing execution of the reset 



COMMANDING GENERAL 

MARINE CORPS 

LOGISTICS COMMAND 



6 NTENANCE CENTER ! MAINTENANCE CENTER 
ALBANY GA BARSTOW, C A 
I I I 




50 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



I 




of equipment retrograded from Iraq and 
the deployment of maintenance teams to 
OEF to provide immediate support for 
combat operations. MCA and MCB are 
designated as Centers of Industrial and 
Technical Excellence (CITEs) for ground 
and amphibious combat and combat 
support systems, combat/tactical vehicles, 
automotive/construction equipment, 
ordnance/weapons, general-purpose 
equipment, and communications/elec- 
tronics equipment. 

Marine Corps Logistics Command- 
Forward (MCLC-Fwd) 

The MCLC-Fwd capability was 
formed to unify numerous logistics 
programs operating in the CENTCOM 
AOR. The MEU augmentation program 
(MAP), forward-in-stores (FIS), princi- 
pal end-item (PEI) rotation, equipment 
retrograde, repairable issue point (RIP), 
and maintenance contact teams are suc- 
cessful MCLC-Fwd initiatives. 

• The MAP provides a limited equipment 
set within the CENTCOM Theater to 
enhance the combat readiness and re- 
sponsiveness of MEUs as they conduct 
operations and to reduce the amount of 
MEU equipment that is shipped from 
the continental United States (CONUS). 

• The FIS provides for the exchange of 
damaged equipment. 



• The PEI rotation program rotates new 
or rebuilt equipment into the theater 
to exchange equipment items that have 
been in theater operating for three to 
four years, thereby increasing readiness 
in theater and integrating procurement, 
modernization, and rebuilding efforts 
to maintain operational availability of 
equipment. 

• The equipment retrograde program fa- 
cilitates the turn in of equipment that is 
being replaced by new acquisition or is 
no longer required for theater require- 
ments. MCLC-Fwd processes the items 
by arranging for transportation to CO- 
NUS, redistributing to meet other the- 
ater requirements, or turning the item 
over to the Defense Reutilization and 
Marketing Office (DRMO). 




The RIP program provides contractor 
augmentation to the Marine Logistics 
Group RIP to source and manage se- 
lected secondary repairables as well as 
rebuild, overhaul, remanufacture, and 
augment packing and preservation ca- 
pabilities at the RIP to expedite the issue 
and return of secondary repairables in 
the support of the deployed MAGTF. 
Maintenance contact teams are mainte- 
nance specialists deployed periodically 
to fulfill specific tasks of limited dura- 
tion, such as applying armor to vehicles 
in country. 



CHAPTER 2: ORGANIZATION I 51 



I 



• MCLC-Fwd also coordinates overflow 
maintenance requirements with the 
Army Material Command on behalf of 
the deployed MAGTR 

MARINE CORPS INFORMATION 
OPERATIONS CENTER (MCIOC) 

MCIOC, in early 2011 at IOC and 
scheduled for FOC in the Second Quarter 
FY2011, is the Marine Corps' centralized 
information operations (IO) resource 
and the executive agent for the Marine 
Corps IO program (MCIOP). Located in 
Quantico, VA, MCIOC develops MAGTF 
IO tactics, techniques, procedures, and 
assists in the development of IO relat- 
ed doctrine. In addition to supporting 
MAGTF operations, the Center works 
within the Expeditionary Force Develop- 
ment System to define required MAGTF 
IO capabilities. The MCIOC will leverage 
emerging technologies, inter-service and 
other agencies capabilities to execute its 
mission. 

The MCIOC mission is to provide 
MAGTF commanders and the Marine 
Corps a responsive and effective, full 
spectrum IO planning and Military In- 
formation Support Operations (MISO) 
delivery capability and a comprehensive 
reach back capability. The MCIOC ex- 
ecutes its mission by deploying scalable 
task-organized expeditionary IO plan- 
ning teams (IOPT) and tactical MISO 
teams, as well as maintaining regionalized 
IO reach back teams which will ensure 
the integration of IO into Marine Corps 
operations. The MCIOC is currently sup- 



porting operations in Afghanistan and in 
other AORs with IOPTs and MISOs. The 
MCIOC is staffed with subject matter ex- 
perts representing IO core, supporting, 
and related capabilities, including: 

• IO mission planning 

• IO Intelligence Integration 

• Electronic Warfare (EW) 

• Military Deception (MILDEC) 

• Operations Security (OPSEC) 

• Military Information Support Opera- 
tions (MISO) 

• Computer Network Operations (CNO) 

• Supporting capability of Combat 
Camera (COMCAM) 

• Related capabilities of Civil Military 
Operations (CMO) and Public 
Affairs (PA) 

• Special Technical Operations (STO) 
and Space Planning Support 

These SMEs enable the MAGTF to 
coordinate and synchronize IO across the 
spectrum of operations to affect a relevant 
decision maker in order to achieve an op- 
erational advantage for the commander, 
while simultaneously assuring, protect- 
ing, and defending similar Marine, joint, 
and coalition forces' capabilities. 

The MCIOC's deployable IOPTs aug- 
ment MAGTF IO staffs through tactically 
focused training, operational planning 
support, tactics development, and for- 
mulation of IO requirements including 
research and development priorities. The 
IOPTs are capable of training MAGTF 
IO personnel in the five IO core capa- 
bilities of EW, MILDEC, OPSEC, MISO, 
and CNO. 



52 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



I 



The IOPTs also help MAGTF staffs 
understand IO techniques, tactics, and 
procedures to coordinate effectively with 
joint IO staff, supporting, and related IO 
capabilities. The MCIOC IOPTs advise 
and assist the MAGTF IO staff in inte- 
grating IO into the MAGTF's mission 
planning. These teams are on call and 
task organized to meet the MAGTF com- 
mander's requirements. 

A newly established and currently 
maturing capability, expeditionary MISO 
teams from the MCIOC give the MAGTF 
Commander the capability to plan, de- 
velop, integrate and deliver messages to 
inform, educate and persuade relevant 



populations in the area of operations A 
comprehensive IO reach back capability 
develops unique IO related products and 
leverages external resources to satisfy re- 
quests for information in support of the 
MCIOC mission of providing IO plan- 
ning support to the Marine Corps, joint 
forces and coalition partners. 

As the executive agent for the MCIOP, 
the MCIOC synchronizes IO across all 
Marine Corps activities, integrates IO 
into all MAGTF plans and operations, 
and provides a common service under- 
standing and definition of Marine Corps 
IO, ensuring IO becomes a core military 
competency within the Marine Corps. 



CHAPTER 2: ORGANIZATION I 53 



I 



MARINE CORPS EMBASSY SECURITY GROUP (MCESG) 



Marine Security Guards (MSG) have 
been the frontline of defense for U.S. dip- 
lomatic missions and the Department of 
State for more than 210 years. The his- 
tory of Marines supporting Department 
of State diplomatic missions dates to 
March 1799 and most famously with First 
Lieutenant Presley O'Bannon during the 
Barbary Pirate wars of 1805. A Memo- 
randum of Agreement (MOA) between 
the Department of State and the Marine 
Corps was first signed in December 1948, 
formalizing the relationship between the 
two agencies. MSGs have continually ex- 
emplified themselves during numerous 
situations — embassy bombings in Leba- 
non, Kenya, and Tanzania; Al Qaeda ter- 
rorist attacks in Saudi Arabia; and averting 
an embassy bombing through vigilance 
in Pakistan — to name just a few. No 
matter what the mission, Marine Security 
Guards have always faced challenges and 
adversaries with steadfast courage, deter- 
mination, and professionalism — always 
ready and true to their motto, "in every 
clime and place." 

The MCESG is a global command that 
screens, trains, assigns, organizes, equips, 
and sustains Marines assigned for duty as 
MSGs at designated U.S. diplomatic and 
consular missions. The primary mission 
of a MSG is to provide internal security 
at these facilities to prevent compromise 
of classified information and equipment 
vital to national security. 

Headquartered in Quantico, VA, the 
Commanding Officer of MCESG has 
more than 1,400 Marines assigned to 
the unit, supervising MSG detachments 



in 148 embassies and consulates in 133 
countries, spanning 18 time zones. The 
group has nine regional commands that 
are commanded by a lieutenant colonel: 
four in Frankfurt, Germany that en- 
compass Europe, Scandinavia, Eurasia, 
and North and West Africa; two in Fort 
Lauderdale, FL that span the northern 
and southern parts of the Western Hemi- 
sphere; one in the United Arab Emirates 
that includes the Middle East and South 
Asia; one in Bangkok, Thailand that cov- 
ers East Asia and the Pacific region; and 
one in Pretoria, South Africa that is re- 
sponsible for southern and eastern Africa. 
In early 2011, MCESG has 42 posts that 
entitle Marines to hostile fire pay and 21 
posts that qualify Marines for combat tax 
exclusion benefits. 

MSGs attend a comprehensive six- 
week (eight weeks for detachment com- 
manders) Department of State and Ma- 
rine Corps school in Quantico, where they 
receive specialized training that prepares 
them to accomplish their primary mis- 
sion of providing internal security. Dur- 
ing their 36-month tour in the program 
detachment commanders will serve two 
separate 18-month posts and the MSGs 
will serve at 18-month posts or at a select 
few 12-month posts at any one of the Na- 
tion's 150 embassies or consulates. Ma- 
rine detachments range in size from one 
staff non-commissioned officer (SNCO) 
detachment commander and five MSGs, 
to two SNCOs and 22 MSGs, depending 
on the size of the embassy or consulate. 



54 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



MARINE BARRACKS, WASHINGTON, D.C. 



I 



Established in 1801, Marine Barracks 
Washington D.C. is the "Oldest Post of 
the Corps" and has been the residence of 
every Commandant of the Marine Corps 
since 1806. The selection of the site for 
the barracks was a matter of personal in- 
terest to President Thomas Jefferson, who 
rode through Washington with Lieuten- 
ant Colonel Commandant Burrows in 
search of a suitable location. They chose 
the current site due to its location near 
the Washington Navy Yard and its easy 
marching distance of the Capitol. 

Marine Barracks has also been home 
of the United States Marine Band since 
1801. Shortly after its formation in 1798, 
the band played for President John Adams 
at the Executive Mansion. This engage- 
ment began a tradition that has become 
so established that today the names "Ma- 
rine Band" and "The President's Own" are 
synonymous. John Philip Sousa, the most 
famous director of "The President's Own," 
wrote many of his immortal marches — 
such as The Stars and Stripes Forever and 
Semper Fidelis — while stationed here. 

Today, Barracks Marines perform 
many tasks in support of the Marine 
Corps' diverse missions. These include 
infantry training, ceremonies, and presi- 
dential support duty to include a com- 
pany of "8th and I" Marines that fulfill 
a security mission for the First Family at 
Camp David, MD. 

The barracks is also home to the Ma- 
rine Corps Institute (MCI). Founded in 
1920 by the 13th Commandant of the 
Marine Corps, General John A. Lejeune, 
MCI is the Corps' distance training cen- 



ter, which is responsible for all nonresi- 
dent military education programs. 

EVENING PARADE 

An 85-minute performance of mu- 
sic and precision marching, the Evening 
Parade features "The President's Own" 
United States Marine Band, "The Com- 
mandant's Own" United States Marine 
Drum and Bugle Corps, and the Marine 
Corps Silent Drill Platoon. The Evening 
Parade is held Friday evenings at 8:45 
p.m., beginning the first weekend in May 
and continuing through the last Friday of 
August. Reservations can be made at the 
following website: 

http://www.marines.mil/unit/bar- 
racks/pages/welcome.aspx 

SUNSET PARADE 

A one-hour performance, the Sunset 
Parade features the music of "The Com- 
mandant's Own" United States Marine 
Drum and Bugle Corps and a precision 
drill exhibition by the Marine Corps Si- 
lent Drill Platoon. The Sunset Parade is 
conducted Tuesday evenings starting in 
June and continuing through the middle 
of August at 7 p.m., except for the final 
two parades that begin at 6:30 p.m. The 
Sunset Parade, held at the Marine Corps 
War Memorial, is open to the public at no 
charge. Reservations are not necessary. 



CHAPTER 2: ORGANIZATION I 55 




APTER 3 




I 



PROGR^ 



INTRODUCTION 

The Marine Corps' primary role in the 21st Century is to be the Nation's "expe- 
ditionary force-in-readiness" that provides combined-arms operating forces, includ- 
ing integrated aviation and logistical components, for service as part of naval, joint 
and combined forces world wide. Marine forces magnify the projection of U.S. forces, 
ensuring that they remain influential in peacetime, compelling in crisis, and decisive 
in war. 

As we look ahead, we will strengthen the roots of a lighter, faster, hard-hitting, ex- 
peditionary, and sea-based Marine Corps that is reliant on agility, shock and surprise. 
Innovation and fiscal responsibility continue to be hallmarks of the Marine Corps. 
We continue to invest limited resources to restore combat capability and enhance our 
Marines' readiness at home and in overseas operating areas. We are constantly moni- 
toring our total investment requirements against changing demands. In Marine Corps 
ground and aviation programs, for example, we continue to test, develop, and procure 
dual-use systems and employ emerging technology. Throughout, however, our focus 
remains on the individual Marine's ability to carry out the tasks at hand. 

Chapter Three of the 2011 edition of Concepts and Programs provides informa- 
tion on Marine Corps programs of record and major end-item equipment, which 
will ensure that current and future Marines have what they need to accomplish 
the mission. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 57 



ACQUISITION CATEGORIES (ACAT) 



The Department of Defense cat- 
egorizes acquisition programs into 
several categories, generally based on 
their cost or testing requirements. This 
categorization is then used to identify 
oversight and approval requirements. 
A description of the most commonly 
discussed ACAT levels follows. 

ACAT I: These are the largest ac- 
quisition programs and are also known 
as Major Defense Acquisition Programs 
(MDAP) or Major Automated Infor- 
mation Systems (MAIS). To achieve 
this level of designation, a program 
must exceed $365 million in research 
and development funding, exceed 
$2,190 billion in procurement funding 
or be designated as "Special Interest" 
by Congress. The Marine Corps leads 
the following ACAT I programs: the 
MV-22 Osprey Program, the Global 
Combat Support System, the Ground 
Aviation Task Oriented Radar, the Me- 
dium Tactical Vehicle Replacement, 
the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle, and 
the Common Aviation Command and 
Control System. The Marine Corps also 
participates in numerous joint ACAT I 
programs, including the Global Broad- 
cast Service and the Joint Tactical Ra- 
dio System. ACAT I programs have two 
subcategories: ACAT IC and ACAT ID. 

ACAT IA: These are the largest au- 
tomated information system (AIS) ac- 
quisition programs. There are several 
cost thresholds for this level, which 
include AIS programs with single-year 
funding, in all appropriations, in ex- 
cess of $32 million; total program cost 
in excess of $126 million; or total life- 



cycle costs in excess of $378 million. 
ACAT IA programs have two subcat- 
egories: ACAT IAM and ACAT IAC. 

ACAT II: These programs do not 
meet the threshold for ACAT I, but 
have research and development fund- 
ing in excess of $140 million or pro- 
curement funding in excess of $660 
million. They are also known as Major 
Systems. The Marine Corps funds one 
ACAT II program, the Logistics Vehicle 
Systems Replacement. 

ACAT III: Programs that do not 
meet the cost threshold for ACAT I or 
II and involve combat capability are 
designated ACAT III or IV programs. 
Within the Marine Corps, the desig- 
nation generally depends on the level 
of program management and over- 
sight assigned by Commander, Marine 
Corps Systems Command. The Marine 
Corps in early 2011 manages more than 
20 ACAT III programs, leads approxi- 
mately 12 joint ACAT III programs, 
and participates in another 27 joint 
ACAT III programs. This level also in- 
cludes less-than-major AIS programs. 

ACAT IV: ACAT programs not 
otherwise designated ACAT I, IA, II 
or III are designated ACAT IV. ACAT 
IV programs have two subcategories: 
ACAT IV(T) programs, which require 
operational test and evaluation, and 
ACAT IV(M) programs, which do not. 
The Marine Corps manages nearly 90 
such programs and leads or partici- 
pates in more than 20 joint ACAT IV 
programs. 



58 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 201 1 



ACQUISITION PHASES AND TERMS 



I 



Material Solution Analysis Phase 
(Milestone A): This is the pre- system 
acquisition phase, during which initial 
concepts are refined and technical risk is 
reduced. Two major efforts may be un- 
dertaken in this phase. The first phase 
consists of short-term concept studies 
that refine and evaluate alternative solu- 
tions to the initial concept and provide a 
basis for assessing the relative merits of 
these alternatives. The second phase is 
an iterative discovery and development 
process designed to assess the viability of 
technologies, while simultaneously refin- 
ing user requirements. 

Engineering and Manufacturing 
Development (Milestone B): This is the 
phase in which a system is developed. 
Work in this phase includes reduction of 
integration and manufacturing risk, en- 
suring operational supportability, human 
systems engineering, design for the ability 
to produce, and demonstration of system 
integration, interoperability and utility. 

Production and Deployment (Mile- 
stone C): This is the phase in which the 
operational capability that satisfies mis- 
sion needs is ensured through operation- 
al test and evaluation. This evaluation 
determines a system's effectiveness, suit- 
ability, and survivability. The designated 
Milestone Decision Authority may decide 
to commit to production at Milestone C, 
either through low-rate initial produc- 
tion for major defense acquisition pro- 



grams or full production or procurement 
for other systems. 

A Non-Developmental Item (NDI): 
An NDI is any previously developed item 
of supply used exclusively for government 
purposes by a federal agency, a state or lo- 
cal government or a foreign government 
with which the United States has a mu- 
tual defense cooperation agreement. An 
NDI requires only minor modifications 
or modifications of the type customarily 
available in the commercial marketplace 
in order to meet the requirements of the 
Marine Corps. 

Initial Operational Capability (IOC): 
In general, IOC is reached when some 
units and/or organizations in the force 
structure scheduled to receive a system 
have received it and have the ability to 
employ and maintain it. The specifics for 
any particular system IOC are defined 
in that system's Capability Development 
Document (CDD) and Capability Pro- 
duction Document (CPD). 

Full Operational Capability (FOC): 
In general, FOC is attained when all units 
and/or organizations in the force struc- 
ture scheduled to receive a system have 
received it and have the ability to employ 
and maintain it. The specifics for any 
particular system FOC are defined in that 
system's Capability Development Docu- 
ment (CDD) and Capability Production 
Document (CPD). 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 59 










/ 



*^v^ 



PART 1: EQUIPPING 
THE MARINE 



mm. 



l w~-^ 







: > k y y 






I 



INTRODUCTION 

The "Individual Marine" is the heart and soul of the Nation's Marine Corps. The 
individual Marine is trained, educated, and equipped to operate across the broadest 
spectrum of missions and tasks — a "middleweight" fighter optimized for crisis re- 
sponse but equally capable in global engagement, irregular warfare or responding to 
larger threats worldwide. 

Marine ground combat forces will be staffed with disciplined, highly trained, well- 
educated, superbly led Marines who thrive in uncertainty, exploit chaos, solve complex 
problems through simple means, and take prudent, ethical, and decisive action. These 
Marines will be armed with superior weapons and equipment that enhances shared 
understanding of the battlespace and enables rapid, coordinated action — all without 
overburdening the individual Marine or compromising our expeditionary agility. 

While today's Marines are superbly operating in every clime and place, it is a lead- 
ership obligation to Marines, their families, and the Nation to be prepared for tomor- 
row with an eye to lightening the current fighting load. With the growth of the Marine 
Corps to 202,100 Marines, the individual Marine will remain the number-one prior- 
ity. While a Marine's focus in the field is on excellence and mission accomplishment, 
the focus of Marine Corps programs is on the "tools" needed for operational success. 
America's Marines deserve nothing but the best that the Nation can afford. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 61 



INFANTRY AUTOMATIC RIFLE (IAR) 




DESCRIPTION 

The IAR program seeks to replace the 
current M249 Squad Automatic Weapon 
(SAW) in all infantry and light armored 
reconnaissance squads. The IAR is a 
non-developmental, 5.56mm automatic 
rifle that is lighter, more durable, more 
accurate, and more reliable than the 
M249 SAW. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

Use of the automatic rifle will signifi- 
cantly enhance the automatic rifleman's 
maneuverability and displacement speed, 
while providing the ability to suppress or 
destroy targets of most immediate con- 
cern to the fire team. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The IAR program entered the system 
development and demonstration phase 
during second quarter FY 2008 following 
a successful Milestone B decision. A suc- 
cessful Milestone C decision was achieved 
in fourth quarter FY 2009 and the program 



is currently in the production and deploy- 
ment phase. The Heckler and Koch 416 was 
selected as the USMC IAR source. The IAR 
is currently undergoing a Limited User Ev 
aluation (LUE) with participation by three 
OEF active duty infantry battalions, a re- 
serve infantry battalion, and an active duty 
Light Armored Reconnaissance battalion. 
Fielding in support of this LUE began in 
December 2010 and will be complete in 
April 201 1. The LUE assessment collection 
plan will include a post-EMV assessment, a 
100 day assessment, and a post deployment 
assessment. The results of these assess- 
ments will support a full fielding decision. 
Initial feedback from LUE infantry battal- 
ions currently in combat operations is very 
positive, and points to the advantages of 
the automatic rifleman now being a "true" 
automatic rifleman, rather than a light ma- 
chine-gunner. 

Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 2012 
Quantity: 458 

Developer/Manufacturer: 
Heckler and Koch, Newington, NH 



62 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



MODULAR WEAPON SYSTEM (MWS) 



I 




DESCRIPTION 

The M16A4 rifle and an M4 carbine 
are the two weapons that satisfy the capa- 
bility requirements of the MWS program. 
An M1913 Rail Adapter System (RAS) re- 
places the upper-hand guards and incor- 
porates a removable rear-carrying handle 
that were standard on M16A2 rifles. The 
RAS provides the capability to mount 
various accessories, including a modified 
M203 launching system, high-intensity 
flashlights, infrared laser illuminators, 
and optics. The MWS M4 carbine vari- 
ant is selectively fielded to Marines whose 
billets or missions require the use of the 
shorter carbine. 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The MWS significantly improves the 
ability to mount various accessories and 
will enhance accuracy, target detection, 
and engagement capabilities in day and 
night conditions. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

Fielding of the MWS began in FY2003. 
An increase in the Approved Acquisition 
Objective (AAO) due to complete replace- 
ment of M16A2 rifles Marine Corps-wide 
has extended fielding through FY2011. 
The AAO is now approximately 191,372 
M16A4 rifles and approximately 83,344 M4 
carbines. 



Procurement Profile: 

M16A4 

M4 



FY 2011 FY 2012 
19,103 5,000 
8,333 



Developer/Manufacturer: 
M4: Colt Manufacturing 
Company, Inc., Hartford, CT 

M16A4: Fabrique National Military Industries, 
Columbia, SC 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 63 



SEMI-AUTOMATIC SNIPER SYSTEM (SASS) 



DESCRIPTION 

The MHO Semi- Automatic Sniper 
System (SASS) is a 7.62mm semi-auto- 
matic, precision rifle that is capable of fir- 
ing on enemy targets out to 800 meters 
with a precision of 1.3 minutes of angle. 
The MHO is fielded with the M8541A 
Scout Sniper Day Scope (SSDS) and is 
also compatible with the AN/PVS-27 
Scout Sniper Mid-Range Night Sight 
(SSMRNS). The weapon design is based 
on that of the commercial Stoner SR-25 
rifle. The SASS has been fielded within 
the U.S. Army since 2008, and an identi- 
cal model, the MK11 MOD 2, has been 
fielded and in the U.S. Navy's Special 
Operations Forces (SEALs) since 2006. 
A similar model, the MK11 MODI, 
has been fielded in the Marine Corps 
since 2006. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The MHO SASS will enable scout 
snipers to effectively engage enemy per- 
sonnel with precision, conduct patrols 
and counter-sniper operations, and ac- 
curately engage hardened or materiel tar- 
gets. The SASS will enhance the mobility 
of scout snipers by providing them with 
a shorter, lighter system than the current 
M40A5 Sniper Rifle. The SASS will also 
allow for rapid engagement of the enemy, 
which is critical in urban or restrictive 
environments in which multiple targets 



offer a very limited time to engage and 
may suddenly appear at close range. The 
semi-automatic capability of the SASS 
will augment the bolt-action M40A5 and 
will replace the M39 Enhanced Marks- 
man Rifle (EMR) on a one-for-one basis. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The Approved Acquisition Objec- 
tive for the SASS is 1,588. Fielding of the 
MHO SASS will begin during First Quar- 
ter FY201 1. All fielding will be conducted 
at home station; no in-theater fielding is 
planned. Fielding for the MHO will pro- 
ceed in two phases. Phase I will consist of 
fielding to deploying-units Marine scout 
snipers, as well as to select schoolhous- 
es where formal sniper and designated 
marksmen training takes place. Phase II 
will consist of fielding to fill deficiencies 
for deploying infantry battalions that 
were not fielded during Phase I, and to 
replace the M39 EMR. Fielding timelines 
for Phase II will be based on follow-on 
contract award for the SASS, which is 
anticipated during the Fourth Quarter 
FY2011. 

Procurement Profile: FY 201 FY 201 1 
M-110SASS 803 785 

Developer/Manufacturer: 

Knight's Armament Company, Titusville, FL 



64 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



MULTI-SHOT GRENADE LAUNCHER 



I 



DESCRIPTION 

The M-32A1 Multi-Shot Grenade 
Launcher (MSGL) is being fielded to re- 
place the M-32 that was purchased un- 
der an Urgent Operational Needs State- 
ment in support of OPERATION IRAQI 
FREEDOM. The M-32A1 is a hand-held, 
40mm multi-shot grenade launcher with 
a six-round capacity fed by a revolving 
cylinder. This system affords the opera- 
tor the ability to provide suppressive fires 
over a minimum area of 20x60 meters, 
and is accurate for point targets up to 150 
meters and area targets up to 375 meters. 
A trained operator can fire 6 rounds in 3 
seconds and sustain 18 rounds a minute. 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The M-32Albegan fielding in 2010 
and will field across I MEF, II MEF, III 
MEF, and MARFORRES as an additive 
weapon to enhance small-unit suppres- 
sive-fires capabilities. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

Fielding of the M-32A1 MSGL be- 
gan in the Third Quarter of 2010 and will 
continue through June 201 1. 

Procurement Profile: FY 201 1 FY 201 2 
M-32A1 1 ,659 

Developer/Manufacturer: 
Milkor USA, Inc., Tucson, AZ 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAM 



65 



SHOULDER LAUNCHED MULTIPURPOSE ASSAULT WEAPON (SMAW II) 




DESCRIPTION 

SMAW II is the material solution to 
the FOTS capability requirement defined 
in the capability development document. 
The SMAW II system will consist of a new 
launcher to replace the existing SMAW 
MK153 Mod launcher, and a multi- 
purpose, fire-from-enclosure (FFE) en- 
cased round. The SMAW II launcher will 
be functionally and physically compatible 
with existing SMAW legacy rounds. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The SMAW II provides the Marine 
Corps Assault Team the ability to engage 
targets from inside an enclosure or in a 
confined space (e.g., alleyway), which 



significantly improves the team's tactical 
flexibility and survivability. The system 
provides a lighter, more maintainable, 
and more reliable launcher, which incor- 
porates state-of-the art technology not 
resident in legacy system. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

Milestone B was achieved in August 
2008 and Milestone C is scheduled for 
the Fourth Quarter FY2011. Initial Op- 
erational Capability is planned for the 
Fourth Quarter FY2012, with Full Opera- 
tional Capability in the Fourth Quarter 
FY2016. 



Procurement Profile: 


FY 2011 


FY 2012 


FFE Rounds 


750 


2,500 


Launchers 


130 


798 



Developer/Manufacturer: 

FFE Round: Nammo Talley, Incorporated, 

Mesa, AZ 

Launcher: Raytheon Missiles Systems, 
Tucson, AZ 



66 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 201 1 



HANDHELD RADIOS FAMILY OF SYSTEMS (FOS) 



I 







DESCRIPTION 

The Handheld Radios FoS has sev- 
eral non-developmental, tactical hand- 
held, and amplified vehicular radio sets 
that provide reliable tactical communica- 
tions, including a retransmission capabil- 
ity. The Marine Corps has a requirement 
for two handheld radios: the Integrated 
Intra Squad Radio (IISR) and the Tactical 
Handheld Radio (THHR). 

The IISR is designed to provide small, 
lightweight, handheld tactical communi- 
cations to infantry squads and fire teams 
to facilitate squad command and control, 
enabling squad members to communi- 
cate in tactical situations where hand and 
arm signals and voice communications 
are not practical. The IISR acts as a wire- 
less intercom and possesses enough pow- 
er to provide effective communications in 
open terrain, heavy vegetation, and urban 
environments. The IISR operates in the 
AM and FM bands of the 380-470 mega- 



hertz (MHz) frequency spectrum. The 
IISR is capable of both analog and digital 
operation. 

The THHR is a secure handheld unit 
that supports the communications re- 
quirements of all elements of the MAGTF. 
The THHR operates in the AM and FM 
bands of the 30-512 MHz frequency 
spectrum, contain embedded commu- 
nications security, and is interoperable 
with other radio systems and waveforms, 
such as Single-Channel Ground and Air- 
borne Radio System (SINCGARS) and 
HAVEQUICK I/II, in the single-channel 
mode and frequency-hopping modes. 
In addition to the THHR, two vehicular 
amplification kits are included: the Dual 
Vehicle Adapter (DVA) and the Single Ve- 
hicle Adapter (SVA). The DVAs/SVAs are 
vehicular product lines that are fully in- 
teroperable with the Marine Corps' cur- 
rent inventory of combat net radios. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

Legacy tactical handheld equipment 
within the Marine Corps exceeded its ex- 
pected life span and was rarely used. As a 
result, the handheld units primarily con- 
sisted of locally purchased, commercially 
available radios that were not interopera- 
ble with Marine Corps combat net radios. 
The Handheld Radios FoS consolidates 
and exceeds legacy capabilities, lightens 
the combat load of individual Marines 
and small units, reduces tactical handheld 
radio operating costs, and provides line- 
of-sight radios into every tactical vehicle. 
The current versions of the Handheld Ra- 
dios FoS have the expectations to remain 

CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 67 



in the Marine Corps' inventory until the 
Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) solu- 
tion reaches its full operational capability 
(FOC). 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The Handheld Radios FoS is in the 
post Milestone C phase of the acquisi- 
tion process. All systems have been pro- 
cured. Presently, seven end-items are 
currently in the inventory: AN/PRC-153 
(IISR); AN/PRC-148 (THHR), with its 
associated AN/VRC- 1 1 1 DVA and AN/ 
VRC-113 Small Form Factor -SVA; and 



the AN/PRC-152 (THHR), with its asso- 
ciated AN/VRC- 110 DVA and AN/VRC- 
112 SVA. The Marine Corps' AAOs are 
for: 51,945 IISRs; 23,003 THHRs;10,246 
DVAs;and 15,086 SVAs. 

Developer/Manufacturer: 

AN/PRC-1 52/ANA/RC-1 1 0/AN/VRC-1 1 2: 

Harris Corporation, Inc., Rochester, NY 

AN/PRC-153: Motorola, Columbia, MD 

AN/PRC-1 48/AN/VRC-1 1 1 /ANA/RC-1 1 3: 
Thales Communications, Inc., 
Clarksburg, MD 



68 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



MARINE ENHANCEMENT PROGRAM (MEP) 



I 



The Marine Corps stood up the Ma- 
rine Enhancement Program (MEP) in 
1989 in response to congressional guid- 
ance for the Corps to establish programs 
dedicated to improving the lethality, 
comfort and survivability of the indi- 
vidual Marine. The primary focus of the 
program is on low-cost, low- visibility 
materiel solutions that can be rapidly 
fielded and that typically do not compete 
well against larger, high-profile items in 
the Department of the Navy's budget. 

The MEP thus ensures improve- 
ments for the individual Infantryman are 
identified and quickly transitioned into 
practical solutions. This goal is achieved 
through an accelerated acquisition pro- 
cess that takes advantage of commer- 
cially available technologies to provide 
lighter, more improved "infantry items" 
to the Marines as quickly as possible. De- 
pending upon when the item is needed, 
its complexity, risk, and cost, it can take 
from 90 days to two years to test, modify 
as appropriate, procure and field the item 
to the Marine. 

Items procured and fielded under the 
MEP seek to reduce the load, increase the 
survivability, enhance the safety and im- 
prove the lethality of the individual Ma- 
rine Infantryman across the spectrum of 
operational environments. MEP systems 
are intended primarily for the Marine 
Infantryman within the Ground Combat 
Element. When applicable, MEP items 
have also transitioned to support other 
Military Occupational Specialties within 
the GCE (e.g., Combat Engineers and 
Artilleryman) and across the Marine Air 



Ground Task Force (e.g., Supply, Mainte- 
nance, Administration, and Ordnance). 
In recent years, the MEP has funded sev- 
eral critical programs, including: Com- 
bat Shotgun, Field Tarp, Flame- Resistant 
Organizational Gear, Modular Tactical 
Vest, Multi-Purpose Bayonet, Rifle Com- 
bat Optic, Individual Water Purification 
Block I (Miox Pen), Enhanced Hearing 
Protection, Grip Pod for the M16 and 
M203, Handheld Flashlight, Three Season 
Sleep System, Pocket Laser Range Finder, 
Next-Generation ILBE and the Improved 
Helmet Suspension/Retention System. 

The MEP Working Group includes 
core representatives from Plans, Policies 
and Operations, Marine Corps Combat 
Development and Integration, and Ma- 
rine Corps Systems Command. Nomina- 
tions for the MEP initiatives come from 
Marines via the website, email and the 
Advocate, or through review of the U.S. 
Army's Soldiers Enhancement Program 
for capabilities matching a Marine Corps 
need. Nominated capabilities must focus 
on commercial-off-the-shelf or non-de- 
velopmental items that can be executed 
quickly. The potential MEP initiatives 
for 2011 include: Battery Assist Device, 
Weapons Compensator, Hearing Armour 
(hearing protection), SPACES (solar 
portable power system), and the vehicle 
mounted battery charger. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 69 



I 



MARINE EXPEDITIONARY RIFLE SQUAD (MERS) 




The Marine Expeditionary Rifle 
Squad (MERS) is a program charged 
with applying an integrated approach to 
equipping a Marine rifle squad, our most 
fundamental warfighting unit. The focus 
of the program is to view the Marine rifle 
squad in a holistic manner — one in which 
the squad comprises a whole much more 
effective than the sum of its individual 
members. The integration and configura- 
tion management of all components that 
are worn, carried, and consumed by the 
squad will increase lethality, mobility, and 
flexibility of infantry forces. MERS is the 
steward of the Marine rifle squad's suite 
of equipment and works with all the pro- 
gram managers at Marine Corps Systems 
Command to optimize and integrate the 
rifle squad's equipment. 

70 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 201 1 



The program has founded the 
GRUNTWORKS Squad Integration Fa- 
cility. The facility provides a venue to 
engineer, evaluate, and try the capabili- 
ties and limitations of all equipment in 
development and under consideration 
for procurement that will be delivered to 
the infantry squad. This dynamic facil- 
ity uses a human factors lab, equipment 
prototyping and modification workshop, 
a mobility platform integration area, and 
an infantry immersive environment fo- 
cused on equipment evaluation in a for- 
eign environment to accomplish equip- 
ment modernization and integration 
initiatives. Human factors and ergonom- 
ics are applied to the physical integration 
of the infantry squad's equipment. The 
physiological and performance impacts 
of fielding new equipment create sets of 
trade-offs between weight and volume 
management, comfort, usability, sim- 
plicity, lethality, survivability, mobility, 
sustainment, and training given that it 
must perform in combat in any clime and 
place. MERS will highlight these trade 
offs and refine solutions that incorporate 
the capabilities of the Marine rifle squad 
as an integrated system. 

MERS works closely with the MERS 
Capabilities Integration Officer and the 
HQMC Plans Policy and Operations 
MERS Infantry Advocate. The MERS 
triad has established an Integrated In- 
fantry Working Group in order to ensure 
that the operating forces are equipped 
with optimal solutions. Infantry Battal- 
ion surveys are continuously conducted 
in theater and post deployment in order 



I 



to identify trends and issues with infantry 
equipment. 

Integration efforts during 2011 in- 
clude: 

• Integration of the Plate Carrier and Im- 
proved Modular Tactical Vest with the 
components worn on the torso 

• Improvements in the weight distribu- 
tion and load carriage methodology 
within the squad using metrics for mo- 
bility 

• Infantry weapon and optic ergonomic 
enhancement 

• C2/Situational Awareness integration 
and information systems for small unit 
leaders 

• Research into efficient power genera- 
tion and power/data distribution on 
the Marine 

• Integration and anthropometry of the 
Marine in mobility platforms under de- 
velopment such as Joint Light Tactical 
Vehicle and Marine Personnel Carrier 



• Integration of the various unique items 
carried in the billet positions within the 
squad 

The MERS Program Office is also the 
Enhanced Company Operations (ECO) 
Equipping Coordinator for Marine 
Corps Systems Command. MERS also 
coordinates the R&D efforts for the long- 
term objective of distributed operations. 
Infantry Battalions have been equipped 
with ECO equipment and is listed in the 
infantry battalions' table of equipment. 
The program office conducts equipment 
and software upgrades as well as refresher 
training for the ECO computers and as- 
sociated hardware. The robust C2 pack- 
age combined with appropriate training 
will empower the non-commissioned of- 
ficers at the fire team and squad level and 
increase the battalion's capabilities across 
all warfighting functions. 



CHAPTER 3: PR0GR- - I 71 



INFANTRY COMBAT EQUIPMENT (ICE) 




Program Manager ICE continues to 

pursue technological advancements in 
personal protective equipment and load 
bearing equipment by fielding, sustain- 
ing, and assessing clothing and equip- 
ment while anticipating the needs of the 
operating forces. Fully recognizing the 
trade-off between weight, protection lev- 
el, fatigue, and movement restriction, the 
program office is providing Marines the 
latest in personal protective equipment 
and load bearing equipment, such as the 
Improved Modular Tactical Vest (IMTV), 
Plate Carrier (PC), Full Spectrum Battle 
Equipment (FSBE), Flame Resistant Or- 
ganizational Gear (FROG), Mountain 
Cold Weather Clothing Program (MCW- 
CP), the Three-Season Sleep System (3S), 
the USMC Pack and the Pistol Holster. 

The requirements of combat opera- 
tions have forced the rapid evolution of 
personal protective systems. In February 
2007, the Marine Corps transitioned the 
Modular Tactical A est for troops deployed 
in overseas contingencies. The MTY pro- 
vided greater comfort by incorporating 
state of-the-art load carriage techniques 
that better distributed the combat load 
over the torso and hips of the Marine. 



In response to MTV design deficiencies 
identified during field use, the program 
office has developed the Improved MTV 
(IMTV). The IMTV increases weapons 
handling, improves weapon stock weld, 
reduces complexity and reduces the over- 
all system weight as compared to the 
MTV. It is planned for initial fielding in 
July 2011. 

The Scalable Plate Carrier (SPC) was 
issued as an additional ballistic vest for 
Marines deploying to Afghanistan starting 
in 2008. The SPC was not as a replacement 
for the MTV but rather an option for com- 
manders to address mission and threat re- 
quirements that were different than Iraq. 
The SPC allows for greater individual ma- 
neuverability, agility, and mobility with re- 
duced thermal stress in hot mountainous 
environments when compared to the N ITV. 
The SPC offers the same level of ballistic 
protection as the MTV but reduces overall 
weight by reducing soft armor fragmen- 
tation protection. The PC is planned to 
replace the SPC starting in late 201 1. The 
PC is a government developed design that 
improves shoulder comfort, improves 
load carriage, and provides an emergency 
release capability when compared to the 
SPC. 

The FSBE provides ballistic protec- 
tion, short duration underwater breathing 
capability, flotation, and limited load car- 
riage to meet the specific mission profiles 
required by the Marine Corps reconnais- 
sance community, fleet anti-terrorism se- 
curity teams, Marine Expeditionary Unit 
helicopter assault companies and Marine 
Special Operations Command. 



72 JSMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



I 



In addition to body armor, PM ICE 
also procures the current Light Weight 
Helmet (LWH) and Modular Integrated 
Tactical Helmet (MICH) that have been 
used by Marines during overseas contin- 
gencies since 2004. Starting in 2009, PM 
ICE has been the lead in a joint Army 
and Navy team developing the Enhanced 
Combat Helmet (ECH). Developmental 
testing has shown the ECH has resistance 
to small arms penetration and superior 
fragmentation protection at the same 
weight of presently fielded helmets. If 
First Article Testing is successful, the ECH 
may become the joint services common 
ballistic helmet. Fielding is planned to 
start in late 2011. 

In February 2007, the Marine Corps 
began fielding FROG to all deployed Ma- 
rines. This lifesaving ensemble of flame- 
resistant clothing items (gloves, balaclava, 
long-sleeved undershirt, combat shirt, 
combat trouser, and Inclement Weather 
Combat Shirt (IWCS) is designed to mit- 
igate potential injuries to Marines from 
flash flame exposure often experienced in 
Improvised Explosive Device (IED) inci- 
dents. The Marine Corps continues de- 
velopment of FROG in order to increase 
comfort, improve durability and improve 
flame resistant properties. 

The MCWCP includes items required 
to increase the individual Marine's mo- 
bility, survivability and sustainability in a 
mountainous, cold weather environment, 
such as Afghanistan. The MCWCP con- 
sists of a Lightweight Exposure Suit (Par- 
ka and Trousers); Extreme Cold Weather 
Parka, Trouser, and Bootie; Snow Cam- 



ouflage Parka, Trousers and Pack Cover; 
Extreme Cold Weather Mitten System (a 
Mitten Shell with Liner and Light Duty 
Flame Resistant Glove Insert); Windpro® 
Fleece Jacket; FR Silkweight Underwear 
and FR Midweight Underwear. 

In September 2008, the Marine Corps 
identified a need to provide a smaller and 
lighter sleep system to replace the Modu- 
lar Sleep System. The 3S leverages tech- 
nological advances in textiles and insula- 
tion to increase environmental protection 
while reducing the weight and volume 
as compared with the previous sleeping 
bag. The 3S, when incorporated with the 
layered clothing system Marines already 
carry, provides 15 degrees of greater pro- 
tection, is one pound lighter, and is eight 
percent smaller by volume than the patrol 
bag in the Modular Sleep System (MSS). 
The 3S is designed to be used at 20 de- 
grees with lightweight insulating layers 
and as low as 10 degrees when wearing all 
of the recommended insulating clothing 
layers provided with the MCWCP. Pro- 
viding a greater temperature range in 
which Marines can operate than the MSS, 
the 3S increases the mobility and surviv- 
ability of the individual Marine. The 3S 
is currently being fielded. 

PM ICE also provides high-quality 
clothing, including boots, in order to en- 
hance current and future Marine Corps 
readiness. The Hot Weather (HW) and 
Temperate Weather (TW) versions of the 
Rugged All Terrain (RAT) boot provide 
Marines comfortable, stable, and durable 
footwear for every climb and place in alti- 
tudes from 0-6,000 feet of elevation. The 

CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 73 



RAT boot provides greater abrasion resis- 
tance in the toe and heel areas through an 
extra layer of impregnated leather. This 
abrasion resistance gives the Marine the 
ability to kick steps in loose dirt, snow and 
ice without destroying the integrity of the 
boot. Additionally, the RAT boot can per- 
form on slopes from 0-90 degrees and in 
a variety of terrain types to include, but 
not limited to, rock, loose soil, mud, snow 
and alpine ice. Due to these properties 
and its stitch down construction, the RAT 
boot provides excellent durability, better 
traction, and greater stability in any en- 
vironment. 

PM ICE is presently developing the 
USMC Pack for fielding in 2012. The 
USMC Pack incorporates an external 



composite frame and is designed to bet- 
ter integrate with body armor systems 
than the presently fielded system. The 
USMC Pack will provide Marines a dura- 
ble lightweight and fully salable means to 
transport ammunition, weapons, equip- 
ment and clothing into battle. 

PM ICE intends to procure and field 
a new pistol holster in 2012. The USMC 
Holster will consist of a modular compos- 
ite design that will allow better weapons 
carriage and more rapid weapons transi- 
tion from primary to secondary weapon. 
The USMC Holster will allow Marines to 
more rapidly engage targets from the hol- 
ster and implement current combat pistol 
marksmanship technique. 



74 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



TACTICAL HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY EQUIPMENT (THSE) 



I 




DESCRIPTION 

As part of the Underwater Recon- 
naissance Capability (URC) program, 
the Tactical Hydrographic Survey Equip- 
ment (THSE) is a handheld, underwater 
charting system with GPS oriented/lo- 
cated known-point underwater mapping 
capability that can be employed with the 
Diver Propulsion Device (DPD). It inte- 
grates sonar and computer technology to 
provide combat swimmers and combat- 
ant dive pairs the capability to conduct 
tactical submerged hydrographic recon- 
naissance and electronically chart bottom 
conditions of the seaward approach to 
potential amphibious landing beaches in 
support of the Marine Air Ground Task 
Force (MAGTF). 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The program's efforts will produce 
a piece of equipment that navigates sub- 
surface with the accuracy of surface GPS 
for prescribed periods of time, maps the 
ocean bottom, and records the collected 
data to produce a graphic representation 
of that ocean bottom for use by land- 



ing force commanders. Typical mission 
profiles will consist of tactical subsurface 
movements of Marine combatant diver 
teams from insertion points at sea to pre- 
programmed survey areas and follow on 
recovery from pre-programmed extrac- 
tion points also at sea. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The THSE is in the engineering and 
manufacturing development phase of the 
acquisition life cycle. During FY2008- 
2010, Marine Corps Systems Command 
in conjunction with the Defense Ad- 
vanced Research Projects Agency con- 
ducted technology development and 
testing to determine the ability of the 
device to meet all Marine Corps perfor- 
mance requirements. Following success- 
ful technology development a transition 
of program authority is expected during 
the first quarter of FY2011. Field User 
Evaluations are scheduled for second and 
fourth quarters of FY2011. Milestone C 
is planned for fourth quarter FY201 1, and 
with procurement and fielding decisions 
planned for first and second quarters of 
FY2012 respectively. Procurement and 
fielding will continue through FY2015. 

Procurement Profile: FY 201 1 FY 201 2 
Quantity: 206 

Developer/Manufacturer: 
To be determined. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 75 



I 



DAY OPTICS SYSTEMS 



DESCRIPTION 

The AN/PVQ-31A (for the M16A4) 
andAN/PVQ-31B (for the M4) rifle com- 
bat optic (RCO) are the cornerstones of 
the day optics program. The RCO is a 
fixed 4X optical aiming sight designed 
for use with the rifles configured with the 
MIL-STD-1913 Rail Adapter System. It 
attaches to the rail to provide the user a 
targeting tool to engage distant daylight 
and near low-lit targets with increased 
identification certainty. 




The SU-260/P machine gun day op- 
tic (MDO) is a fixed 6X optical aiming 
sight designed for use with the M240B 
machinegun. The optic provides a tar- 
geting tool for engaging targets out to 
1,250 meters. The sight has a fiber-optic 
reticle illumination system supplemented 
by a tritium lamp. The reticle provides a 
stadia-rangefinder and both vertical and 
horizontal mil scales. The optic is issued 
with a miniature reflex for targeting close 
or rapidly moving targets. 

The SU-258/PVQ squad day optic 
(SDO) is a fixed 3.5X optical aiming sight 
designed use with all 5.56mm systems. 
The SDO is currently the optical sight for 
the M249 squad automatic weapon and 
the M27 infantry automatic rifle. The 
optic provides a targeting tool for en- 




gaging targets out to 1,000 meters. The 
sight has a fiber optic reticle illumination 
system supplemented by a tritium lamp. 
The reticle provides a stadia-rangefind- 
er and both vertical and horizontal mil 
scales. The reticle has aiming points for 
either carbine or rifle barrel length weap- 
ons. The optic is issued with a miniature 
reflex for targeting close or rapidly mov- 
ing targets. 

The Heavy Machinegun Sight Sys- 
tem (HMGSS) is a suite of components 
being procured in response to an Urgent 
Statement of Need in support of OEF. 
The HMGSS includes a ballistic extended 
rail mount (BERM), a heavy day optic 
(HDO) and a reflex sight. When used 
in conjunction with legacy laser point- 
ers and clip on night vision devices, the 
HMGSS provides a machine gunner with 
a complete aiming system for ground or 
vehicle mounted M2 or Mkl9 heavy ma- 
chineguns. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The RCO provides enhanced target 
identification and hit probability for the 
M4 and M16A4 rifle out to 800 meters. 
It incorporates dual illumination tech- 
nology using a fiber optic light source 
for daytime illumination and tritium for 



76 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



I 



night and low-light use. This allows the 
operator to keep both eyes open while 
engaging targets and maintain maximum 
situational awareness. 

The MDO provides enhanced tar- 
get identification and hit probability for 
the M240B out to 1,250 meters. The 6X 
magnification power extends the range 
at which machine gunners can detect 
and acquire targets. The refined ballistic 
drops provide aiming points in 50-me- 
ter increments, which increase accuracy 
and probability of effects on target. The 
MDO central aiming points are illumined 
by a fiber optic and supplemented by a 
tritium lamp for night and low-light use. 
The MDO is provided with a miniature 
reflex sight for engaging close and rapidly 
moving targets. The MDO additionally 
provides a mounting rail for mounting 
legacy laser aiming devices. 

The SDO provides enhanced target 
identification and hit probability for the 
M249, M27 out to 1,000 meters. The 3.5X 
magnification power extends the range at 
which automatic riflemen can detect and 
acquire targets. The SDO central aiming 
points are illumined by a fiber optic and 
supplemented by a tritium lamp for night 
and low-light use. The SDO is addition- 
ally provided with a miniature reflex sight 
for engaging close and rapidly moving 
targets. 

The HMGSS provides enhanced long 
range target identification and hit prob- 
ability for the M2 .50 caliber heavy ma- 
chinegun and Mkl9 Mod3 automatic 
grenade launcher out to the maximum 
graduated ranges of both systems. The 



reflex sight provides a rapid aiming point 
for close and or moving targets while the 
HDO provides a precise aiming point and 
8X magnification for more deliberate or 
long-range scenarios requiring increased 
identification certainty. The extended 
rail of the BERM additionally allows a 
machine gunner to use either image in- 
tensified or thermal devices to detect and 
acquire targets in night or low-light con- 
ditions. The BERM also allows for the 
gunner to directly view the optic while 
the weapon is being fired by absorbing 
weapon recoil travel. The suite increases 
engagement ranges and speeds effects 
on target by automatically correcting for 
range and drift of both .50-caliber and 
40mm trajectories. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

A total of 217,441 RCOs have been 
procured through FY 2010 with deliver- 
ies ending in FY 2011. The MDO and 
SDO contracts were awarded in FY 2009 
for procurement of 10,933 MDOs and 
15,178 SDOs with deliveries continuing 
through 2012. 



Procurement Profile: 


FY 2011 


FY 2012 


AN/PVQ-31A: 








AN/PVQ-31 B: 


2,607 





AN/PEQ-16A: 


610 





SU-260/P: 


5,200 


5,075 


SU-258/PVQ: 


7,200 


5,307 


HMGSS 


728 






Developer/Manufacturer: 
RCO/SDO/MDO: Trijicon Industries, 
Detroit, Ml 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 77 



I 



THERMAL OPTICS SYSTEMS 



DESCRIPTION 

The Squad Thermal System (STS) will 
be both a weapon mounted clip-on ther- 
mal sight that can be used in conjunction 
with the AN/PVQ-31A/B Rifle Combat 
Optic (RCO) and a lightweight, handheld 
thermal imager. This system will have an 
integrated Class3B infrared laser pointer 
with two modes of operation: training 
(eye-safe), and tactical (non-eye safe). 
The IR laser will be compatible with ex- 
isting Image Intensifier (12) night optics. 
The STS will be configured with an open- 
system architecture design to permit 
pre-planned product improvement (P3I) 
insertions. These may include the follow- 
ing: the integration of a higher perform- 
ing micro bolometer, an adjustable laser 
that can be bore sighted to the weapon, 
and optics components that permit the 
use of the STS in conjunction with other 
Marine Corps sights, such as the Squad 
Day Optic (SDO) and Medium Day Op- 
tic (MDO). The total weigh of the STS 
will not exceed 21 ounces in either opera- 
tional configuration, weapon-mounted 
or hand held. 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The Squad Thermal System will bet- 
ter enable Squad leaders, Fire Team Lead- 
ers, Machine Gun Section Leaders, and 
Reconnaissance Team Leaders to detect 
and recognize potential targets, danger 
areas, and items of interest in all light- 
ing conditions. The integrated laser point 
will allow Marines to designate potential 
targets to other team members equipped 
with 12 devices to improve situational 
awareness and to control organic weapon 
fire. At the present time, the Marines have 
to carry two separate pieces of gear to sat- 
isfy the requirement for thermal imaging 
in weapon-mounted and handheld con- 
figurations. The desire is to field a single 
device that is well suited for use in either 
configuration, thereby reducing load and 
logistics burden. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The STS in currently in the Develop- 
ment Phase with a planned IOC in the 
Third Quarter FY2013. FOC is planned 
in the Fourth Quarter FY2014. 

Developer/Manufacturer: 
To be determined. 



78 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 201 



LASER TARGETING AND ILLUMINATION SYSTEMS 



I 




DESCRIPTION 

The AN/PEQ-15 advanced target 
pointer illumination aiming light (ATPI- 
AL) and the AN/PEQ-16A mini integrat- 
ed pointer illuminator module (MIPIM) 
are Class 3b laser devices that provide a 
highly collimated beam of infrared energy 
for weapon aiming and an adjustable fo- 
cus infrared beam for target illumination. 
The AN/PEQ-16A also has a white light 
illuminator that provides target identifi- 
cation and illumination without the use 
of night vision devices. 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The AN/ PEQ-16A provide increased 
accuracy for every Marine by providing a 
laser aiming capability and the ability to 
illuminate targets in low light and night 
conditions when using a night vision 
device. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The procurement of 610 PEQ-16As 
in FY 2011 will fulfill all AAO quantities 
for laser systems. 

Procurement Profile: FY 201 1 FY 201 2 
AN/PEQ-16A: 610 ' 

Developer/Manufacturer: 

Insight Technology, Inc., Londonderry, NH 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 79 




PART 2: COMMAND AND 
CONTROL 



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I 



INTRODUCTION 

The Marine Corps Command and Control (C2) Initial Capabilities Document 
(ICD) approved by the Joint Requirements Oversight Council in February 2008, and 
the Marine Corps Functional Concept for Command and Control, approved in 2009, 
incorporate joint integrating concepts and C2 mandates and articulate our goal of de- 
livering end-to-end, fully integrated, cross-functional capability to include forward 
deployed and reach back functions. It emphasizes that command and control must 
be leader centric and network enabled, and that individual Marines understand their 
commander's intent and can carry out complex operations. The C2 ICD, Functional 
Concept and the Marine Corps Information Enterprise strategy detail in this part will 
enable MAGTF commanders to exercise effective command and control and bring to- 
gether all of the warfighting functions into an effective fighting force. In addition, these 
programs support the ability of the MAGTFs to function in an integrated naval envi- 
ronment and participate in or lead joint and multinational operations. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 81 



MARINE CORPS INFORMATION ENTERPRISE (MCIENT) STRATEGY 



Marine Corps Information Enterprise (MCIENT) Conceptual Model 



Institutional I 
Processes "i" 

(PPB&E, JCIDS, 
M,C2,CPIC,DAS, 5 



Director C4 / Chief Information Officer (CIO) Coordination Fra 

GIG 2.0 -^ Marine Corps Information Environment (MCI E) 

Data, information, Knowledge - and their Irfecyde management processes 



IM&KM* DDCIO(MC)/DirC4 Supports 1M&KM* USMC Organizations Participate 



Organizations g 

E 

(DCs, Directors, 
OPFOR, Supporting < 
Establishment etc..) 

Personnel "5 



g External IT 
E [Environments 




4- Marine Corps IT Environment (MCITE) -I 

End User Devices, Sensors, Applications, and Appliances 

DDCIO (MC)/DlrC4Lead • Ml USMC Organizations Participate 



Marine Corps Enterprise Network (MCEN) 

DDCIO (MC)/DlrC4 Lead • All USMC Organizations Participate 






External IT 
Environments 



Physical Infrastructure ( 



Figure 3.1 . MCIENT Conceptual Model 

The Marine Corps Information En- 
terprise (MCIENT) Strategy prepares the 
Marine Corps for the future by establish- 
ing a vision for the Marine Corps as an 
Information Enterprise and by providing 
the objectives necessary for enhancing 
Service core competencies, defeating ad- 
versaries, supporting allies and mission 
partners, and performing the Marine 
Corps' legislated role. 

VISION 

The Marine Corps will continue to 
meet the challenges of a complex security 
environment, fight and win the Nation's 
battles, and endure as the Nation's expe- 
ditionary force in readiness. To ensure 
these imperatives, the Marine Corps must 
evolve into a Knowledge-based Force that 
leverages seamless enterprise capabilities 
across the spectrum of conflict in order to 
enhance decision making, achieve knowl- 
edge superiority, and gain tactical, opera- 
tional, and strategic advantage over the 
Nation's adversaries. 

82 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



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STRATEGY 

Achieving the vision requires the de- 
velopment of improved mobile, seamless, 
and secure communications and IT ser- 
vices across the Information Enterprise. 
Communications and services with these 
characteristics facilitate collaboration, 
coordinated actions, and instant or near 
real-time access to mission-critical data, 
information, and knowledge. To evolve the 
Corps into a Knowledge-based Force that 
achieves decision and execution superi- 
ority in traditional warfighting domains, 
Cyberspace, and business mission areas, 
investments in core MCIENT components 
are crucial. Investments for the Marine 
Corps Enterprise Network (MCEN) and 
the Marine Corps Information Technol- 
ogy Environment (MCITE) will focus on 
ensuring their ability to more effectively 
deliver, display, and manage data, informa- 
tion, and knowledge across the enterprise. 

Furthermore, investments will em- 
phasize better ways for rapidly infusing 
emerging technologies that enhance Com- 
mand and Control (C2), extend the reach 
of forward- deployed forces, and improve 



I 



organizational and tactical agility. Invest- 
ments will be planned from the perspective 
of ensuring bandwidth limited Marines 
and mission partners have improved ac- 
cess to mission critical data, information, 
and knowledge, wherever and whenever 
needed, and in an understandable format. 
Enterprise investments will also focus on 
workforce education, training, and pro- 
fessionalization programs. Such initia- 
tives will be designed to ensure Marines, 
Civilian Marines, and support contrac- 
tors know how to use improved enterprise 
governance tools, policies, and technologi- 
cal capabilities to create advantage in a dy- 
namic strategic landscape. 

Finally, the Marine Corps Informa- 
tion Enterprise will embody an institu- 
tional sense and practice for leveraging, 
protecting, and defending data, informa- 
tion, and knowledge as decisive strategic 
assets. To this end, the Marine Corps will 
infuse within its Cyberspace capabilities an 
institutionalized Information Assurance 
(IA) practice for ensuring data, informa- 
tion, and knowledge yield decisive advan- 
tage to the Corps and the Nation, and not 
the enemy. 

CHARACTERISTICS 

Focused on Deployed Forces: The 

location of MAGTF or other USMC 
forward- deployed forces in the future 
will vary depending upon the operating 
context, mission, and the extent to which 
Marines interact with internal and exter- 
nal organizations and individual mission 
partners. In the future, the Marine Corps 
will leverage multi-capable MAGTFs 
with Marines who are trained to perform 
a multitude of tasks in varying opera- 
tional contexts and at differing levels of 
unit aggregation. MCIENT components 



will support these Marines by facilitating 
the development and fielding of mobile, 
seamless, and secure communications 
and IT services that provide robust col- 
laboration tools and instant or near real- 
time access to mission critical data, infor- 
mation, and knowledge. 

Attuned to the Strategic Environ- 
ment: The MCIENT is attuned to the 
strategic environment by facilitating the 
development and fielding of tools that 
help Marines, Civilian Marines, and con- 
tractors better assess, adapt to, and in- 
fluence changes in a dynamic strategic 
landscape. Attuning the enterprise to the 
strategic environment requires a special 
emphasis on leveraging intelligence, in- 
cluding cyber-intelligence, for proactive 
and reactive mitigation of cyber attacks 
and threats, and for successful execution 
across the full spectrum operations. 

Grounded in Effective Governance: 
Effective governance implies a mecha- 
nism for ensuring that Marine Corps In- 
formation Enterprise capabilities are de- 
veloped and fielded in support of Marine 
Corps goals and objectives. The MCIENT 
model provides a framework for integrat- 
ing common functional requirements, 
applicable to MCIENT components, 
into Information Enterprise objectives. 
The Marine Corps Information Enterprise 
Strategy is thus the mechanism for lever- 
aging the MCIENT model to influence 
enterprise Force Development priori- 
ties. The MCIENT strategy provides the 
Marine Corps' single, top level Informa- 
tion Enterprise objectives used to inform 
future capability decisions, supporting 
plans, concepts, and programming initia- 
tives. 

Secure and Seamless Marine Corps 
Information Environment: MCIENT 
core components enhance the ability for 

CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 83 



Marines and their mission partners to ac- 
cess the information they need in austere 
and distributed environments, whenever 
they need it. The Director C4 / DDCIO 
(MC) will coordinate with other orga- 
nizations to define the implementations 
required for ensuring information is vis- 
ible, accessible, discoverable, and under- 
standable in a way consistent with the 
effective use of constrained bandwidth. 
Additionally, through programs of record 
and Marine Corps IT regionalization 
practices, information will be distributed 
to deployed forces and staged as far for- 
ward as required to ensure availability in 
a bandwidth-constrained environment. 
Structured and unstructured data span- 
ning all functional areas will support the 
distribution, forward staging, and sharing 
among all command echelons. Finally, 
creating a secure and seamless Informa- 
tion Environment requires an Enterprise 
Architecture (EA) that integrates all Ma- 
rine Corps components who manage seg- 
ment architectures within the MCIENT 
(e.g., Battlespace Awareness and Force 
Application). 

Institutionalized Information As- 
surance: Institutionalizing Information 
Assurance across the Marine Corps means 
that Marines and systems embody a sense 
and capability for valuing information as 
a strategic asset. It requires a total force 
approach to ensure that IA skill sets and 
proficiencies are codified and ingrained 
through doctrine, policy, education, and 
training. IA ensures the confidentiality, 
integrity, availability, authenticity, and 
non-repudiation of enterprise informa- 
tion and the information system on which 
the information resides. By continuing 
to professionalize the IA workforce the 
Marine Corps can better leverage enter- 
prise information to help negotiate and 

84 1 USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



succeed in a dynamic security environ- 
ment. Additionally, the Marine Corps 
will continue to use existing development 
processes and continue to refine certifica- 
tion and accreditation processes to ensure 
IA requirements are identified and in- 
cluded early in a systems design project. 
Continual refinement and incorporation 
of emerging policies and guidance from 
the IA and acquisitions communities will 
better ensure IA controls are inherent to 
the system, thus providing superior and 
transparent threat protection across a 
wide range of missions. 

MCIENT CORE COMPONENTS 

Marine Corps Enterprise Network: 

At the foundation of the MCIENT model 
is the Marine Corps Enterprise Network. 
The MCEN is defined as the Marine 
Corps' network-of-networks and ap- 
proved interconnected network segments, 
which comprise people, processes, logical 
and physical infrastructure, architecture, 
topology, and Cyberspace Operations. 

The MCEN is characterized at a mini- 
mum to include: (1) Programs of Record 
(PORs) that provide network services to 
forward-deployed forces (e.g., DDSM, 
LMST, Phoenix, and SWAN) operating in 
the USMC.mil namespace and in USMC 
routable IP addresses; and (2) Operations 
and Maintenance (O&M) functions that 
provision data transportation, enterprise 
IT, network services, and boundary defense 
(e.g., MCEITS, NGEN, and SONIC). 

Additionally, the MCEN's physical 
infrastructure is analogous to the Defense 
Information System Network (DISN) 
and the Local Exchange Carrier (LEC), as 
it enables the Marine Corps Information 
Technology Environment and the flow of 
data, information, and knowledge across 
the Marine Corps Information Environ- 



I 



ment. The MCEN interfaces with exter- 
nal networks to provide information and 
resource sharing, as well as access to ex- 
ternal services. 

Finally, when end user devices, sen- 
sors, applications, and appliances are con- 
nected to the MCEN, they become part of 
the network through a relationship estab- 
lished at an interface point. Interfaces, as 
indicated by the circular arrows connect- 
ing the MCEN and MCITE in the figure, 
represent an important feature of the 
model that must be managed effectively 
to ensure component layer integration. 
Each MCIENT component layer contrib- 
utes to the next higher layer by providing 
services through an approved interface. 

Marine Corps Information Tech- 
nology Environment: Figure 3.1 depicts 
the MCEN and MCITE as inextricably 
linked, but distinguishes the MCITE layer 
as that which encompasses all Marine 
Corps-owned and -operated IT — in- 
cluding those technologies inherent and 
not inherent to the MCEN's core opera- 
tion. Information technologies directly 
associated with operating the MCEN's 
logical and physical infrastructure are al- 
ways considered an inherent part of the 
MCEN's core operation, and are always 
considered a permanent portion of the 
MCITE. 

However, Information technologies 
not associated with the MCEN's core op- 
eration (e.g., Smart Phones, DDS-M, GC- 
SS-MC, AFATDS, GCCS, IOSV3, IOW, 
JTCW, CAC2S, JBCP, and all end systems) 



are considered ancillary and are there- 
fore only considered a part of the MCEN 
when they are connected to it through an 
approved interface. Like inherent MCEN 
technologies, ancillary technologies are 
always considered a permanent portion 
of the MCITE. The circular arrows in Fig- 
ure 3.1 indicate the inextricable but often 
ephemeral link between the MCEN and 
the MCITE. This distinction and rela- 
tionship is important to note in order to 
highlight the intent of the MCITE layer 
as an encompassing construct around all 
Marine Corps IT, whether inherent to the 
MCEN or ancillary to it. This distinction 
is essential for policy matters and archi- 
tecture initiatives. 

Marine Corps Information Envi- 
ronment: The MCIE represents the broad 
domain for all forms of communication. 
It comprises Marine Corps data, infor- 
mation, knowledge, and the management 
processes for ensuring their effective 
distribution and use across the Marine 
Corps and with mission partners. The 
MCIE often leverages, but does not always 
depend upon technology and communi- 
cations systems to facilitate the flow of 
data, information, and knowledge across 
the enterprise. Therefore, the MCIE rep- 
resents a broad domain within which all 
communication takes place (e.g., explicit 
and implicit communications). Within 
the MCIE data, information, and knowl- 
edge is shared, situational understanding 
is achieved, and decisions are made. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 85 



I 



MARINE CORPS ENTERPRISE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 
SERVICES (MCEITS) 



DESCRIPTION 

MCEITS is an enterprise Informa- 
tion Technology capability that delivers 
value to Marine Corps decision makers, 
application owners, information manag- 
ers, and network users. MCEITS provides 
enterprise IT services contained within a 
world-class application and data hosting 
environment with supporting communi- 
cations, computing network, information 
assurance, and enterprise services infra- 
structure. 

The MCEITS service management 
design contains industry best practices 
and will utilize IT Infrastructure Library 
(ITIL) based principles and methods to 
provide capabilities to meet Operating 
Forces and Supporting Establishment 
requirements. These best practices will 
ensure that MCEITS provides the Ma- 
rine Corps a strategic net-centric capa- 
bility, and also ensures that MCEITS be- 
comes the core enabler of the computing 
and communications capabilities of the 
MAGTF C2 framework and of the Ma- 
rine Corps' C2 System of Systems (SoS). 
The MCEITS Software Integration Envi- 
ronment (SIE) will provide Marine Corps 
application owners and developers with a 
formal application development and ap- 
plication inclusion process. The SIE ap- 
plication inclusion process will provide 
documented, defined, repeatable pro- 
cesses that contain guidance for the suc- 
cessful management of the development, 
test, and integration of new and modified 
software services into the MCEITS Op- 
erations environment. 

The MCEITS Operations environ- 
ment will provide the common infra- 
structure necessary to allow the Marine 
Corps to achieve greater effectiveness 
and efficiency in the delivery and sup- 
port of its IT service operations relating 
to data management, application sup- 
port, and information sharing. MCEITS 
Operations will coordinate and carry out 
proactive and reactive key activities relat- 
ing to the support of all the data, appli- 



cations, and services in its environment 
including, utility computing, dedicated 
server provisioning, capacity utilization, 
operations scheduling, event and inci- 
dent monitoring and resolution, problem 
management, system backup and restora- 
tion, and continuity of operations plan- 
ning. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

MCEITS will enable access to Marine 
Corps enterprise data, information, ap- 
plications and services; it will also pro- 
vide a collaborative information-sharing 
environment across the business and 
warfighter domains. MCEITS will deliver 
an enterprise platform with a common 
hardware, software, and facilities infra- 
structure required to support managed 
hosting services, non-managed hosting 
services or provisioned hosting services 
for Marine Corps application owners. 
MCEITS will deliver and manage its host- 
ing services at agreed levels by providing 
Service Level Agreements (SLAs) to Ma- 
rine Corps application owners. It will 
provide Marine Corps users with access 
to the core enterprise services necessary 
to enable rapid collaboration, efficient 
discovery, and access to trusted data and 
information through an enterprise portal 
framework. It will provide users quick ac- 
cess to all hosted applications and core 
enterprise services by enabling single 
sign-on capabilities. MCEITS will deliver 
an agile IT infrastructure that can easily 
adapt to evolving Marine Corps software, 
hardware, data, services, and manage- 
ment requirements while providing an 
enterprise view into the IT environment 
that facilitates greater reuse of existing IT 
assets. 



PROGRAM STATUS 

Block I FOC is scheduled for FY13 
and Block II FOC for FY15. 



86 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



GLOBAL COMMAND AND CONTROL SYSTEM (GCCS) 



I 



DESCRIPTION 

The GCCS uses joint system-of-re- 
cord software to provide select Command 
and Control (C2) capabilities throughout 
the Marine Corps to plan, execute, and 
manage operations, including unit readi- 
ness reporting of personnel, equipment, 
and training. Planning, executing, and 
managing operations is done via the Joint 
Operations Planning and Execution Sys- 
tem (JOPES), and unit readiness report- 
ing is done via the Global Status of Re- 
sources and Training System (GSORTS). 
GCCS is fielded at the regiment level 
and above. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

GCCS is the joint C2 system that 
provides operational commanders with 
the information and capability to plan, 



execute, and manage operations as well as 
the capability to report unit readiness. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The Approved Acquisition Object 
of 194 servers and 320 clients has been 
achieved, and GCCS is in the sustainment 
phase of its acquisition life cycle, having 
reached Milestone C in 1997. GCCS will 
continue to sustain software upgrades 
across the Future Years Defense Plan as 
well as Marine Corps-wide hardware up- 
grades of GCCS servers and clients. GCCS 
executed a client refresh during FY2010. 

Procurement Profile: FY 201 1 FY 201 2 
Quantity: 1 94 

Developer/Manufacturer: 

Defense Information Systems Agency 

(DISA), Falls Church, VA 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 87 



I 




GLOBAL COMBAT SUPPORT SYSTEM - MARINE CORPS (GCSS-MC) 



ate GCSS-MC both in garrison and while 
deployed with logistics chain reach-back 
from the battlefield. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

Marines in combat required a rapid 
and flexible logistics capability responsive 
to the 21st century battlefield. GCSS-MC 
is the answer to this critical operation- 
al imperative. Providing a deployable, 
single point of entry for all logistics re- 
quirements, GCSS-MC introduces cut- 
ting edge enabling technology in support 
of logistics operations while facilitating 
the modernization of aged logistics pro- 
cesses and procedures. Key to sustaining 
deployed logistics operations is the GC- 
SS-MC ability to enhance asset visibil- 
ity and supplies accountability. Critical 
performance objectives include reduced 
logistics response and customer wait 
time while decreasing dependence on 
forward-positioned stocks. Command- 
ers will benefit from GCSS-MC due to in- 
creased Logistics Chain intelligence vital 
to effective command and control func- 
tions. Supply, Maintenance, and Distri- 
bution Marines will experience increased 
efficiency in planning, accountability and 
expedited delivery of supplies and equip- 
ment to supported units. 

GCSS-MC Block 1 contains two 
distinct releases and will ride on the ex- 
isting Marine Corps Tactical Data net- 
work. Release 1.1 provides for basic 
Supply, Maintenance, and Asset Track- 
ing functionalities, and Release 1.2 cen- 
ters on the system's ability to operate in 
an expeditionary logistics environment 



DESCRIPTION 

GCSS-MC is the Marine Corps' state 
of the art, web-enabled and deployable lo- 
gistics system that provides the backbone 
for all logistics information exchanges 
required to effectively request, distribute, 
and maintain critical battlefield equip- 
ments and supplies. The system is being 
fielded as an Acquisition Category ( ACAT 
IAM) program also known as a Major 
Automated Information Systems (MAIS). 
To achieve this level of designation, a 
program must exceed $365 million in re- 
search and development funding in pro- 
curement funding and be designated as 
"Special Interest" by Congress. GCSS-MC 
is designed to initially replace three legacy 
based systems; Marine Corps Integrated 
Maintenance Management (MIMMS, 
Asset Tracking for Logistics and Sup- 
ply (ATLASS) and Supported Activities 
Supply System (SASSY). As the primary 
technology enabler for the Marine Corps 
Logistics Modernization strategy, the core 
of GCSS-MC is a modern, commercial- 
off-the-shelf enterprise resource planning 
software package based on Oracle's 1 li e- 
Business Suite. With a sizable Business 
Process Reengineering effort GCSS-MC 
enables the warfighter to effectively oper- 

88 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



I 



in support of the MAGTF by providing 
a cross-domain solution (i.e., NIPR and 
SIPR exchange of information) and data 
synchronization (e.g., continued opera- 
tion in a disconnected environment) for 
deployed units. GCSS-MC is tied to GC- 
SS-J within the GCSS Family of Systems 
(FoS) to enable a DoD system of record 
enabling joint logistics command and 
control (C2). 

PROGRAM STATUS 

Block I / Increment I: Release 1.1 
successfully completed Field User Evalu- 
ation (FUE) and Initial Operational Test- 
ing and Evaluation in FY2010 and is being 
delivered in the III Marine Expeditionary 
Force Area of Operations which include 
Okinawa, Mainland Japan and Hawaii. 
The Release 1.1 Total Force Implemen- 
tation phase in the Continental United 
States delivers GCSS-MC to all remain- 
ing operational and supporting establish- 
ment organizations starting 3rd Quarter 
FY11 and runs through January, 2013. 
The deployable Release 1.2 capability is in 
Systems Integration, Development, Test- 
ing and Evaluation (SIDT&E II) at Camp 
Pendleton and San Diego, California, as 
well as Quantico, Virginia and plans ad- 
ditional Developmental Testing and Op- 
erational Testing (DT/OT) in April/May 
201 1. The program anticipates beginning 
to field Release 1.2 beginning in FY- 12. 
Metrics collection is a strong component 
of GCSS-MC. Initial operations in Oki- 
nawa indicate significant improvements 
in Order Ship Time (OST), Repair Cycle 
Time (RCT), and Time to First Status 



(TTFS). The full impact of these logistics 
enhancements will take time to assess and 
interpret although initial data indicate 
positives results. 

Block II / Increment II: Current pro- 
jections include an essential major Oracle 
COTS software upgrade to the e-business 
suite and key system enhancements for 
Asset Logistics Management that include 
enhanced wholesale functionality to 
include Warehouse Management solu- 
tions, Item Unique Identification (IUID), 
and other force multiplier capabilities 
to processes and reporting. Other im- 
provements may include In-Transit Vis- 
ibility and Standard Financial Informa- 
tion Structure (SFIS) accounting, along 
with continuous process improvements 
to Supply Chain Management and data 
warehousing capability. Estimates for 
Increment II are based upon continued 
coordination with the Warfighter and are 
planned to build on Block I capability. 

Post Deployment System Support 
Program (PDSS): PDSS supports GCSS- 
MC fielding by providing all necessary 
maintenance and sustainment activities 
for systems in production/sustainment 
and the remaining systems as they mi- 
grate from development into sustain- 
ment. These activities include support 
of the GCSS-MC PDSS Model which 
is based on implementing Information 
Technology Service Management (ITSM) 
within the Information Technology In- 
frastructure. 

Developer/Manufacturer: 

Oracle USA, Inc, Redwood Shores, CA 

CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 89 



I 



DEFENSE READINESS REPORTING SYSTEM - MARINE CORPS (DRRS-MC) 



DESCRIPTION 

The Defense Readiness Reporting 
System - Marine Corps (DRRS-MC) is 
the next generation of Marine Corps au- 
thoritative data systems for force readi- 
ness reporting. The Marine Corps began 
development of DRRS-MC in April 2009 
to function as part of the DRRS Enterprise 
(DRRS-E), a collection of approved hard- 
ware and software components culminat- 
ing in a web-based user interface. Similar 
to DRRS-Army (DRRS-A) and DRRS- 
Navy, DRRS-MC merges resource-based 
(personnel, equipment supply, equip- 
ment condition, training) and Mission 
Essential Task (MET) -based reporting to 
simplify the readiness reporting process. 
Since the U.S. Army and Marine Corps' 
organizational structure, data structure, 
and supporting business rules are most 
closely aligned of the Services, the Marine 
Corps leveraged the Army's investment in 
DRRS-A to develop DRRS-MC. DRRS- 
MC has been a relatively low cost, high 
dividend investment that has had a posi- 
tive impact on the ability of Marine com- 
manders to assess the operational readi- 
ness of their units. 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

DRRS-MC allows Marine command- 
ers to accurately and efficiently report the 
readiness of their units to HQMC The 
goal is to simplify and expedite the report- 
ing process by using streamlined informa- 
tion flow that begins and ends with an in- 
tuitive web -based interface. 

Commanders report readiness data 
via the NetUSR-MC (Unit Status Report- 
ing-Marine Corps) input tool, which en- 
ables their units to register and report 
readiness status to the DRRS-Enterprise. 
NetUSR allows commanders to report unit 
readiness in terms of: resources; ability to 

90 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 201 1 



conduct mission essential tasks (METs); 
and overall readiness to execute a unit's 
core (designed) mission as well as its as- 
signed mission. 

Working in conjunction with Ne- 
tUSR-MC will be the Marine Readiness 
Management Output Tool (MRMOT), 
which is in development in early 2011. 
The MRMOT output tool will allow us- 
ers to view current and historical readiness 
information using graphical user interface 
screens to efficiently display readiness in- 
formation. MRMOT is designed as an ex- 
ecutive information system that begins at 
a summary level and allows a "drill-down" 
view capability to access detailed readiness 
information. The MRMOT database will 
contain information that is extracted and 
formulated from the DRRS-MC database. 



PROGRAM STATUS 

The Marine Corps went live with 
NetUSR-MC on 30 April 2010. Marines 
at the battalion and squadron level now 
have a new, more user- friendly web-based 
input tool to complete required readiness 
reports. The MRMOT output tool was 
fielded at the end of FY2010 and enables 
MEFs, MARFORs, and HQMC to assess 
force readiness with greater clarity. 

The USMC will continue to transi- 
tion reporting units from GCCS Status 
of Operational Readiness and Training 
System (GSORTS) Readiness Assess- 
ment System-Input Tool (RAS-IT) to 
DRRS-MC (NetUSR-MC). DRSS-MC 
currently interfaces with GSORTS to pro- 
vide USMC readiness data via Uniform 
Services Message Text Format (USMTF) 
message to the Joint community. Even- 
tually, GSORTS will stand-down and 
DRRS-MC will serve as the single readi- 
ness reporting system within the DRRS-E 
for Marine units. 



COMMON AVIATION COMMAND AND CONTROL SYSTEM (CAC2S) 







DESCRIPTION 

CAC2S will provide a complete and 
coordinated modernization of Marine Air 
Command and Control System (MACCS) 
equipment. CAC2S will eliminate cur- 
rent dissimilar systems and provide the 
Marine Air Ground Task Force Aviation 
Combat Element (MAGTF ACE) with the 
necessary hardware, software, and facili- 
ties to effectively command, control, and 
coordinate air operations integrated with 
naval, joint, and/or combined command 
and control (C2) units. CAC2S will com- 
prise standardized modular and scalable 
tactical facilities, hardware, and software 
that will significantly increase battlefield 
mobility and reduce the physical size and 
logistical footprint of the MACCS. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

CAC2S is an Acquisition Category 
I AC, Major Information Automated Sys- 
tem program. It has been restructured 
with an approved revised acquisition 
strategy to ensure the CAC2S program 
fields ready and proven technologies at 
the earliest opportunity. To achieve this 
goal, Increment I requirements will be 
achieved in two phases. 

Phase 1 accommodates rapid fielding 
of operationally relevant capabilities to 
include mobility, situational awareness, 
tactical communications, information 
dissemination, and operational flexibility 
that will establish the baseline CAC2S ca- 
pabilities. This phase will upgrade fielded 



MACCS equipment with mature, ready 
technologies and will establish an initial 
product baseline Processing and Display 
Subsystem (PDS) and Communications 
Subsystem (CS). Naval Surface Warfare 
Center, Crane, IN, will oversee the inte- 
gration and upgrades of the previously 
developed and fielded systems (AN/TSQ- 
239 COC and AN/MRQ-12) into CAC2S 
PDS and CS. 

Phase 2 has been structured to ac- 
commodate the integration of technolo- 
gies necessary for the CAC2S Sensor Data 
Subsystem (SDS) to meet remaining ACE 
battle management and command and 
control requirements. This phase will 
build upon the capabilities of the Phase 
1 product baseline by integrating the SDS 
with the Phase 1 PDS and CS, thereby ful- 
ly meeting CAC2S Increment I require- 
ments. 



PROGRAM STATUS 

CAC2S requirements were originally 
documented in an Operational Require- 
ments Document in February 2003. The 
CAC2S requirements were further refined 
in a Capability Production Document and 
approved by the JROC in September 2007. 
CAC2S was designated an AC AT 1 AC pro- 
gram on 26 December 2007 by the Assis- 
tant Secretary of Defense. Milestone C was 
achieved November 2010 and Limited De- 
ployment Capability (LDC) is expected in 
4th Quarter FY1 1. The AAO for CAC2S is 
50 PDS, 39 SDS, and 75 CS subsystems. 

CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 91 



THEATER BATTLE MANAGEMENT CORE SYSTEMS (TBMCS) 



DESCRIPTION 

TBMCS is an air war-planning tool 
mandated by the Chairman, Joint Chiefs 
of Staff for the generation, dissemination, 
and execution of the Air Tasking Order/ 
Airspace Control Order (ATO/ACO). 
The host system resides with the Aviation 
Command Element in the Tactical Air 
Command Center (TACC,) with remote 
systems located throughout the Marine 
Air Ground Task Force to enable dynamic 
mission updates. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

TBMCS is the principal aviation 
command and control (C2) tool within 
Marine aviation C2 systems and the The- 
ater Air Ground System for the develop- 
ment and execution of the ATO. It is a key 



system that supports ATO planning and 
development and provides the automat- 
ed tools necessary to generate, dissemi- 
nate and execute the ATO/ACO in joint, 
coalition, and Marine Corps-only contin- 
gencies. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

TBMCS version 1.1.3 is now fielded 
throughout the operating forces and the 
joint community. Discussions between 
joint, Marine Corps, and other service 
representatives are developing a way 
ahead for sustainment of version 1.1.3 
and the eventual transition to a new 
system. 



92 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS "2011 



TACTICAL COMBAT OPERATIONS (TCO) SYSTEM 



I 




DESCRIPTION 

TCO is the principal tool within the 
Marine Corps Air Ground Task Force 
(MAGTF) for situational awareness 
through distribution of the Common 
Tactical Picture (CTP) and is the primary 
entry point for the Common Operational 
Picture (COP). TCO provides command- 
ers at all echelons with the ability to map 
and display friendly and enemy locations, 
as well as plan, develop, display, and trans- 
mit overlays of intended movement. TCO 
also provides commanders in both garri- 
son and tactical operations the ability to 
receive, fuse, store, develop, transmit, and 
display commanders' critical information 
requirements (CCIR). 



within the joint community. TCO is the 
tool for the Marine Corps CTP and entry 
point for the joint-level COP. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

TCO is in a sustainment phase of its 
acquisition life cycle, having received an 
Milestone Decision Authority (MDA) 
approved Milestone (MS) C in 1995 
and reached Initial Operational Capa- 
bility (IOC) in during the First Quarter 
FY 1995 and Full Operational Capability 
(FOC) during the Third Quarter FY1996. 
TCOs last Acquisition Decision Memo- 
randum (ADM) was for a version 4.1.1.1 
Fielding Decision. TCO will continue to 
sustain software upgrades across the Fu- 
ture Year Defense Plan (FDYP) as well as 
Marine Corps-wide hardware upgrade of 
both the Intelligence Operations Server 
version 1 (IOS(V)l) backend server and 
the Intelligence Operations Workstation 
version 1 (IOW(V)l) frontend client in 
FY2011. 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

Without TCO, the Marine Corps 
would not have the ability to participate 
in any form of situational awareness, 
either internal to the Marine Corps or 



Developer/Manufacturer: 

Defense Information Systems Agency 

(DISA), Falls Church, VA 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 93 



L 



I 



COMPOSITE TRACKING NETWORK (CTN) 



DESCRIPTION 

CTN is the adaptation of the U.S. 
Navy Cooperative Engagement Capabil- 
ity (CEC) to satisfy Marine Corps expedi- 
tionary maneuver warfare requirements. 
The network will provide Marine Corps 
aviation command and control (C2) 
agencies capability to distribute compos- 
ite tracking and fire control data to Marine 
Corps and Navy C2 and weapons systems. 
CTN is an essential element in the Marine 
Corps future Command, Control, Com- 
munications, Computers and Intelligence 
(C4I) architecture. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

CTN will provide the Marine Air 
Ground Task Force commander a sen- 
sor-netting solution that will help defend 
friendly forces from aircraft and cruise 
missiles. Near real-time correlation of lo- 
cal and remote sensor data, via the CEC/ 
CTN network, will provide the MAGTF 
commander precise and accurate target- 
quality track data and will improve situa- 
tional awareness and battlespace coverage. 



PROGRAM STATUS 

CTN has completed AN/TPS-59 
Long-Range Radar interface develop- 
ment. The software interface develop- 
ment for Aviation C2 and Ground/ Avia- 
tion Task Oriented Radar (G/ATOR) are 
underway. Milestone C was achieved in 
the first quarter FY2009, and the software 
began Low Rate Initial Production in ear- 
ly 2010. Initial Operational Capability is 
scheduled for the Third Quarter FY201 1. 
The Approved Acquisition Objective 
(AAO) is 27 systems: 10 initial procure- 
ment and 17 dependent upon funding 
and required manpower adjustments. 

Procurement Profile: FY 201 1 FY 201 2 
Quantity: 

Developer/Manufacturer: 
Naval Surface Warfare Center, 
Crane Division, Crane, IN 



94 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



COMBAT OPERATIONS CENTER (COC) 



I 




DESCRIPTION 

The COC is a deployable, self-con- 
tained, centralized facility that provides 
shared command and control / situation- 
al awareness (C2/SA) functionalities in a 
collaborative environment. The system 
is designed to enhance the tactical com- 
mon operational picture (COP) for all 
levels of the MAGTR It is a commercial- 
off-the- shelf, total turn-key, integrated 
hardware solution using unit-provided 
radios, legacy and re-hosted tactical data 
applications, and unit-available prime 
movers to provide mobility, modularity, 
and scalability for each assigned mission. 
In early 201 1 there were three production 
COC system variants — the (V)2, (V)3, 
and (V)4 — scaled to the major subor- 
dinate command; the regiment / group; 
and the battalion / squadron respectively. 
COC supports the MAGTF throughout 
the full range of military operations, in- 
cluding C2, intelligence, maneuver, fires, 
force protection, and logistics. 

The COC program office is upgrad- 
ing the existing COCs to introduce an 
enhanced, integrated software baseline 
supporting warfighter needs. The COC 
Model G will introduce a service-oriented 
infrastructure (SOI) and is the primary 



system responsible for providing a user 
interface common across all hosted Tacti- 
cal Data Systems (TDS). The COC pro- 
gram will field a major hardware refresh/ 
upgrade in FY- 11/12. This Hardware 
upgrade will be provided to support Vir- 
tualization of COC Software applications 
and the fielding of the Service Oriented 
Infrastructure in FY- 12. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

COCs have been deployed to Opera- 
tion Iraqi Freedom and Operation Endur- 
ing Freedom. They present, display, and 
communicate the commander's intent 
and required information in support of 
expeditionary maneuver warfare and all 
aspects of mid-intensity warfare. COCs 
state-of-the-art technology shortens the 
decision making cycle by providing in- 
telligence and information on friendly 
and enemy locations and activities in a 
consolidated, easily recognizable video 
display viewed simultaneously by all staff 
functions within the COC complex. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The AN/TSQ-239(V) F Model is in 
post-full rate production and is entering 
the operations and sustainment phase 
of its life cycle. Fully operations capable 
status was met in FY 10 and fielding is 
scheduled for completion during the 1st 
Quarter FY12. The COC program will 
continue to incorporate engineering 
changes and equipment technical refresh- 
es to address operational requirements for 
improved technical capabilities and new 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 95 



I 



system interface requirements. The COC 
(V)l, MEF level, is planned for fielding in 
FY12.The Approved Acquisition Objec- 
tive (AAO) for the COC is 301. 



Procurement 






Profile: 


FY 201 1 


FY 2012 


Quantity: 


32 (V) 2/3/4 


3(V)1 



Developer/Manufacturer: 

(V)2/3/4 - General Dynamics C4 Systems, 

Scottsdale, AZ 

(V)1 - TBD 



96 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



MOBILE MODULAR COMMAND AND CONTROL (M2C2) SYSTEM 



I 



DESCRIPTION 

M2C2 is a Mine Resistant Ambush 
Protected (MRAP I Cougar-based, on-the- 
move, beyond line-of-sight, command 
and control (C2) system. Using a wide- 
band Ku-band satellite communications 
link, M2C2 provides unlimited access to 
the global information grid and has a full 
suite of tactical software applications for 
robust digital C2 and situational aware- 
ness. M2C2 fulfills Combat Operations 
Center (COC) requirements for on-the- 
move C2 and tc jump COC" capabilities. 
Primarily designed for Marine infantry 
regiments, M2C2 keeps the commander 
and staff connected to all echelons of 
command during maneuver operations 
and while the COC displaces to new lo- 
cations. Staff kits of ruggedized laptops 
loaded with the full suite of COC software 
are connected via secure wireless local 
area network (LAX) to the M2C2 point 
of presence vehicle for wideband satellite 
communications (SATCOM) connectiv- 
ity to distant nodes. While on the move, 
the PRC-117G tactical radio and AXW2 
waveform are used for wireless local area 
network I LAX); while at the halt a Secure 
Network 1 1 LAX is used. Three tactical 
network enclaves — SIPRXet, XIPRXet 
and Mission Specific — can operate si- 
multaneously and can be configured to 
mission needs. 



full COC capability- for command and 
control, retrieval of data, situational aware- 
ness, and planning while on the move, at 
any distance and in any terrain. This allows 
commanders to dictate operational tempo 
and greatly reduce engagement cycle times 
across the entire battle space. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

M2C2 is an Urgent Universal Xeeds 

Statement project requested by the Special 
Purpose Marine Air Ground Task Force in 
Afghanistan, endorsed by Marine Forces 
Pacific and Marine Forces Central. The 
first M2C2 was fielded in .Afghanistan in 
Dec 2009 and declared mission capable 
in Jan 2010. Two more systems just com- 
pleted testing and were fielded in theater 
during Nov 2010. 

Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 201 2 
Quantity: 2 

Developer/Manufacturer: 
SATCOM and network design/production: 
SPAWAR Systems Center Pacific. 
Point Loma. CA 

Component physical integration into the 
MRAP Cougar: SPAWAR Systems Cen- 
ter Atlantic's MRAP Integration Facility. 
Charleston. SC 

Staff kit development/production: EFW, 
Inc. Fort Worth. TX 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

M2C2 provides Marine commanders 
and staffs with unprecedented connectiv- 
ity to Joint and intra-Marine Corps digital 
data. Marine Operating Forces will have 






I 97 



I 



JOINT BATTLE COMMAND PLATFORM (JBC-P) 



DESCRIPTION 

The Joint Battle Command Platform 
(JBC-P) will be the "Second Increment" to 
the existing Force XXI Battle Command 
Brigade & Below (FBCB2) system. Cur- 
rently, FBCB2 is a vehicle mounted system 
with significant latency, security and in- 
teroperability concerns for the joint envi- 
ronment. JBC-P intends to address these 
issues by providing an integrated network 
with increased bandwidth, a more "user- 
friendly" user interface, decreased latency, 
and increased security. In addition, the 
system will also incorporate a dismount- 
ed computing capability, in the form of 
a ruggedized, handheld device, as well as 
a beacon. This will allow warfighters the 
ability to send and receive tactical data, 
messages, and position location informa- 
tion without the requirement to be co- 
located with a tactical vehicle. 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

JBC-P will provide the Marine squad 
leader, platoon commander and company 
commander the ability to send and receive 
updated tactical information, changes to 
their respective operating environment, 
and minute-to-minute changes in location 
of friendly forces and other units within 
their immediate and extended battlespace. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

JBC-P is scheduled for Milestone C in 
late FY2012 or early FY2013 with fielding 
anticipated to begin in FY2013. 



Developer/Manufacturer: 
JBC-P is a government-led partnership 
of the U.S. Army, Marine Corps, and the 
Software Engineering Directorate in Hunts- 
ville, AL. There will be a variety of industry 
partners participating in the development 
and delivery of this capability. 



98 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 201 



JOINT TACTICAL COMMON OPERATIONAL PICTURE (COP) 
WORKSTATION (JTCW) 







DESCRIPTION 

The JTCW is a Windows® -based tac- 
tical COP workstation suite of applica- 
tions designed for battalion and above to 
facilitate military command and control 
(C2) functions by improving situational 
awareness and enhancing operational 
and tactical decision-making. The JTCW 
replaces the fielded Command and Con- 
trol Personal Computer (C2PC) software 
by combining C2PC with other applica- 
tions into a single software load to pro- 
vide greater capability for C2 planning 
and interoperability. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

JTCW provides the warfighter a 
framework for enhanced systems interop- 
erability and commonality between Ma- 
rine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) 
systems for Command, Control, Com- 
munications, Computers, and systems 
for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Recon- 
naissance (C4ISR). JTCW is the primary 
point of entry for the COP, enabling users 



to view map data, view and update track 
data, develop and distribute overlays, ex- 
change general message traffic, plan and 
distribute route information, and conduct 
general C2 planning. JTCW software will 
be loaded on the Intelligence Operations 
Workstation (IOW), and some of its soft- 
ware components will be integrated into 
future models of the MAGTF Combat 
Operations Centers (COC). JTCW can be 
operated in connected and disconnected 
operations. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

This Acquisition Category IV (T) 
program is using a single-step acquisition 
strategy with pre-planned life- cycle up- 
dates and maintenance. JTCW achieved 
Milestone C in the Third Quarter of 
FY2009. During the Fourth Quarter of 
FY2009, the JTCW and Tactical Combat 
Operations (TCO) program offices con- 
ducted fielding and training to achieve an 
initial fielding of JTCW 1.0 on the IOW 
JTCW reached Initial Operational Capa- 
bility in First Quarter FY2010. The Ap- 
proved Acquisition Objective (AAO) is 
910 systems for the TCO/IOW The AAO 
number of systems for the COC still has 
not been determined. 



Developer/Manufacturer: 

Multiple developers with government 

integration 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 99 



I 



BLUE FORCE TRACKER (BFT) FAMILY OF SYSTEMS (FOS) 




DESCRIPTION 

The BFT FoS is the Marine Corps 
portfolio of systems that provides tactical 
input/output battlefield digitized posi- 
tion location information and situational 
awareness at the company level and be- 
low. BFT FoS consists of the BFT, the 
Mounted Refresh Computer (MRC), and 
the Tactical Operations Center (TOC) 
Kit. The BFT is a two-way, satellite-based 
command and control (C2) system that 
allows users to send and receive locations 
of friendly forces and display these posi- 
tions on maps and overlays. The TOC Kit 
is a variant of the BFT that brings the BFT 
capability into operation centers and the 
MRC provides the same capability as the 
BFT, although it is terrestrial-based, rid- 
ing on an Enhanced Position Location 
Reporting System tactical radio network. 
Primary subcomponents of the BFT are 
the KGV-72, an in-line encryption device 
that will classify the celestial based BFT 
to Type I, and the BFT II, the next-gen- 



eration transceiver that will replace the 
legacy MT-201 1, increasing system band- 
width and reducing current latency. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The BFT FoS is a new suite of equip- 
ment that will provide the capability to ef- 
fectively increase C2 forces with providing 
friendly unit identification, location, in- 
tent, and status. This new suite is enhanced 
by its ability to both transmit and receive 
friendly force data on tactical, terrestrial 
radios, and celestial L-Band transceivers 
employing commercial satellite services. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The BFT is an Army-led Acquisition 
Category I, Component (C) program. 
The Marine Corps has operated under an 
Urgent Universal Needs Statement, which 
in 2011 is transitioning to a program of 
record. The BFT Program Office is pro- 
curing and delivering BFTs and TOC kits 
with legacy software to facilitate training. 
The BFT FoS new suite of equipment — 
Joint Capabilities Release (JCR) software, 
the MRC, and the KGV-72 — is undergo- 
ing Field and Operational Testing. A com- 
bined fielding is expected in First Quarter 
FY2012. 

Procurement Profile: FY 201 1 FY 201 2 
Quantity: 3,480 

Developer/Manufacturer: 

DRS Tactical Systems, Inc, Melbourne, FL 



1 00 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 201 1 



WARFIGHTER NETWORK SERVICES-TACTICAL (WFNS-T) 



I 



Warfighter Network Services-Tactical 
(WFNS-T) is a portfolio of core baseband 
networking hardware and software con- 
figured as a family of services (FoS) that 
facilitates end-user services requirements 
of multiple security enclaves for Marine 
Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) tacti- 
cal communications networks. The Tac- 
tical Data Network (TDN) FoS includes 
the TDN Gateway, Data Distribution 
System-Modular (DDS-M) Core, DDSM 
expansion modules, Information Assur- 
ance (IA) modules, and the Deployed IA 
Tool Suite. 

TDN Gateway (vehicular) augments 
existing MAGTF communications in- 
frastructure by forming a robust digital 
communications backbone for MAGTF 
tactical data systems. The system consists 
of TDN Gateways and TDN DDS inter- 
connected with one another and their 
subscribers via a combination of com- 
mon user, terrestrial, and celestial long- 
haul transmission systems, in conjunction 
with local, metropolitan and wide-area 
networks. TDN-Gateway System phase 
out and capabilities realignment letter, 
dated 28 September 2010, was signed and 
submitted to MARCORSYSCOM for dis- 
establishment of the program. 

TDN DDS-M provides the capability 
to create email, share files, transfer data, 
handle electronic messages and direc- 



tory services, conduct transparent rout- 
ing and switching of digital messages be- 
tween local area networks, and perform 
circuit switching, network management, 
terminal emulation, and connectivity to 
Enhanced Position Location Reporting 
System (EPLRS) sub-networks. It enables 
access to strategic, supporting establish- 
ment, joint, and other-Service tactical 
data networks. DDS-M increases flex- 
ibility, survivability, and scalability via its 
modular design. It is designed to allow 
units to implement the system accord- 
ing to mission and operational require- 
ments. 

The Joint Enhanced Core Commu- 
nications System (JECCS) multiplexes 
Marine Corps Tri-Band satellite systems, 
Tropospheric Scatter Microwave Radio 
Terminal (AN/TRC-170), and Digital 
Wideband Transmission System (AN/ 
MRC-142) into an integrated network. 
This integration enables access to Defense 
Information Services Network (DISN) 
telecommunication services, wide and 
local area networks (SIPR and NIPR 
networks) and physical network man- 
agement services, messaging services, 
International Maritime Satellite, Global 
Broadcast System (GBS), and Ultra High 
Frequency- Tactical Satellite (UHF-TAC- 
SAT) capabilities. 



CHAPTER 3: PR0GR- I 101 



I 



THE ASSAULT AMPHIBIOUS VEHICLE-COMMAND; 
C2 UPGRADE PROGRAM (AAVC7 C2 UPGRADE) 




DESCRIPTION 

The AAVC7 C2 Upgrade is focused 
on providing an improved command and 
control (C2) capability to the operating 
forces until the new amphibious combat 
vehicle reaches full operational capabil- 
ity. The AAVC7 C2 Upgrade Program will 
include replacement of antiquated tacti- 
cal radios with current fielded radio sys- 
tems, integration of a UHF Line Of Sight 
(LOS) and UHF Satellite Communica- 
tions (SATCOM) capability, replacement 
of the obsolete vehicle intercommunica- 
tions system, integration of a Blue Force 
Situational Awareness (BFSA) capability, 
redesign of the staff workstations, and 
integration of a tactical data network ca- 
pable of hosting applicable Marine Air 
Ground Task Force C2 applications — 
Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data 
System (AFATDS) and the C2 Personal 
Computer (C2PC). Additionally, the C2 
upgrade includes the installation of an 
auxiliary power unit that provides power 



to the C2 suite for extended periods with- 
out the need to idle the AAVC7 engine, in 
support of silent-watch operations. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The last C2 improvements to the 
AAVC7 were fielded in 1994. The AAVC7 
C2 upgrade program will provide the sup- 
ported infantry battalion/regimental staffs 
with an improved C2 capability to address 
the gap that exists during amphibious op- 
erations and extended operations ashore. 
These capabilities will align the AAVC7 
with the common network architecture 
used by today's ground forces at the bat- 
talion and regiment levels. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The AAVC7 C2 Upgrade Program 
was designated an Acquisition Category 
IV (T) program during the Fourth Quar- 
ter FY2007. Preliminary Design Review 
was conducted during the Fourth Quarter 
FY2008 and Critical Design Review dur- 
ing the Second Quarter FY2009; Milestone 
C received during the Second Quarter 
FY2010. Initial Operational Capability is 
planned for FY2011 and FOC is planned 
forFY2013. 

Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 2012 
Quantity: 58 1 

Developer/Manufacturer: 

SPAWAR Systems Center Charleston, SC 



1 02 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 201 1 



MULTI-BAND RADIO (MBR) 







DESCRIPTION 

The AN/PRC-117F MBR is a man- 
pack tactical radio that covers the entire 
30 to 512 MHz frequency range and pro- 
vides embedded communications securi- 
ty, satellite communications (SATCOM), 
and electronic counter- countermeasures 
(ECM) capabilities. The AN/PRC-117F 
provides secure interoperability with Sin- 
gle Channel Ground and Airborne Radio 
System and a host of other tactical radios. 
The AN/PRC-117F can be configured 
for vehicular platforms using the AN/ 
VRC-103(V)2 installation kit. The hard- 
ware can be reconfigured and software 
reprogrammed to optimize performance 
and add capabilities without opening the 
radio. The AN/PRC-117F and AN/VRC- 
103(V)2 are used for data/voice transfer 
to pass critical tactical as well as routine 
administrative and logistics information 
in both the data and voice modes using 
Line of Sight (LOS), Very High Frequency, 
and Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) spec- 
trums and Beyond LOS using UHF satel- 
lite communications. Additionally, these 
radios will provide the Marine Air Ground 
Task Force (MAGTF) reliable long-haul 
reconnaissance and tactical air request 
communications. The manpack radio 
and its vehicular mount are employed in 
at the division, regiment, and battalion as 
well as other elements of the MAGTF. The 
AN/PRC-117F is the replacement radio 
for the AN/ PSC-5 and the AN/PRC-113 
radios. It also replaces some of the AN/ 
PRC-119 SINCGARS radios. 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The AN/PRC- 1 1 7F and the AN/ VRC- 
103(V)2 provide the Marine with signifi- 
cantly reduced communications footprint 
that effectively covers the previous com- 
munications spectrum with a single sys- 
tem, compared to the legacy capability 
that required at least two distinct radios. 
Additionally, the AN/PRC- 117F and AN/ 
VRC-103(V)2 add significant data capa- 
bilities within those spectrums where in 
some cases they did not previously exist. 
This increased capability better facilitates 
the distribution of command and control 
across the battlefield, in general, and at 
lower echelon, in particular. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The AN/PRC- 1 1 7F is 85 percent field- 
ed throughout the Marine Corps and is 
predominately in a sustainment mode. The 
Approved Acquisition Objective (AAO) is 
9,208 units. Software upgrades and engi- 
neering change proposals are planned for 
future technological insertions. 

The VRC-103(V)2 is 55 percent field- 
ed throughout the Marine Corps as of ear- 
ly 2011. Installation kits to replace those 
diverted for use within Mine Resistant 
Ambush Protected vehicles are being ac- 
quired. The AAO is 3,067 units. The VRC- 
103(V)2 is the replacement platform for 
vehicular mounted AN/VRC-83 and AN/ 
PSC-5 radios. It also replaces some of the 
AN/PRC- 1 19 SINCGARS radios. Software 
upgrades and ECP are planned for future 
technological insertions. 

Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 2012 
Quantity: 

Developer/Manufacturer: 

Harris Corporation, Rochester, NY 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 103 



HIGH FREQUENCY RADIO (HFR) 




<k § & 6 & 

ilifii 




DESCRIPTION 

The AN/PRC-150(C) manpack High 
Frequency (HF) radio provides half-du- 
plex HF and Very High Frequency (VHF) 
tactical radio communications and is the 
replacement for the N/PRC-104 radio. It 
provides voice or data (using a modem) 
through single sideband modulation. The 
AN/PRC-150(C)'s 20-watt power output 
is provided by either the standard fam- 
ily of rechargeable or non-rechargeable 
military batteries or by external electrical 
power. Transmission security is provided 
through the AN/PRC-150(C)'s embed- 
ded Type 1 encryption. It can be used for 
either data/voice transfer to pass critical 
tactical as well as routine administrative 
and logistics information using the full 
HF spectrum or limited portions of the 
VHF spectrum. The AN/MRC-148 is the 
replacement radio for the AN/MRC-138 
radio, and the AN/VRC-104(V)5 is the 
replacement radio for the AN/PRC-104s 
systems. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The AN/PRC- 150(C) provides the 
Marine with the ability to significantly 
reduce the communications footprint by 
providing the ability to effectively cover the 
previous communications spectrum with 
a single system, compared to the legacy ca- 
pability that required at least two distinct 



radios. Additionally, the AN/ PRC- 150(C) 
adds significant increased data capabilities 
within those spectrums. This increased ca- 
pability better facilitates long-haul distri- 
bution of Command and Control across 
the battlefield. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

In early 2011, the AN/PRC-150(C) is 
87 percent fielded throughout the Marine 
Corps and is in predominately a sustain- 
ment mode. The Approved Acquisition 
Objective (AAO) is 5,724 units. 

The AN/TRC-209 is 60 percent fielded 
throughout the Marine Corps. All assets 
have been purchased for the active forces, 
and the remaining units to be fielded are in 
the Reserves. However, the AN/TRC-209 is 
considered to be in a predominately sus- 
tainment mode. The AAO is 801 units. 

The AN/MRC- 1 48 is 87 percent fielded 
throughout the Marine Corps and is pre- 
dominately in a sustainment mode. Field- 
ing of any remaining quantities might be 
delayed until assets diverted to the MRAP 
are replaced. The AAO is 1,365 units. 

The AN/VRC-104(V)5 is only mar- 
ginally fielded to date due to a lack of iden- 
tification of intend target platforms. All 
assets have been acquired, but await target 
identification. The AAO is 767 units. Soft- 
ware upgrades and engineering change 
proposals are planned for future techno- 
logical insertions for all systems. 

Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 2012 
Quantity: 

Developer/Manufacturer: 

Harris Corporation, Rochester, NY 



1 04 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 201 1 



I 



CHAPTER 3: PROGR- - I 105 




PART 3: INTELLIGENCE, 
SURVEILLANCE, AND 
RECONNAISSANCE 



/ 




1^*, 




^~~ 



MARINE CORPS INTELLIGENCE, SURVEILLANCE, 
AND RECONNAISSANCE ENTERPRISE (MCISR-E) 






"Accurate, timely, and relevant in- 
telligence is critical to the planning and 
conduct of successful operations. Effective 
intelligence uncovers enemy weaknesses 
that can be exploited to provide a decisive 
advantage. Shortfalls in intelligence can 
lead to confusion, indecision, unnecessary 
loss of life, mission failure, or even defeat." 
(MCDP 2, Intelligence, page 28.) 

For Marine Corps Intelligence to re- 
main effective, it must evolve and adapt to 
both the changing demands of the modern 
battlefield and the capabilities provided by 
advances in technology. However, change 
must not be haphazard or driven by crisis 
of the moment. Rather, it must be logical 
and anchored to our core competencies. 



The production of Marine Corps In- 
telligence is evolving from an assortment 
of partially connected units and intelli- 
gence systems to an "enterprise" solution 
in which all Intelligence, Surveillance, and 
Reconnaissance (ISR) functions and tra- 
ditional and non-traditional ISR sources 
are leveraged. Thus, the Marine Corps 
Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnais- 
sance Enterprise (MCISR-E) expands the 
inherent ISR capacity of units at all ech- 
elons across the force by providing better 
integration of intelligence information to 
address complex collection environments 
through a flexible organizational con- 
struct. Meanwhile, leaders and units will 
contribute to a culture of institutional data 



MCISR-E 
Supporting S3 
Establishment °°™ LPF 




Figure 3.2. MCISR-E High-Level Operational Concept 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 1 07 



and information collaboration and shar- 
ing while embracing operational flexibility 
through adaptive responses in operating 
concepts, doctrine, training, and material 
solutions. When fully implemented, the 
MCISR-E will provide each component el- 
ement with access to the shared knowledge, 
data, resources, and expertise from the en- 
tire enterprise. Enterprise standards will 
also be compatible and consistent with the 
Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) 
Command and Control (C2) framework, 
facilitating the use of operational report- 
ing and non-traditional ISR data by ele- 
ments of the MCISR-E and providing 
for timely dissemination and sharing of 
relevant intelligence with Marine leaders 
at every echelon. Through our enterprise 
capabilities, Marine Corps ISR also lever- 
ages national, joint, and combat-support 
agency capabilities to address MAGTF re- 
quirements, while serving as a contribut- 
ing partner to those agencies. 

MCISR-E includes all Marine Corps 
ISR assets and functions covering the en- 
tire range of people, doctrine, policy, orga- 
nizations, training, education, equipment, 
and facilities. The equipment acquisition 
strategy initially focuses on the intelligence 
processing, exploitation, analysis, and pro- 
duction systems within the Distributed 
Common Ground System-Marine Corps 
(DCGS-MC). Other functions of the 
MCISR-E include persistent ISR and intel- 
ligence dissemination and utilization. Per- 
sistent ISR provides the means for tasking, 
direction, and collection, while intelligence 
dissemination and utilization address the 
systems associated with dissemination, 

108 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



use, and feedback of intelligence. Through 
persistent ISR, the Marine Corps will seek 
to build a holistic collection strategy that 
includes joint and national ISR assets as 
well as a variety of organic battlefield sen- 
sors capable of providing non-traditional 
ISR support. Marine Corps also seeks to 
enhance tactical units ability to collect, 
report, receive, and use intelligence and 
combat information in addition to a core 
of Counterintelligence/Human Intelli- 
gence (CI/HUMINT) tactical questioners 
and tactical de-briefers. 

The Enterprise includes company- 
level intelligence cells focused on gather- 
ing tactical information, providing an ini- 
tial assessment for the company-specific 
operational area, and feeding data into the 
Enterprise for more comprehensive analy- 
sis. The MCISR-E provides an adaptive, 
flexible ISR framework supporting the in- 
telligence requirements of a MAGTF as it 
executes expeditionary operations against 
hybrid threats in a complex environment. 
Each element will have extensive access to 
the broad capabilities of the Enterprise, the 
means to contribute its data and analysis 
to the Enterprise, and the ability to collab- 
orate across the Enterprise. By providing 
common access to situational awareness, 
understanding and predictive analysis of 
the threat and relevant aspects of the op- 
erating environment, the Enterprise en- 
hances decision-making at all echelons. 
MCISR-E will be organized into three 
distinct nodes: 
• Fixed: The MCISR-E Fixed Site is man- 
aged by the Marine Corps Intelligence 
Activity. It serves as the Marine Corps' 



I 



principal connection to national agencies 
and is the exposure point for all USMC 
ISR data to the Intelligence Community 
(IC). The fixed site is the primary Enter- 
prise data storage site. 

• Garrison: IGarrison Sites conduct intel- 
ligence planning, analysis, and produc- 
tion in collaboration with expeditionary 
forces. These reach-back sites are located 
at each of the Marine Expeditionary 
Forces and will be capable of supporting 
forward operations from garrison or de- 
ploying to augment tactical, expedition- 
ary nodes. 

• Expeditionary: Expeditionary nodes 
are deployed with the MAGTF. They 



are scalable, aligned to the mission, and 
provide intelligence planning, direction, 
collection, production, and dissemina- 
tion of intelligence products and combat 
information to the MAGTF and joint 
forces. 

EQUIPMENT 
TRANSITION PLAN 

The equipment transition plan must 
establish new business processes for com- 
bat development and acquisitions for 
MCISR-E, to include: standardization of 
the MCISR-E architecture, development 
of a Common Computing Environment 
(CCE) between elements and streamline 















POR 


FY2809 


FY2010 | fy:oii 


FY2012 


FY2813 


FY2814 ] FY2815 | FY2616 | FY2B17 j FY2018 j FY2019 | FY2820 j FY2821 


FV2822 




trss 












Terrestrial Collections 






bats/ mm e 












GBOSS 










WFVPS 


"Pe 


rsistent ISR" 


Aerial Collections 




DAS 




I 




MSIDS 






HUMINT Collections 




CfflEP 






TSCM 








TPCS 














MEWSS 






Tactical SIGINT/ EW/CNO 




RREP 








CESAS 












DCGS-MC 




^"DCGS-MC" 

Incrl 


Information Processors 
Incr2 


Incr3 




TEG 




: 


TPC 




IAS 












GCCS-B 












JSTARS 












TCAC 
















I 




RADBN MODS 


USA MIP; MP Intel execution 










i I I 




DBS 


1 1 






• 








Trojan Spirit 




Intelligence Dissemination and Utilization" 


^> 


ICN(JWICS) 






Communications Systems 


Tactical Co nuns 


Future Program to incorporate comms to the squad level 




IER 




Technology Insertion/ Enterprise Integration 




TENCAP 




TENCAP __^^ 


■I 






+ Signed CDD provides requirement T*r Successive CPDs 







Figure 3.3. Objective Migration of Intelligence Material Capability Sets 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 109 



requirements for document production. 
This plan must be balanced by sound ac- 
quisition management and a need to re- 
main adaptable and ahead of the critical 
technology curve. An Enterprise Require- 
ment Plan (ERP) will employ a docu- 
mentation strategy to reduce costs, speed 
fielding, enhance capabilities, and ensure 
the integration of funding lines and pro- 
grams of record (POR). See Figure 3.3. 

INTELLIGENCE RESOURCES 

Intelligence resources are the critical 
enabler of the manpower and materiel nec- 
essary to build and sustain the Enterprise 
effort. In FY201 1, the Enterprise resources 
total nearly $1 billion, including contribu- 
tory funding and manpower. More than 
70 percent of this funding sustains more 
than 1 1,000 Marines and Marine Civilians. 
The Enterprise has benefitted greatly from 
the ongoing "Grow-the-Force" (GTF) ini- 
tiative. The Military Intelligence Program 
(MIP), as part of the Service total obliga- 
tion authority, comprises 92 percent of 
the Enterprise. The National Intelligence 
Program (NIP) comprises eight percent, 
of which the majority is contributory 
funding. MCIA uses NIP and MIP fund- 
ing for its activities. The MIP funding also 
supports all ISR activities, including pro- 
curement of UASs, and more than a dozen 
acquisition programs of record support- 



ing SIGINT, GEOINT, CI/HUMINT, and 
all-source analysis. 

The Secretary of Defense has empha- 
sized that the Nation cannot eliminate na- 
tional security risks through higher defense 
budgets, and has renewed an emphasis in 
prioritization and tradeoffs. Hard choices 
will be inevitable, and tough decisions will 
be made. Programming decisions will be 
made based on a greater scrutiny in proper 
execution of funds. The Enterprise must 
become more efficient in its use of re- 
sources, while fully supporting the Marine 
Corps Vision and Strategy 2025 priorities. 
This effort includes continuing innova- 
tion (e.g., Small Tactical UAS (STUAS). 
acquisition replacement for the contracted 
Scan Eagle services), and sustaining cur- 
rent capabilities (that include the growth 
of equipment and materiel from GTF). 
Effective management of projects and 
programs includes not only delivering re- 
quired capabilities but also eliminating re- 
dundancies and waste. This will be an im- 
perative in the coming years. Cost-effective 
ISR requires substantial, long-term invest- 
ments to remain viable; those investments 
will require close and continuous planning 
to be effective. Priorities will always reflect 
primary support for the operating forces. 
The following pages highlight key ISR 
programs. 



110 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 




DISTRIBUTED COMMON GROUND SYSTEM-MARINE CORPS (DCGS-MC) 



Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, 
and Special Operations Command. The 
Office of the Under Secretary of Defense 
(Intelligence) oversees the various DCGS 
program offices. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

DCGS-MC will migrate selected 
legacy ISR processing exploitation, analy- 
sis and production capabilities, resulting 
in increased unit-level and enterprise- 
level capacity for ingesting sensor data, 
streamlined production of intelligence 
information, and enhanced management 
of finished intelligence products. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The DCGS-MC program is projected 
to achieve Milestone B during the Second 
Quarter FY2011. The program entered 
the technology development phase in 
November 2007 and will fully leverage 
the developmental efforts of other ser- 
vices' DCGS programs, as their develop- 
mental efforts are fully underway. The 
program acquisition strategy is based on 
an incremental development path opti- 
mized to rapidly introduce government 
and commercial technologies, enterprise 
standards, and modular hardware com- 
ponents in order to minimize costs and 
program risk. The program subsumed the 
Tactical Exploitation Group and Topo- 
graphic Production Capability programs 
during FY2010 as part of the Increment 
I development. DCGS-MC Increment II 
will add Tier I Intelligence Analysis Sys- 
tem functionality. 

Developer/Manufacturer: 
Program Manager, Intelligence Data Fusion 
and Dissemination, Marine Corps Systems 
Command, Quantico, VA 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS 1111 






DESCRIPTION 

DCGS-MC, in compliance with the 
Department of Defense (DoD) DCGS 
Family of Systems (FoS) concept, is a 
service-level effort to migrate select Ma- 
rine Corps Intelligence, Surveillance, and 
Reconnaissance (ISR) capability into a 
single, integrated, net-centric baseline. 
As the processing, exploitation, analysis, 
and production component of the Ma- 
rine Corps ISR Enterprise, DCGS-MC 
will comprise functional capability sets 
that support Marine intelligence analysts 
across the Marine Air Ground Task Force 
(MAGTF) by making organic and exter- 
nal all-source ISR data more visible, ac- 
cessible, and understandable. 

The DCGS-MC concept originated 
with the DCGS Mission Area Initial Ca- 
pabilities Document Joint Requirements 
Oversight Council (JROC) Memoran- 
dum 001-03, dated 6 January 2003, which 
established the overarching requirements 
for a collection of net-centric capable sys- 
tems that would contribute to joint and 
combined warfighter needs for ISR sup- 
port. The JROC directed each service to 
pursue a coordinated developmental path 
based on the implementation of common 
enterprise standards and services consis- 
tent with the DoD's net-centric vision. 
The DCGS Integration Backbone (DIB) 
is the basic building block for interoper- 
ability among the Services' DCGS pro- 
grams. The DIB is currently managed by 
a separately chartered DIB Management 
Office that directs day-to-day develop- 
mental efforts in coordination with the 



COMMUNICATION EMITTER SENSING AND ATTACKING SYSTEM (CESAS) 




DESCRIPTION 

The CESAS consists of a variety of 
commercial off the shelf equipment ca- 
pable of conducting advanced electronic 
attack against existing communications 
technologies. The CESAS is capable of 
conducting electromagnetic sensing and 
attacking while stationary or mobile from 
ground vehicles and in a stand-alone 
configuration. The current version of 
CESAS, AN/ULQ-30, is an advanced digi- 
tal Electronic Attack (EA) system that is 
mounted in the Mine Resistant Ambush 
Protected (MRAP) vehicle. The CESAS 
provides the MAGTF commander with 
the capability to detect, deny, disrupt, 



and degrade threat communication as 
outlined in the Information Operations/ 
Electronic Warfare Plan. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The CESAS provides the MAGTF 
with its only organic ground capability to 
detect, disrupt, and deny enemy commu- 
nications during expeditionary maneu- 
ver warfare and subsequent operations 
ashore. The CESAS can be mounted in a 
variety of existing mobile platforms and 
uses current manning levels established 
for the Radio Battalions. It is designed to 
operate in the High Frequency, Very High 
Frequency, and Ultra High Frequency 



PROGRAM STATUS 

Fielding is complete. The MRAP- 
variant Engineering Trade Study identi- 
fied existing COTS prototypes that could 
provide full system solutions for next- 
generation Marine Corps Ground EA. 



112 1 USMC IS 2011 



JOINT SURVEILLANCE TARGET ATTACK RADAR SYSTEM (JSTARS) 
COMMON GROUND STATION (CGS) 






DESCRIPTION 

JSTARS is a long-range, air-to- 
ground surveillance system consisting of 
an airborne element and a ground ele- 
ment. The airborne element — the E-8C 
aircraft — is fitted with a large phased 
array radar mounted on the fuselage and 
multiple operator terminals. Other air- 
borne platforms that provide a similar 
capability to the E-8C include the P-3 
and the United Kingdom's ASTOR. Ra- 
dar data are distributed via an encrypted, 
jam-resistant Surveillance and Control 
Data Link (SCDL) for transmission to 
one of two JSTARS ground systems: the 
Common Ground Station (CGS) or Joint 
Services Workstation (JSWS). The sensor 
suite provides detection and tracking data 
on targets through the use of the Moving 
Target Indicator (MTI), Fixed Target Indi- 
cator (FTI), and Synthetic Aperture Radar 
(SAR). FTI and MTI data are used to de- 
tect, locate, and identify the movement of 
enemy targets, while SAR identifies criti- 
cal fixed targets such as bridges, harbors, 
airports, buildings, or stationary vehicles. 
The CGS is a ground-based receiving and 
processing display system that receives 
JSTARS data directly from the E-8C 
JSTARS aircraft through the SCDL to the 

| Ground Data Terminal. Once JSTARS 
data are collected at the ground receiver 

j site, MTI/FTI/SAR data are sent across 

: the Marine Air Ground Task Force Com- 
mand and Control network. The CGS is 

1 also capable of receiving and fusing im- 
agery data from unmanned aerial systems 
directly with JSTARS data, providing an 
enhanced processing exploitation, analy- 
sis, and production capability. The JSWS 



is a functionally equivalent, transit-cased 
subset of the CGS. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The CGS and JSWS support a wide 
range of global missions, including war- 
time battlefield management, peacekeep- 
ing operations, counter narcotics, and 
other contingency operations. The CGS 
and JSWS are capable of operating in di- 
verse geographic and weather conditions 
and provide an increased level of cer- 
tainty to commanders. As organic Marine 
Corps intelligence assets, the CGS and 
JSWS have played a crucial role in current 
operations, resulting in JSTARS assum- 
ing an additional mission of Improvised 
Explosive Device (IED) prevention and 
detection. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

JSTARS is post-Milestone C in the 
Operations and Support phase. The Ma- 
rine Corps has fielded three JSTARS CGSs 
and seven JSWSs. Each Marine Expedi- 
tionary Force has a CGS. The program 
is conducting two levels of effort: (1) 
maintenance and upgrade of the current 
JSTARS ground systems; and (2) research 
and development of future MTI collection 
capabilities in a net-centric environment 
as part of the DCGS-MC Enterprise. 

Developer/Manufacturer: 

Prime Hardware Integrator: General 

Dynamics C4, Scottsdale, AZ 

Software Integrator: Harris Corporation, 
Melbourne, FL 

Surveillance Control Data Link (SCDL) 
Developer: Cubic Defense Systems, 
San Diego, CA 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 113 



I 




COUNTERINTELLIGENCE (CI) AND HUMAN INTELLIGENCE (HUMINT) 
EQUIPMENT PROGRAM (CIHEP) 



and intelligence officers. The suite also 
includes equipment to provide limited 
organic technical support to CI and HU- 
MINT operations. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

CIHEP Initial Operational Capabil- 
ity was achieved in September 2001, with 
fielding of completed modules to the Ma- 
rine Expeditionary Forces, Reserves, and 
the Navy and Marine Corps Intelligence 
Training Center. Full Operational Capa- 
bility was reached in September 2002. 
The program was restructured in 2006, 
creating ten modules vice a single sys- 
tem. This streamlined program manage- 
ment by grouping equipment capabilities 
and enhanced logistics management and 
equipment task organization by unit mis- 
sion. In 2008, two additional modules 
(media exploitation capabilities) were 
added, bringing the total to 12 modules. 
In 2011, CIHEP is in a maintenance and 
refresh cycle, during which selected com- 
ponents of modules are refreshed. CIHEP 
continues to procure and field equipment 
to meet the demands of the total force 
structure increase, the Grow-the-Force 
initiative, and the addition of the Marine 
Special Operations Command. Of the 12 
modules in CIHEP, ten are fielded exclu- 
sively to CI/HUMINT organizations at 
various levels of command. 

The Media Exploitation-Light and 
Media Exploitation-Heavy module will 
be fielded to both CI/HUMINT Compa- 
ny and Radio Battalion (RadBn). 

Developer/Manufacturer: 
Automated Business Power, Gaithersburg, MD 
Energy Technologies, Inc., Mansfield, OH 
Harris Communications Corp, Rochester, NY 
Klas Telecom, Inc., Washington, D.C. 
Thales Communications, Rockville, MD 



DESCRIPTION 

CIHEP supports the full spectrum 
of CI/HUMINT operations. The system 
includes imagery, commercial satellite 
communications: Very High Frequency, 
Ultra-High Frequency (UHF), and UHF 
tactical satellite communications; auxilia- 
ry power, automated data processing, and 
sensitive technical support equipment. 
All equipment is stored and transported 
in lightweight, modular, and deployable 
cases to facilitate task organization of 
equipment for assigned missions. The 
CIHEP Software Baseline is standard- 
ized among the computer assets in the 
suite and provides reporting, low-level 
analysis, communications, mapping, still 
and video image processing, and Com- 
mon Operational Picture applications. 
It also integrates with the Intelligence 
Analysis System Family of Systems via the 
MarineLink application suite. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

CIHEP enhances the HUMINT Ex- 
ploitation Teams' (HET) ability to con- 
duct HUMINT and CI operations and to 
accomplish other assigned tasks in sup- 
port of Marine Air Ground Task Force 
missions at the tactical, operational, and 
service levels. The equipment suite pro- 
vides HETs with an organic capability to 
research collection requirements, process 
collected information, produce intelli- 
gence reports, and disseminate those re- 
ports securely to supported commanders 

114 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



SENSITIVE COMPARTMENTED INFORMATION 
COMMUNICATIONS (SCI COMMS) 



I 





DESCRIPTION 

SCI Comms is the former Trojan Spe- 
cial Purpose Integrated Remote Intelli- 
gence Terminal (Trojan SPIRIT) program 
and focuses on meeting broad-ranging 
intelligence communications require- 
ments. SCI Comms is a portfolio con- 
sisting of several high-bandwidth com- 
munications systems ranging in size from 
man-portable suitcases to trailer-mount- 
ed solutions. Each has a unique capability 
set that corresponds to a specific mission 
profile and requirement. However, all 
systems provide the Marine Air Ground 
Task Force Commander a near real-time 
means by which to move perishable data 
for the subsequent production of timely, 
actionable intelligence. 

Trojan SPIRIT LITE: The Trojan 
SPIRIT LITE, AN/TSQ-226(V)1, is a Su- 
per High Frequency (SHF) dual-band 
multichannel Satellite Communications 
terminal using a 2.4-meter antenna. The 
system is packaged in 17-22 transit cases 
— weight capacity of 2,200 pounds and 



total volume of 103 cubic feet — that car- 
ry support items (spares, test, equipment 
and uninterrupted power systems) . It is 
easily transportable via High Mobility 
Multi-Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) or 
commercial vehicle. The system provides 
a fly-away capability for enhanced voice 
video and data communications from 64 
Kbps to 1.544 Mbps. These communica- 
tions links can be both Secret (Collateral) 
and TS/SCI simultaneously. 

SWE-Dish: The IPT Suitcase, AN/ 
USC-68, is a 0.9m dish (Ku Band) ca- 
pable of up to 4 Mbps duplex transmis- 
sion of IP-standard data, voice, and video. 
The IPT Suitcase is a large suitcase size 
(27.6x18.5x12.2 in) and weighs approxi- 
mately 86 pounds. The IPT Suitcase typi- 
cally serves as the "spoke" in a Hub/Spoke 
architecture with a l-to-5 ratio. 

FA-150T MIL Fly- Away: The AN/ 
USC-67 is a 1.5m dish (Ku, C, and X 
Band) capable of up to 60 Mbps IP en- 
crypted traffic. The FA-150T MIL Fly- 
Away incorporates integrated packaging 
consisting of a rugged case with integrat- 
ed wheels. All packaging material (case, 
lids, etc.) is used to create a stable anten- 
na platform. The FA-150T MIL Fly- Away 
measures 47.0x29.9.20.9 inches when 
stored and weighs 132 pounds. The FA- 
150T MIL Fly- Away typically serves as the 
"hub" in a Hub/Spoke architecture with a 
l-to-5 ratio. 

CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 115 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

SCI Comms provides short-haul 
and long-haul capabilities using exist- 
ing communications networks and ac- 
cess providers (e.g., Defense Intelligence 
Activity, Defense Information Systems 
Agency, USA INSCOM). SCI Comms is 
deployed in support of Radio Battalions, 
Intelligence Battalions, Special Security 
Communications Teams supporting Ma- 
rine Divisions/Marine Air Wings, and 
Marine Special Operations Command 
Detachments. The purpose of these sys- 
tems is to provide a worldwide, forward- 
deployed, quick reaction reporting and 
analysis capability to military intelligence 
units for training, and for low-to-high in- 
tensity conflict. The SCI Comms provide 
Marine Corps commanders dedicated 
secure, mobile, data, and voice commu- 
nications that can receive, transmit, and 
disseminate bulk data and imagery prod- 
ucts from and to national and tactical in- 
telligence producers and consumers. 



PROGRAM STATUS 

The Approve Acquisition Objective 
(AAO) for palletized systems increased to 
32 during the First Quarter FY2009. The 
AAO for mobile systems also increased to 
20 systems. The Marine Corps Combat 
Development Command is conducting 
a capabilities-based assessment to deter- 
mine 21st-century SCI communications 
requirements. Wartime sustainment has 
been the primary focus since early 2010. 
IPv6 and other technology upgrades for 
existing Trojan SPIRIT systems com- 
menced in FY2009. 

Developer/Manufacturer: 

Trojan SPIRIT LITE (V)1 : Global Satcom 

Technology, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD 

SWE-DISH: Rockwell Collins, 
Cedar Rapids, IA 



116 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



INTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS SYSTEM (IAS) FAMILY OF SYSTEMS 






DESCRIPTION 

IAS FoS uses a three-tiered approach 
for receiving, parsing, analyzing, and dis- 
seminating fused, all-source intelligence. 
The first tier, the Marine Expedition- 
ary Force (MEF) IAS, is a mobile system 
that supports the MEF Command Ele- 
ment. The second-tier Intelligence Op- 
erations Server (IOSv2a and IOSv3) is a 
team-portable system designed to sup- 
port intelligence operations at the major 
subordinate commands. The third tier, 
the Intelligence Operations Workstation 
(IOWv2), is the link to intelligence data 
for the battalion, squadron, and company 
levels, using client/server technology for 
a "reach-back" capability to higher com- 
mands for intelligence information up- 
dates. The IOWv2 can also function as a 
stand-alone workstation, operating with 
certain limitations in a disconnected en- 
vironment. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

Fielding of IAS FoS has provided 
the Marine Air Ground Task Force com- 
manders with a mobile, all-source, intel- 
ligence data fusion and dissemination 



capability as well as access to time- sensi- 
tive intelligence data that is crucial to the 
military decision making process and the 
conduct of intelligence preparation of the 
battlespace. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The IAS FoS is in the operations and 
support phase of the acquisition process. 
All systems are fielded to the operating 
forces along with Marine Reserve units. 
IAS FoS executes periodic hardware, soft- 
ware, and peripheral upgrades. Tier III re- 
fresh has started in First Quarter FY201 1. 



Procurement Profile: 


FY 201 1 


FY 2012 


IAS FoS Refresh 






IOSv3 


83 





IOSv2 


123 





IOWv2 


1616 






Developer/Manufacturer: 

MTC Services Corporation, Stafford, VA 

Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, 
Charleston, SC 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 117 



I 



TECHNICAL CONTROL AND ANALYSIS CENTER (TCAC) 



DESCRIPTION 

TCAC is the Marine Corps' senior 
Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) system. 
TCAC satisfies the Marine Corps' re- 
quirement for a semi-automated tactical 
SIGINT and Electronic Warfare (EW) fu- 
sion system that can adequately perform 
the processing, analysis, and reporting 
functions of the operating forces Radio 
Battalions (RadBn) and Marine Tactical 
Electronic Warfare Squadrons (VMAQ). 
TCAC fuses intelligence from organic, 
theater, and national collection for dis- 
semination to tactical users. TCAC is the 
focal point of the RadBn SIGINT opera- 
tions. In addition, TCAC delivers an en- 
hanced automated intelligence process- 
ing, analyzing, and reporting capability 
that improves the total control and man- 
agement of SIGINT/EW capabilities, to 
include the production and dissemina- 
tion of SIGINT/EW information for the 
MAGTE 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

TCAC is the primary system that en- 
ables SIGINT Marines to provide plan- 
ning support and timely and accurate, 
fused signals intelligence to the MAGTF 
Command Element, Aviation Combat 
Element, and Ground Combat Element; 
interfacing with appropriate national, 
theater, and organic intelligence sources; 
and identifies high-interest events and 
equipment failures. TCAC is deployed in 
support of MAGTF operations worldwide 
in two configurations: the TCAC Remote 
Analysis Workstation (RAWS) and the 
Transportable Workstation. 



PROGRAM STATUS 

TCAC is a post-milestone C program 
(production and deployment phase) and 
is currently undergoing incremental up- 
grades that will enhance the current ca- 
pabilities of the existing systems. Major 
enhancements include Windows Server 
upgrade, Full Disk Encryption, a fully in- 
tegrated audio processing capability, a Se- 
mantic Wiki with user-defined alerts, and 
integration with the Real Time Regional 
Gateway. 



Procurement Profile: 
AN/UYQ-83B 

TCAC RAWS 
AN/MYQ-9B 

Transportable 

Workstation 
AN/UYK-166 

TCAC MLS 
AN/UYQ-103 

Tactical ONEROOF 



FY 2011 FY 201 2 



50 



302 



39 



Developer/Manufacturer: 

Lockheed Martin Technical Operations, 

Camarillo, CA 

ManTech International (SEMS), Stafford, VA 

SPAWAR, Charleston, SC 



118 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



MAGTF SECONDARY IMAGERY DISSEMINATION SYSTEM (MSIDS) 







DESCRIPTION 

The MSIDS Family of Systems pro- 
vides the Marine Air- Ground Task Force 
(MAGTF) commander a tactical digital 
imagery collection capability for action- 
able intelligence in the Marine Expedi- 
tionary Force. MSIDS is located in MAR- 
SOC/Reconnaissance and sniper units, 
and all intelligence sections throughout 
all echelons of the MAGTF down to the 
platoon/squadron level. MSIDS is com- 
prised of 12 suites that are tailored and 
scaled for units according to mission re- 
quirements and unit structure. 

MSIDS provides the ability to cap- 
ture digital still and video imagery from 
a ground perspective. MSIDS operators 
can manipulate, annotate, transmit and 
receive images in near-real time with 
commands throughout the area of op- 
erations, and externally with higher, adja- 
cent, and joint or combined commands. 
The MSIDS Video Exploitation Worksta- 
tion suite provides intelligence sections 
the capability to manage data, digitize 
analog video, edit video, and lift still im- 
agery from video to create intelligence 
products. 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

MSIDS provides the only self-con- 
tained, hand-held, ground-perspective 
imagery capability to MAGTF units and 
is essential in intelligence collection and 
mission planning. Other MAGTF near 
real-time imaging systems, such as un- 
manned aerial systems and the F/A-18 
Advanced Tactical Airborne Reconnais- 
sance System (ATARS), provide over- 
head imagery that cannot capture the 
detail and ground perspective attainable 
through MSIDS. In asymmetric threat 
environments — where targets of interest 
are often small, highly mobile units such 
as terrorists or guerilla groups — it is im- 
perative that a MAGTF be able to iden- 
tify individuals and structures from the 
ground level. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The approved MSIDS acquisition 
strategy specifies a refresh of one third of 
the system's components yearly through 
a spiral increment of the COTS compo- 
nents. The FY11-12 refresh will replace 
computers, upgrade software, and refresh 
thermal and night vision devices, along 
with continuing the "Grow-the-Force" 
initiative fielding. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 119 



I 



Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 201 2 Developer/Manufacturer: 

MSIDS Suites 126 153 Canon, Panasonic, ITT, ViaSat and FLIR 

ManTech International (SEMS), Stafford, VA 
EYAK Technologies, Anchorage, AK 
Integrity Data Inc, Colorado Springs, CO 



120 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



TEAM PORTABLE COLLECTION SYSTEM-MULTI PLATFORM 
CAPABLE (TPCS-MPC) 






%$m 




DESCRIPTION 

The TPCS-MPC provides the Marine 
Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) with 
integrated, semi- automated Signals Intel- 
ligence (SIGINT) equipment to conduct 
communications intelligence, direction 
finding, computer-aided SIGINT analy- 
sis, and indications and warnings. TPCS- 
MPC is scalable to meet tactical mission 
requirements, having single collection 
outstations for stand-alone requirements 
and integrated capabilities. The primary 
emphasis is on modular, scalable func- 
tionality, with a rapid procurement of 
readily available commercial- off- the- 
shelf/government-off-the-shelf/non-de- 
velopmental item (COTS/GOTS/NDI) 
technologies and systems. The program 
focuses on limited integration to allow 
rapid fielding of new capabilities to Ma- 
rine Corps Radio Battalions (RadBns). 
TPCS-MPC suites consist of platform 
integration kits (PIK) that provide the 
interface devices required to deploy vari- 
ous configurations of the exploitation 
modules on non-dedicated platforms 
such as the High Mobility Multi-Purpose 
Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV), Mine Re- 
sistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) vehi- 
cle, and Mobile Electronic Warfare Sup- 
port System (MEW T SS) vehicle. 



The TPCS Block is the currently 
fielded and operational configuration 
of TPCS-MPC program. The next gen- 
eration upgrade currently under develop- 
ment is the TPCS Block Modifications 
(TPCS Mods). TPCS-MPC program 
is a platform-agnostic combination of 
COTS, GOTS and NDI technologies and 
systems. Through mission-tailored capa- 
bilities, this system is designed to provide 
Electronic Warfare (EW) support to the 
MAGTF. The ability to detect, intercept, 
collect, geo-locate, and exploit Signals of 
Interest focuses the system's foundation. 
The engineering change proposal (ECP) 
process will rapidly insert future technol- 
ogies to meet emerging threats. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

TPCS Mods will provide enhanced 
SIGINT suites and PIKs to enable instal- 
lation of the system onto various RadBns 
organic ground platforms. The TPCS 
Mods will be operated in a dismounted 
mode, or stationary mode and mobile 
modes when installed on a platform. In 
response to the Deputy Commandant, 
Combat Capabilities and Integration (DC, 
CD&I) guidance, the program office has 
pursued development of PIKs to provide 
armored protection against asymmetric 
threats. PIK development will be deter- 
mined by existing and planned RadBn 
platform assets. Planned PIK develop- 
ment will be Up-armored HMMWV, the 
Integrated Assault Platform (IAP), the 
MRAP and the Light Armored Vehicle 
(LAV)-MEWSS. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The TPCS-MPC Block achieved 
Full Operational Capability (FOC) in 
2009. The TPCS Mods effort was initiated 
with a Milestone B decision in Decern - 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 121 



I 



ber 2008. Initially planned as Block 1, the 
TPCs Mods was implemented as an ECP 
to TPCS Block 0. TPCS Mods, which 
provides significant modular and scalable 
enhancements compared to Block 0, has 
completed two developmental tests and 
participated in Empire Challenge 2010. 
TPCS Mods achieved Milestone C in 
November 2010 and Initial Operational 
Capability (IOC) is planned for the Third 
Quarter FY2012. 



Developer/Manufacturer: 

TPCS-MPC Block 0: 

Scientific Research Corporation, 

Charleston SC 

Space and Naval Warfare Systems 

Command, Charleston, SC 

TPCS Mods: 

Scientific Research Corporation, 

Charleston, SC 

Space and Naval Warfare Systems 

Command, Charleston, SC 



122 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



EXPEDITIONARY INTELLIGENCE SUPPORT (EIS) 



I 



The Marine Corps Intelligence Activ- 
ity (MCIA) provides tailored intelligence 
products and services to the Marine 
Corps, other services, and the Intelligence 
Community based on expeditionary mis- 
sion profiles in littoral areas. As the Ma- 
rine Corps' Service Intelligence Center, 
MCIA plays a key role in the development 
of service doctrine, force structure, train- 
ing and education, and systems develop- 
ment and acquisition. 

MCIA consists of a command ele- 
ment; a production and analysis ele- 
ment that includes analysis, imagery, 
topographic support and weapons and 
technology support; a counterintelli- 
gence/human intelligence element; and 
a cryptologic support element. Each ele- 
ment provides unique capabilities that 
enable MCIA to fully support intelligence 
requirements in all facets of expedition- 
ary operations. Together, these elements 
deliver "excellence in expeditionary in- 
telligence" to MCIA's broad and growing 
customer set. 

MCIA engages with Marine units 
scheduled for deployment ensuring that 
each command understands MCIA ca- 
pabilities and limitations in providing 
support during pre-deployment, deploy- 
ment, and post- deployment. Frequently, 
pre-deployment engagement includes 
command site visits encouraging the full 
identification of specific, detailed intelli- 
gence requirements and preliminary es- 
timates of supportability, not only using 



MCIA's own internal capabilities but also 
its unique ability to leverage the larger In- 
telligence Community to help solve Ma- 
rine Corps operating forces' intelligence 
challenges. 

During deployment, MCIA main- 
tains contact with the deployed unit en- 
suring continuous support to operational 
requirements. Additionally, during a de- 
ployment MCIA may provide a liaison 
officer facilitating direct representation 
and a better understanding of intelli- 
gence requirements. All intelligence re- 
quirements adhere to appropriate chains 
of command, including each supported 
Geographic Combatant Command. 

After the deployment ends, MCIA 
coordinates and conducts a post-deploy- 
ment brief. This brief includes not only 
the supported units and MCIA, but also 
any other organizations that contrib- 
uted to the intelligence support effort. 
The intent is to review the intelligence 
requirements submitted with the intel- 
ligence support provided and determine 
what worked well, what needs improve- 
ment and capture lessons learned for the 
future. 

This unyielding focus on support- 
ing Marine Forces — be they deployed in 
harm's way, preparing to deploy, or safely 
returned to their homeport — is the 
hallmark of MCIA's expeditionary intel- 
ligence support. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 123 






T 






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r~* 








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L^ 




, 


^ \ yy 







•* 



PART 4: GROUND COMBAT 
AND TACTICAL VEHIC 






GROUND COMBAT TACTICAL VEHICLE (GCTV) STRATEGY 



I 



DESCRIPTION 

The objective of the Ground Combat 
Vehicle Strategy is to field a ground com- 
bat vehicle portfolio, structured to sup- 
port three balanced Marine Expeditionary 
Forces (MEFs); one MEF capable of a two 
Marine Expeditionary Brigade (MEB) sea- 
based Assured Access operation with one 
MEB in Assault Follow On Reserve, and all 
MEFs capable of irregular warfare and sus- 
tained operations ashore across the range 
of military operations. Vehicles within the 
GCTV portfolio will have the balance of 
performance, protection, payload, trans- 
portability, and fuel efficiency to support 
rapid concentration and dispersion of 
Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) 
combat power, support strategic deploy- 
ment concepts, and meet and sustain 
worldwide Marine Corps commitments. 



Cost & Energy Efficiency 




Four pre-planned Marine Require- 
ments Oversight Council decision points 
control execution of the strategy to meet 
the GCTV objective. Future decision 
points will guide planning to inform Pro- 
gram Objective Memorandum (POM) 13, 
POM 14 and POM 16 decisions regarding 
ground mobility investments. The infor- 
mation supporting each decision point 
will provide cost, effectiveness and risk in- 
formation on alternative courses of action 
relevant to the issues challenging success- 
ful fielding of the future fleet. 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The Marine Corps requires the abil- 
ity to maneuver and sustain combat power 
across the range of military operations 
and in various environments — from the 
Arctic to the desert. The combat and tacti- 
cal vehicles required to achieve this must 
provide appropriate force-level maneuver 
capabilities including compatibility with 
rotary-wing and surface assets, sustain- 
able, and complementary to enhance tac- 
tical flexibility and minimize risk. 

The GCTV strategy manages the fu- 
ture inventory in heavy, medium, and 
light vehicle categories which are further 
divided into combat and tactical vehicle 
types. Combat vehicles facilitate maneu- 
ver of combat teams while tactical vehicles 
facilitate the distribution of sustainment 
material and services by logistics teams. 
The three combat vehicle and three tacti- 
cal vehicle categories are correlated to the 
range of military operations and operat- 
ing environments to meet performance, 
protection, payload, and transportability 
characteristics. The entire portfolio of ve- 
hicles will have these characteristics so as 



to: 



Support rapid transition between con- 
centration and dispersion of MAGTF 
combat power by fielding vehicles with 
modular and adaptable armor in mul- 
tiple capability categories 
Support strategic deployment concepts 
by closely managing transport weights 
and prepositioning objectives 
Provide capacity to meet and sustain 
simultaneous Marine Corps commit- 
ments worldwide by maintaining op- 
erational availability and optimizing mix 
and distribution across the enterprise 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 125 



Combat Vehicles: The Expeditionary 
Armored Forces Initial Capability Docu- 
ment (EAF ICD) is a USMC Capability- 
Based Assessment (CBA) focused on the 
mounted components of the ground com- 
bat element that informed the develop- 
ment of the combat vehicle categories to 
support the range of military operations. 
The EAF ICD and the GCTV Strategy de- 
fine a triad of heavy, medium, and light 
combat vehicles to create a balanced force 
capable of achieving desired ends in the 
irregular spectrum while retaining core 
competencies against traditional threats. 

Tactical Vehicles: The Ground Com- 
bat Forces Light Tactical Mobility Initial 
Capability Document (GCFLTM ICD) is 
one of several Service and joint CBAs and 
requirements documents that informed 
development of tactical vehicle categories 
to support military operations. To mini- 
mize the risk associated with unprotected 
legacy tactical vehicles operating in asym- 
metric environments, the GCFLTM ICD 
and the GCTV Strategy define a future 
fleet of tactical vehicles designed with 
adaptable armor and improved protection 
accomplished through the procurement of 
current armoring solutions. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The GCTV Strategy is currently in 
its third phase of implementation. De- 
cision Point (DP) 1 informed POM 10 
investments. Decision Point 2 informed 



POM 12 investments. Key output of DP 
2 analysis is a planned 10,000 vehicle Ap- 
proved Acquisition Objective reduction 
by 4th Qtr, CY2013. Fiscal implementa- 
tion of that reduction will inform POM 
13. POM 12 endgame will set the course 
for key Requests For Information to be ad- 
dressed during DP 3a, informing POM 13 
investments and DP 3b, informing POM 
14 investments. 

The Marine Corps will continue 
to take a holistic approach to its GCTV 
Strategy. Planned actions during FY 11 
include: 

• Investment in Assault Amphibious 
Vehicle upgrades in order to improve 
seamless ship to shore transition 

• Accelerate the Marine Personnel Carrier 
program to provide sufficient lift ashore 

• Initiate the Amphibious Combat Ve- 
hicle program based on a revised set of 
requirements, key performance param- 
eters, and key system attributes 

• Assess the weight, payload, protection 
and cost of the Marine Corps light ve- 
hicle fleet and determine the appropri- 
ate future mix of Joint Light Tactical 
Vehicles, High Mobility Muti-purpose 
Wheeled Vehicles (HMMWV) and in- 
form HMMWV Recap/Reconstitution 
efforts. 

• Examine a HMMWV survivability Up- 
grade program to leverage on/hand 
vehicles 



126 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 






AMPHIBIOUS COMBAT VEHICLE (ACV) 






DESCRIPTION 

The Amphibious Combat Vehicle 
(ACV) is a new-start ACAT ID program 
which will provide an advanced genera- 
tion, armored, amphibious combat vehi- 
cle. The ACV will be the primary means 
of tactical mobility for the Marine rifle 
squad - both at sea and ashore. The ACV 
will autonomously deliver the assault ech- 
elon from amphibious shipping at launch 
distances at, or beyond the horizon with a 
speed to enable the rapid buildup ashore, 
and provide combat-ready Marines at the 
objective. The ACV will possess superior 
ground mobility and speed similar to the 
M1A1 during sustained operations ashore 
and will possess the capability to engage/ 
destroy threat peer vehicles and provide 
organic, direct fire support to dismount- 
ed infantry in the attack. The ACV will 
protect the force during offensive and 
defensive operations through 360 degree 
force protection applied against direct 
fire, indirect fire, and mines/improvised 
explosive device threats. The ACV will 
replace the legacy Amphibious Assault 
Vehicle that was fielded in 1972 and will 
be more than 40 years old when ACV is 
fielded. The ACV will be configured in 
three mission role variants: Personnel 
(ACV-P), Command and Control (ACV- 
C), and Recovery/Maintenance (ACV-R). 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The ACV's Over the Horizon (OTH) 
launch capability enables the Navy and 
Marine Corps team to project power 
from the sea base and enables joint forc- 
ible entry if required, while providing 
force protection for the Amphibious Task 
Force. The ACV will support Ship To Ob- 
jective Maneuver mobility and amphibi- 
ous maneuver by providing the capabil- 
ity to launch from amphibious ships at 



operational distances (OTH), seamlessly 
transition between sea and land domains, 
establish footholds where conditions 
preclude other types of entry, and en- 
able rapid build-up of combat power be- 
fore an enemy can react. The ACV will 
enhance the Ground Combat Element's 
tactical and operational mobility with a 
balanced level of performance, protec- 
tion and payload. This balance makes the 
ACV operationally relevant across the 
Range of Military Operations. From the 
point of design, the vehicle will be well 
protected against the full range of known 
and emerging threats while maintaining 
robust performance requirements in sup- 
port of the Marine Corps mission pro- 
file. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The ACV is currently in the "User 
Needs" assessment phase of the Joint Ca- 
pabilities Integration and Development 
System process. To refine the require- 
ments for the ACV, a comprehensive re- 
view of its operational requirements will 
be combined with an approach that will 
enable capabilities and cost trade-offs 
early in the process. The review will re- 
examine water mobility, land mobility, 
lethality and force protection in order to 
identify capability trade-space to drive 
down both production and sustainment 
costs. The overall intent is to make this 
an effective model for ground combat 
vehicle acquisition within the DoD. Us- 
ing best practices in systems engineering, 
cost estimating, and government/indus- 
try teaming during concept refinement 
and technology development, the Marine 
Corps will develop operationally relevant 
and technically achievable requirements 
as the basis for the most affordable pro- 
grams possible. 

CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 127 



ASSAULT AMPHIBIOUS VEHICLE (AAV7A1) FAMILY OF VEHICLES (FOV) 
SURVIVABILITY INITIATIVE 




DESCRIPTION 

The Assault Amphibious Vehicle, ini- 
tially fielded in 1972, remains the primary 
general-support armor personnel car- 
rier (APC) for Marine infantry. The AAV 
FOV consists of the AAVP7A1 APC and 
two supporting mission-role variants: 
AAVC7A1 command and AAVR7A1 re- 
covery. The AAV7A1 FoV provides ship 
to shore to objective mobility as well as 
direct fire-support with organic weapons. 
Programmed to be replaced by a new 
amphibious combat vehicle, the AAV7A1 
FoV will continue to serve the Marine 
Corps until at least 2025. The AAV7A1 
FoV previously underwent a series of ca- 
pability enhancements to improve mo- 
bility, improve reliability, and extend the 
platforms' service lives. The Survivability 
Initiative will further improve the AAV, 
serving as a capability bridge to field- 
ing and replacement by a new amphibi- 
ous combat vehicle. This initiative will 
improve force protection and platform 



survivability by integrating technically 
mature upgrades into the existing hull. 
These upgrades will include: belly and 
sponson armor, shock- and blast-miti- 
gating seats, spall lining, fuel tank protec- 
tion, and deck liners. These upgrades are 
slated for approximately 600 AAVP7A1 
and50AAVC7Al. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The upgraded Assault Amphibious 
Vehicle will provide significant surviv- 
ability improvements through increased 
protection against current and future 
threats. Through improvements in both 
physical armor systems and supporting 
subsystems within the hull of the AAV, 
the upgraded vehicles will increase pro- 
tection to embarked Marines and crew. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The Survivability Initiative will en- 
ter the acquisition life cycle at Milestone 
B during FY 11 and begin the engineer- 
ing, manufacturing and development 
phase. Currently, Developmental Testing 
is planned for late FY2012 followed by 
Operational Testing in early FY 14. Initial 
fielding is planned for late FY2014. Low 
Rate Initial Production is planned for the 
Third Quarter FY2013, and Full Rate Pro- 
duction is planned to begin in the Third 
Quarter FY2014. 



128 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



MINE-RESISTANT AMBUSH-PROTECTED (MRAP) VEHICLE 







DESCRIPTION 

MRAP vehicles are V-shaped hulled, 
raised chassis, armored vehicles with 
blast-resistant underbodies designed to 
protect crews from mine and improvised 
explosive device (IED) blasts, as well as 
fragmentary and small-arms threats. 
Four categories of MRAP vehicles carry 
out several critical missions. 

MRAP-A11 Terrain Vehicles (M- 
ATVs) support small-unit combat op- 
erations in complex and highly restricted 
rural, mountainous, and urban terrains. 
The M-ATV provides better overall mo- 
bility characteristics than the original 
CAT I, II, and III MRAP vehicles and pro- 
vides better survivability characteristics 
than any High Mobility Multi-Wheeled 
Vehicle (HMMWV) variant. The M-ATV 
retains the same survivability threshold 
as the MRAP CAT I, II, and III vehicles. 
The M-ATV will support mounted pa- 
trols, reconnaissance, security, convoy 
protection, casualty evacuation, data in- 
terchange, and command and control 
(C2) functions. 



Category I vehicles support opera- 
tions in an urban environment and other 
restricted/confined spaces; including 
mounted patrols, reconnaissance, secu- 
rity, convoy protection, explosive ord- 
nance disposal (EOD), communications, 
casualty evacuation (CASEVAC), C2, and 
combat service support. 

Category II vehicles support multi- 
mission operations such as convoy secu- 
rity, troop and cargo transport, limited 
combat engineering and EOD support, 
CASEVAC, and ambulance. 

Category III vehicles support mine/ 
IED clearance operations that also include 
route reconnaissance and clearance. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

Because Marine units operating in 
a complex security environment require 
vehicles capable of surviving mine/IED, 
small-arms fire, rocket-propelled grenade, 
and vehicle-borne IED attacks, MRAP 
vehicles provide deployed commanders, 
various units, EOD, and combat engineer 
teams with highly survivable ground- 
mobility platforms. Marines participate 
in and/or respond rapidly to a variety of 
offensive, stability, and security opera- 
tions without a large security contingent 
and need a vehicle capable of functioning 
in a counter attack after surviving a "first 
blow" ambush or attack. The MRAP pro- 
vides that protection. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The Mine Resistant Ambush Pro- 
tected (MRAP) program rapidly evolved 
from a small Rapid Deployment Capabil- 
ity component effort to a Joint Acquisi- 
tion Category (AC AT) ID Major Defense 

CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 129 



I 



Acquisition Program (MDAP) in Septem- 
ber 2007. The Marine Corps is executing 
the joint program on behalf of the Navy 
(lead Service). A sole-source contract was 
awarded in November 2006 for 200 CAT 
II and up to 80 CAT III vehicles to bridge 
urgent warfighting needs, after which a 
competitive acquisition for the balance 
of CAT I and CAT II platforms was put 
in place. In January 2007, nine indefinite 
delivery, indefinite quantity contracts 
were awarded to vendors that demon- 
strated capabilities to meet the program's 
overarching objective of producing the 
maximum number of survivable, safe, 
and sustainable MRAP vehicles in the 
shortest period of time. The MRAP Joint 
Program Office (JPO) has used a series 
of Low-Rate Initial Production (LRIP) 
awards with six of the vendors to order a 
majority of the vehicles. 

The JPO has initiated a constant 
modernization process and Capability 
Insertion (CI) program in theater for ve- 
hicles redeploying from Iraq to Afghani- 
stan at the MRAP sustainment facility in 
Kuwait. All MRAP Cougars (CAT I and 
CAT II), RG-31 and RG-33 vehicles in 
Afghanistan, for example, are being up- 
graded with independent suspension 
systems (ISS) to improve drivability and 
mobility in the more difficult Afghan ter- 
rain. The JPO is also assessing the use of 
ISS on other MRAP vehicles. Additional 
modernization efforts include bar armor, 
rocket propelled grenade defeat, auto- 
matic fire suppression systems and other 
improvements to enhance MRAP perfor- 
mance in Afghanistan. 

The JPO awarded a contract to Os- 
hkosh Corporation in June 2009 for a 
smaller, more agile MRAP variant. The 

130 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



MRAP-A11 Terrain Vehicle (M-ATV) ful- 
fills an urgent and compelling require- 
ment to protect Marines with a highly 
survivable and off-road capable vehicle. 
The first M-ATVs arrived in Afghanistan 
in October 2009 and Initial Operational 
Capability was achieved on April 2010. 
The current M-ATV requirement for all 
Services is 8,440 vehicles. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

In the fall of 20 1 the MRAP program 
responded to an urgent requirement from 
theater for recovery vehicles with the same 
survivability as MRAP vehicles due to the 
increase in op tempo and increased at- 
tacks against Coalition Forces. A delivery 
order modification was made to an exist- 
ing IDIQ contract with Navistar Defense 
to produce 250 of these vehicles. The first 
recovery vehicles will be delivered in the 
spring of 2011. 

On 15 December, 2010, Joint Re- 
quirement Oversight Council Memoran- 
dum 194-10 increased the MRAP vehicle 
Acquisition Objective (AO) to 27,344. To 
date, a total of 26,552 vehicles have been 
procured for the Service and U.S. Spe- 
cial Operations Command (SOCOM) 
through 20 LRIP decisions. As of 3 Feb- 
ruary 201 1, the government had accepted 
25,549 MRAP vehicles; 21,707 vehicles 
have been fielded to units in theater. 



Procurement Profile: 


FY2007-FY2010 


Army 


20,366 


Marine Corps 


3,413 


Navy 


582 


Air Force 


815 


USSOCOM 


1,119 


Test Vehicles 


257 



TOTAL 



26,552 






Developer/Manufacturer: 

BAE, York, PA 

BAE-TVS, Sealy, TX 

Force Protection Industries, Inc., 

Charleston, SC 

General Dynamics Land Systems-Canada 

(GDLS-C), London, Ontario 

Navistar Defense, LLC, Warrenville, IL 

Oshkosh Corporation, Oshkosh, Wl 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 131 



MARINE PERSONNEL CARRIER (MPC) 




DESCRIPTION 

The MPC will provide four battal- 
ions of armored personnel carrier (APC) 
general support lift to the ground com- 
bat element (GCE) of the Marine Air 
Ground Task Force (MAGTF). Designed 
to complement the Service's Amphibious 
Vehicle capability, the MPC will be effec- 
tive across the range of military opera- 
tions during sustained operations ashore 
and reinforce the assault echelon during 
forcible-entry operations. Both MPC and 
the new amphibious combat vehicle will 
replace the legacy Amphibious Assault 
Vehicles (AAV) in the Assault Amphib- 
ian (AA) Battalions of Marine divisions. 
An MPC Company is designed to lift an 
infantry battalion in conjunction with 
the infantry's organic wheeled assets. 
MPC will field a base vehicle (MPC-P) 
and two supporting mission role vari- 
ants (MRV): MPC-C and MPC-R. Two 
MPC-Ps lift a reinforced rifle squad. The 
MPC-C supports mobile battalion com- 
mand echelon/fire-support coordination 
center functions. The MPC-R fulfills 
mobile recovery and maintenance 
requirements. 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The MPC supports expeditionary 
maneuver warfare and the requirements 
of the GCE based maneuver task force 
by providing a platform that possesses 
a balance of performance, protection, 
and payload attributes. From the point 
of design, the vehicle will be well pro- 
tected against the full range of known 
and emerging threats while maintaining 
robust performance requirements in sup- 
port of the Marine Corps mission profile 
(30 percent on road / 70 percent off road). 
Effective on land while maneuvering with 
other wheeled and tracked combat and 
tactical vehicles, possessing sufficient le- 
thality to protect the vehicle and support 
dismounted infantry in the attack and re- 
taining sufficient payload to carry the in- 
fantry's combat loads, mission-essential 
equipment, and days of supply, the MPC 
will be well postured to meet the many 
and varied demands of MAGTF opera- 
tions. Additionally, the MPC will possess 
a viable tactical water mobility capability. 
Although not intended to achieve opera- 
tional water mobility performance lev- 
els (e.g., the over-the-horizon maneuver 
capability), the MPC will be sufficiently 
capable in the water to use the sea in the 
littoral operating area as maneuver space, 
breach inland water obstacles, and there- 
by increase the MAGTF commander's 
maneuver options and the complexity of 
the threat faced by our enemies. 



132 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 






PROGRAM STATUS 

In the spring of 2008, the Marine Re- 
quirements Oversight Council (MROC) 
validated the MPC requirement and ap- 
proved the solution as an advanced-gen- 
eration eight-wheeled APC to be integrat- 
ed into the AA Battalions. The initiative 
is currently preparing for a Materiel De- 
velopment Decision (MDD) in FY2011 
through a series of Pre-Milestone A tech- 
nology-development efforts. Foremost 
among these efforts is a development and 



exploitation of a technology demonstra- 
tor vehicle at the Nevada Automotive Test 
Center (NATC). This effort is working to 
shape and refine both requirement and 
performance specification details, spark 
Industry interest and investment, and 
reduce eventual program risk. The MPC 
program, once launched, will rely on full 
and open competition throughout the 
developmental cycle. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 133 



INTERNALLY TRANSPORTABLE VEHICLE (ITV) 




units equipped with highly mobile light 
strike vehicles armed with heavy or me- 
dium machine guns. The Interim Fast 
Attack Vehicle (IFAV) is currently fielded 
and is deployable inside the CH-53E air- 
craft, but the MAGTF ground combat el- 
ement currently has no ground-mobility 
platform that can deploy inside the MV- 
22. ITV will replace the Interim Fast At- 
tack Vehicle. 



DESCRIPTION 

The ITV will be a highly mobile 
weapons-capable light-strike platform 
that can support a variety of operations. 
It will provide Marine Air Ground Task 
Force (MAGTF) ground combat units 
with a vehicle transportable in MV-22 
tilt-rotor aircraft and CH-53E/K helicop- 
ters. It will also provide reconnaissance 
units equal or greater mobility than the 
MAGTF maneuver elements they sup- 
port, thereby enhancing mission perfor- 
mance and survivability. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The ITV will allow MAGTF com- 
manders to take maximum advantage of 
the speed and range offered by the MV- 
22 and CH-53E/K by deploying ground 



PROGRAM STATUS 

The ITV Program is currently in 
production and deployment. A full rate 
production decision was approved in July 
2008 and Initial Operational Capability 
was achieved in June 2009, when one in- 
fantry battalion received 15 ITVs. 



Procurement Profile: 
Quantity: 



FY 2011 FY 201 2 
31 



Developer/Manufacturer: 
General Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical 
Systems, St. Petersburg, FL, with subcon- 
tractor American Growler, Robbins, NC 



134 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



LIGHT ARMORED VEHICLE (LAV) PROGRAM 







DESCRIPTION 

The LAV Program Office (PM-LAV) 
has fielded numerous upgrades for the 
legacy family of LAVs. The LAV- 2 5 and 
its six supporting mission role variants 
are being upgraded to the A2 configura- 
tion. LAV-A2 are equipped with applique 
armor, spall liners, more capable fuel in- 
jectors and radiators, an increased capac- 
ity alternator, an improved suspension to 
handle the increased weight of applique 
armor, and an automated fire suppression 
system for improved force protection and 
vehicle survivability. 

The Program Office is also fielding 
an upgraded command and control (C2) 
mission role variant (LAV-C2A2U) to 
upgrade legacy radios with more capable 
systems, add auxiliary power and provide 
network linked laptops for improved sit- 
uational awareness and supporting arms 
control. 

A driver's protection kit consisting 
of ballistic blankets, vehicle commander 
and gunner blast shields and improved 
protected machine gun mounts are be- 
ing fielded to improve platform surviv- 
ability and lethality. Future survivability 
enhancements include improved fuel cell 
protection, blast mitigating seats and ad- 
ditional internal spall protection. 



PM-LAV is also developing the LAV- 
Antitank (LAV-AT) and LAV-Recovery 
(LAV-R) modernization and upgrade 
programs. In addition to increased overall 
reliability, availability, and maintainability 
of the mission suite, the LAV-AT program 
will provide a second-generation thermal 
sight and an advanced fire-control system 
capable of firing the current and next- 
generation heavy anti-armor missile. 
The LAV-R upgrade will provide a mod- 
ern crane, winch, and generator to match 
the increased weight of the platform and 
eliminate obsolescence issues. Both LAV- 
AT and LAV-R modernization initiatives 
are designed to improve the supportabil- 
ity and mission effectiveness of the family 
of LAVs by providing mission-suite up- 
grades and extending the effective service 
life of the platform into the future. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The LAV A2 Program enhances crew 
force protection and vehicle survivability 
and allows the fleet to continue to effec- 
tively support air and ground operations. 
Many of the upgrades were fielded in 
support OPERATION IRAQI FREE- 
DOM and are supporting OPERATION 
ENDURING FREEDOM. Feedback 
from the Light Armored Reconnaissance 
(LAR) Battalions in-theater is positive; 
their ability to accomplish the mission 
and better protect the force has been sig- 
nificantly improved. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The LAV A2 Program has been de- 
veloped and is currently being applied to 
Legacy and newly produced LAVs at the 
USMC Maintenance Centers at Albany, 
GA and Barstow, CA. The C2 Upgrade 

CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 135 



I 



Program is being fielded to operational 
units. The driver's protection kit and the 
vehicle commander and gunner blast 
shields have been fielded throughout the 
fleet. The improved protected machine 
gun mount has completed operational 
assessment. The LAV-AT moderniza- 
tion program is scheduled for Initial Op- 



erational Capability (IOC) in the Third 
Quarter FY2015. The LAV-R upgrade 
program integration activities began 
in the Second Quarter FY2010 and will 
reach IOC in the First Quarter FY2012. 



Procurement Profile: 
Quantity: 



FY 2011 FY 2012 
10 55 



1 36 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 201 1 



HIGH MOBILITY MULTIPURPOSE WHEELED VEHICLE (HMMWV) 
EXPANDED CAPACITY VEHICLE (HMMWV ECV) 



tMk 



DESCRIPTION 

The ECV is the fourth-generation 
design of the HMMWV and is replac- 
ing the aging fleet of baseline Al variants 
and some A2 variants. The HMMWV was 
originally fielded to Marine Corps units 
in the mid-1980s. Upgrades include: a 
more powerful and environmentally 
compliant 6.5L turbo engine; micropro- 
cessor- controlled engine electrical start 
system; increased payload (500 pounds); 
improved corrosion prevention; and ac- 
cess panels to facilitate maintenance. The 
Marine Corps is currently conducting a 
Light Fleet Assessment to determine the 
appropriate mix and distribution of ar- 
mored and unarmored portions of the 
light tactical fleet of vehicles. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

To successfully accomplish their mis- 
sions, Marine Air Ground Task Forces 
(MAGTFs) require a light tactical vehicle 
for command and control, troop trans- 
port, light cargo transport, shelter car- 
rier, towed weapons prime mover, and 
weapons platform throughout all areas 
of the battlefield or mission area. Also, 71 



Marine Corps component programs use 
the HMMWV as their prime mover. For 
units that require specific vehicle config- 
urations, the detailed requirements will 
be provided in kit form, capable of being 
installed at the general support main- 
tenance level or below, or by incorpora- 
tion of Component of Major End Items/ 
Component of End Items by the system 
integrator. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The Marine Corps has procured, 
fielded, and supported large numbers 
of HMMWVs since the mid-1980s, and 
the infrastructure and processes are well 
established to support fielding ECVs. 
Training courses and technical manuals 
are being updated, and ECV unique parts 
and tools are being integrated into the 
existing supply system. The Approved Ac- 
quisition Objective (AAO) for the Marine 
Corps is currently under review as part of 
the Light Fleet Assessment. 



Procurement Profile: 
Quantity: 



FY 2011 FY 201 2 




CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 137 



JOINT LIGHT TACTICAL VEHICLE (JLTV) FAMILY OF VEHICLES 



DESCRIPTION 

The JLTV FoV is a joint Army/Ma- 
rine Corps multinational program for 
a family of light tactical vehicles and 
companion trailers. JLTV objectives are 
to restore the mobility and payload of 
the High Mobility Multi-Wheeled Ve- 
hicle (HMMWV) to the future light 
vehicle fleet, while provided expedi- 
tionary, modular protection within the 
weight constraints of the expeditionary 
force. The JLTV program will addition- 
ally strive to minimize ownership costs 
by maximizing commonality, reliability 
enhancements, and fuel efficiency; sav- 
ings will also be garnered by executing 
effective competition throughout the 
program development. The JLTV FoVs 
program includes six configurations 
and companion trailers in two variants 
(the Combat Tactical Vehicle and the 
Combat Support Vehicle). Commonal- 
ity of components, maintenance proce- 
dures, and training between all variants 
will minimize total ownership costs. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The JLTV FoVs will be capable of 
operating across a broad spectrum of 
terrain and weather conditions. The ap- 
proved JLTV Initial Capabilities Docu- 
ment (ICD), and the Draft Capabilities 
Development Document (CDD) identi- 
fies required capabilities for the next gen- 
eration of light tactical vehicles needed to 
support joint forces across the full range 
of military operations and provide a vital 
force enabler, multiplier, and extender. 

The joint services intend to replace 
a portion of the HMMWV fleet with 



JLTVs as part of the ground equipment 
modernization effort. JLTV will give the 
warfighter increased protection through 
the use of scalable armor solutions, while 
returning the payload currently traded 
for added armor protection in existing 
tactical vehicles. JLTV will increase warf- 
ighter maneuver capacity by providing 
expeditionary protected mobility on the 
modern battlefield. JLTVs performance 
characteristics will exceed the armored 
HMMWV and will ensure expeditionary 
protected mobility for the MAGTF and 
joint services. 



PROGRAM STATUS 

The JLTV program is currently in the 
Technology Development (TD) phase. 
The Defense Acquisition Executive (DAE) 
approved the Milestone A Decision in 
December 2007. A Request for Proposals 
was released in February 2008, and three 
contracts were awarded in October 2008 
to BAE Systems, General Tactical Vehicles 
(a joint venture between General Dynam- 
ics Land Systems and AM General) and 
Lockheed Martin. The results of the TD 
phase will inform and support finalization 
of the CDD scheduled for completion in 
September 201 1 prior to Milestone B. 

The three original equipment manu- 
facturers each delivered seven prototype 
vehicles and four trailers for TD testing 
during May FY 10. Further a total of seven 
Australian vehicles were delivered dur- 
ing June/July 2010 for testing. Govern- 
ment TD testing is scheduled to conclude 
during May 2011. Upon the completion 
of the TD phase, the services currently 
anticipate conducting another full and 



138 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 






open competition with award of two 
contracts no later than March 2012 for 
the Engineering and Manufacturing De- 
velopment phase, with full production 
and fielding anticipated in FY2017. The 
Marine Corps' Approved Acquisition Ob- 
jective is for 5,500 vehicles. 

Developer/Manufacturer: 
To be determined. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 139 



I 



MEDIUM TACTICAL VEHICLE REPLACEMENT (MTVR) 




DESCRIPTION 

The MTVR program is replacing the 
aging medium truck fleet (M809/M939) 
series 5-ton trucks with state-of-the art 
commercial automotive technology. The 
MTVR has an increased payload of 7.1 
tons off- road and 15 tons on-road, a 
high-performance suspension, traction 
control, new engine, central tire inflation 
system, automatic transmission, and cor- 
rosion technology upgrades. 

There are several variants of the basic 
MTVR platform for different tasking, in- 
cluding a cargo variant (both standard and 
extended wheel bed configurations), dump 
truck, a wrecker, and a tractor. The dump 
and wrecker variants maintain maximum 
commonality with the basic MTVR cargo 
chassis while performing their unique 
missions. The tractor variant serves as 
the prime mover for the Mk 970 refueling 
trailer. The Navy also uses MTVR vehicles 
for construction battalion (Seabee) op- 
erations. The HIMARS Re-supply vehicle 
(and associated trailer) is an MTVR vari- 
ant that was procured as part of the USMC 
HIMARS artillery system. 

140 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



The MTVR Armor System (MAS) 
provides complete 360-degree protec- 
tion as well as overhead and underbody 
protection for the crew compartment 
using Mil-A-46100 High Hard Steel and 
Metal Composite standards. It is designed 
for the 22-year service life of the vehicle. 
The MAS can withstanding small-arms 
fire, improvised explosive devices, and 
mines. It includes upgraded suspension, 
upgraded air conditioning system, re- 
movable armored personnel carrier (with 
ballistic glass), machine gun mounts, and 
the Marine Corps Transparent Armor 
Gun Shield. The MAS is a permanent 
modification to the vehicle, and includes 
an upgraded front suspension and cabin 
rebuild. The "reducible height" configu- 
ration of MAS allows for removal of cab 
roof, in order to accommodate Maritime 
Pre-positioned Shipping (MPS) space re- 
quirements. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

More than 2,000 MTVRs have seen 
service in Iraq and/or Afghanistan. With 
its 70 percent off-road mission profile 
and highly survivable armor package, the 
MTVR has been heavily used in theater 
for logistics missions, as well as "other 
missions as assigned". 



PROGRAM STATUS 

The MAS is installed in all MTVR 
variants in Afghanistan. The MTVR Pro- 
gram Office has continued to improve 
the MAS in response to Urgent Universal 
Needs Statements (UUNS) — adding in- 
creased underbody blast protection, fuel 
tank fire-protection kits, and 300-amp 



I 



alternator kits (e.g., for powering counter systems, in response to UUNS(s); and is 

improvised explosive devices), as well as working with the Office of Naval Research 

developing the reducible height MAS con- under Future Naval Capability (FNC) to 

figuration. In addition, live-fire testing develop a fuel economy upgrade kit. 
has resulted in additional MAS upgrades 

for non-reducible armored MTVRs Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 2012 

and for the armored troop carrier. The Quantity: 195 719 

program office is developing additional 
safety upgrades, such as fire suppression 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 141 



I 



LOGISTICS VEHICLE SYSTEM REPLACEMENT (LVSR) 




DESCRIPTION 

The LVSR will replace the current 
Marine Corps heavy-tactical wheeled ve- 
hicle, the Logistics Vehicle System (LVS). 
As the Marine Corps' heavy-tactical dis- 
tribution system, the LVSR cargo variant 
will transport several cargoes: bulk liquids 
(fuel and water); ammunition; standard- 
ized containers; bulk, break bulk, and pal- 
letized cargo; and bridging equipment. 
The LVSR will have wrecker and tractor 
variants as well and will be employed 
throughout the MAGTR The vehicle base 
design includes factory-installed armor 
and is also designed to accept an add-on 
armor kit for increased crew protection. 

The all-wheel-drive vehicle is 
equipped with an independent suspen- 
sion system for superior off-road mobil- 
ity in the most severe environments. The 
LVSR features an on-road payload capac- 
ity of 22.5 tons and an off-road payload 
capacity of 16.5 tons. Its maneuverability 
is increased by four-axle steering capabil- 
ities. The LVSR is also equipped with ad- 
vanced electronics system for in-cab di- 
agnostics of the vehicle's critical systems, 
including the engine, transmission, and 
brakes. It uses a single-source lubrication 
system for easier maintenance and has a 
600-horsepower CI 5 engine. 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

To successfully accomplish their mis- 
sion, MAGTFs require a heavy ground 
logistics distribution system that is highly 
mobile, efficient, extremely reliable, and 
flexible. This system must be capable of 
operating over increased distances with 
increased payloads to meet the demands 
of expeditionary maneuver warfare. The 
LVSR will rapidly distribute all classes of 
supply, while including a self-loading/un- 
loading capability to reduce dependence 
on external material handling equipment. 
For example, the LVSR will help address 
one of the Marine Corps' biggest chal- 
lenges in Afghanistan of getting supplies, 
equipment, and logistics into the remote 
areas in which Marines routinely operate. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

LVSR achieved Initial Operational 
Capability in September 2009. The origi- 
nal indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity 
order contract for the LVSR was awarded 
in May 2006 to Oshkosh Defense, Os- 
hkosh, WI. The Approved Acquisition 
Objective of the LVSR is 2,000 vehicles. 
Full-rate vehicle production began in 
December 2008 and includes add-on ar- 
mor "B" kits, in addition to the factory 
installed integral ("A" kit) armor, and 
can be applied in the field. At the end of 
FY2010, 1,237 Cargo variant, 40 Tractor 
variant and 15 Wrecker variant vehicles 
had been placed under contract. 



Procurement Profile: 
Cargo variant 
Tractor variant 
Wrecker variant 



FY 2011 FY 201 2 

130 118 

232 113 

95 20 



Developer/Manufacturer: 

Oshkosh Defense Corporation, Oshkosh, WI 



142 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 




ROUTE RECONNAISSANCE AND CLEARANCE (R2C) FAMILY OF SYSTEMS 



of the stability operations tasks of initial 
humanitarian assistance, limited gover- 
nance, restoration of essential public ser- 
vices, and other reconstruction assistance 
by providing access and protection to the 
executing forces and agencies and gathers 
geospatial information vital for mobility 
planning. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

This is a FY2010 new start program 
of record. The Capability Production 
Document was approved by the Marine 
Requirements Oversight Council in Au- 
gust 2009. Increment I consists of pro- 
curing light weight mine rollers, robots, 
vehicle mounted mine detectors, and 
light weight route clearance blades that 
will augment currently fielded CAT I, II 
& III Mine-Resistant Ambush-Protected 
(MRAP) vehicles to provide an initial 
R2C capability set. Increment II consists 
of rebuilding CAT I, II, and III MRAPs, 
addition of an interrogation arms onto 
specified R2C platforms, and procure- 
ment of automated route reconnaissance 
kits and vehicle optic senor systems. 



I 



DESCRIPTION 

The R2C capability set mitigates the 
threat of mines, improvised explosive de- 
vices (IEDs) and obstacles along routes in 
Marine Air Ground Task Force areas of 
operation. R2C units can perform stand- 
off detection, interrogation, marking, and 
clearance of explosive and non-explosive 
obstacles in order to ensure the mobility 
of friendly forces. In addition, it provides 
a rapidly employable set capable of per- 
forming route reconnaissance to obtain 
information about key terrain features, 
route conditions, and obstacles along 
specific routes. The R2C set will reside in 
combat engineer battalions (CEB), engi- 
neer support battalions (ESB), and Ma- 
rine wing support squadrons (MWSS). 
Each CEB and ESB will be assigned three 
sets and each MWSS will be assigned 
one set. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

This mobility capability is essential 
for maintaining access, shaping the bat- 
tlespace, establishing the initiative, posi- 
tioning forces, and supporting dispersed 
forces. This capability ensures maneuver 
and sustainment forces reach their objec- 
tives when subject to attack by the vari- 
ety of explosive weapons and ambushes 
characteristic of irregular warfare. It pro- 
vides warfighter and system survivability 
against asymmetric threats. R2C opera- 
tions also enable the effective execution 



Procurement Profile: FY 201 1 


fy; 


Lightweight Mine 




Rollers 168 





Lightweight Route 




Clearance Blades 1 1 2 





Vehicle Mounted Mine 




Detector Systems 9 





Robots 


112 



Developer/Manufacturer: 
The R2C Family of Systems uses products 
from multiple vendors and government 
agencies with the largest being Force 
Protection Industries, Inc. (FPU), Charleston, 
SC, and General Dynamics Land Systems, 
Sterling Heights, Ml. 

CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 143 



GROUND INDIRECT FIRES 



I 



In 2007, "The Major Combat Op- 
erations Analysis for Fiscal Years 2014 to 
2024" study scrutinized the current organ- 
ic fire support of the Marine Air Ground 
Task Force (MAGTF) to determine the 
adequacy, integration, and moderniza- 
tion requirements for ground, aviation, 
and naval surface fires. The Marine Corps 
also performed a supplemental historical 
study using OPERATION IRAQI FREE- 
DOM data to examine MAGTF fires 
in the full spectrum of warfare. These 
studies reconfirmed our development of 
complementary systems of ground indi- 
rect fires. 

Ground indirect fires requires a me- 
dium-caliber cannon artillery capability; 
an extended-range, ground-based rocket 
capability; and a capability with greater 
lethality than current mortars but greater 
tactical mobility than current artillery 
systems. This provides a balanced, expe- 
ditionary, ground-based fires capability 
that is responsive, complementary, re- 
dundant, and within the range and lethal- 
ity requirements of the targets the Marine 
Corps will be facing across the full range 
of military operations. 

The foundation of ground indirect 
fires is the M777A2 Lightweight 155mm 
howitzer that, through design innovation, 



navigation, positioning aides, and digital 
fire control, offers significant improve- 
ments in lethality, survivability, mobil- 
ity, and durability compared to the Ml 98 
howitzer. The High-Mobility Artillery 
Rocket System (HIMARS) fills a critical 
range and volume gap in Marine Corps 
fire-support assets. HIMARS provides an 
extended-range precision capability to 
Marine forces. The third leg is the Expe- 
ditionary Fire Support System (EFSS), a 
towed 120mm mortar. EFSS will be the 
principal indirect fire support system for 
heli- and tiltrotor-borne forces executing 
Ship-to-Objective Maneuver (STOM) as 
part of a MAGTF. When paired with an 
Internally Transportable Vehicle, EFSS 
can be transported on board MV-22 and 
CH-53E aircraft. EFSS-equipped units 
will have immediately responsive, organic 
indirect fires at ranges beyond current in- 
fantry battalion mortars. 

Several additional innovative systems 
related to fire support significantly en- 
hance the warfighting efficiency and ef- 
fectiveness of the MAGTF, including the 
Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data 
System (AFATDS), and the Target Loca- 
tion, Designation, and Handoff system 
(TLDHS). 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 145 



I 



LIGHTWEIGHT 155MM HOWITZER (LW155) 



fe jfe , jMbKSf & 




i x 


^^^ 


' 



DESCRIPTION 

The LW155 is a joint Marine Corps/ 
Army program to develop, produce, and 
field a towed 155mm howitzer that pro- 
vides increased mobility, survivability, de- 
ployability, and sustainability in expedi- 
tionary operations throughout the world. 
Designated the M777A2, the LW155 is 
a direct- and general-support artillery 
system replacing the Ml 98 155mm Me- 
dium Towed Howitzer in both Services. 
It has incorporated innovative design 
technologies to overcome deficiencies 
inherent in the current Ml 98 howitzer. 
The LW155 is the first ground combat 
system whose major structures are made 
of high-strength titanium alloy, and the 
system makes extensive use of hydraulics 
to operate the breech, load tray, recoil, 
and wheel arms. The combination of tita- 
nium structures and the use of hydraulic 
systems resulted in a significant weight 
savings of more than 7,000 pounds com- 
pared to the Ml 98 system. Additionally, 
the M777A2 emplaces three times faster, 
displaces four times faster, is more mobile 
over 32 percent more terrain worldwide, 
and is 70 percent more survivable than 
theM198. 

The M777A2 is capable of firing un- 
assisted high-explosive projectiles using 

1 46 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 201 1 



conventional and modular propellants 
to a range of 15 miles and rocket assist- 
ed projectiles to approximately 19 miles. 
However, the addition of the digital fire- 
control system (DFCS) enables the weap- 
on to program and fire the M982 Excali- 
bur precision-guided munitions to ranges 
of 24 miles with better than 10-meter 
circular error probable (CEP) accuracy 
(i.e., 50 percent of the rounds will impact 
within ten meters of the aim point). The 
weapon is capable of firing a maximum 
of four rounds per minute for short pe- 
riods of time, with sustainment firing of 
two rounds per minute. 

The M777A2 is an upgrade to the ini- 
tial design that adds a digital fire-control 
system using a global positioning system, 
an inertial navigation unit, and a vehicle 
motion sensor to accurately locate and 
orient the weapon to deliver greater accu- 
racy, responsiveness, and reliability. The 
system also integrates radios for voice 
and digital communications and a chief 
of section display that is decoupled and 
mounted into the cab of the prime mover 
for use as a navigation aid. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The LW155 provides significantly 
greater combat capability to troops. The 
weight reduction improves transportabil- 
ity and mobility without impacting range 
:and accuracy. The lightweight M777A2 
can be airlifted by the CH-53E/K and 
the MV-22B Osprey into remote high- 
altitude locations inaccessible by ground 
transportation. Some M777A2 facts: 
• The M777A2 can fire the precision 
guided Excalibur munitions, developed 
by Raytheon Systems and General Dy- 
namics Ordnance and Tactical Systems, 



up to 24 miles with sufficient accuracy, 
for example, to target selected portions 
of a building, reducing the chance of 
non-combatant casualties and enabling 
supporting fire to be delivered much 
closer to friendly troops. 
It can fire a standard 43.5 kilogram shell 
almost 21 miles at 2.5 times the speed 
of sound. The projectile takes about a 
minute to fly the distance and reaches 
a maximum height of 12 kilometers. 
The shell reaches its maximum speed of 
1,800 miles per hour by the time it exits 
the muzzle of the gun. 
The energy released firing at maximum 
range is 40 mega joules. 
The internal cannon peak pressure dur- 
ing firing reaches 60,000 pounds per 
square inch. 

The wind speed, meteorological con- 
ditions and even the Earth's rotation 
are taken into account for accurate 
targeting. 

The gun remains stable when firing, de- 
spite its light weight, by being "out of 
balance" with the barrel mounted low 
and forward. 



i 



PROGRAM STATUS 

The LW155 is in-service with the U.S. 
Marine Corps and Army and has been de- 
ployed in current operations. The Canadi- 
an army purchased the base M777 under 
a foreign military sale (FMS) contract and 
has 16 M777A2 howitzers in service with 
the Royal Horse Artillery in Afghanistan. 
Canada will be receiving an additional 
21 howitzers. Australia has signed a FMS 
case to purchase the M777A2. Through 
July 2010, the total number of orders for 
the gun had reached 955 units. 



Procurement Profile: 
Quantity: 



FY 2011 FY 2012 
22 



Developer/Manufacturer: 
Manufacture and assembly of the titanium 
structures and recoil components: Barrow- 
in-Furness, UK 

Integration and testing: BAE Systems Global 
Combat Systems, Hattiesburg, MS 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 147 



I 



HIGH-MOBILITY ARTILLERY ROCKET SYSTEM (HIMARS) 




DESCRIPTION 

HIMARS is a C-130-transportable, 
wheeled, indirect-fire, rocket/missile sys- 
tem capable of firing all rockets and mis- 
siles in the current and future Multiple 
Launch Rocket System (MLRS) Fam- 
ily of Munitions (MFoM). The HIMARS 
launcher consists of a fire-control sys- 
tem, carrier (automotive platform), and 
launcher-loader module that will per- 
form all operations necessary to complete 
a fire mission. The system is defined as 
one launcher, two resupply vehicles, and 
two resupply trailers and munitions. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

HIMARS addresses an identified, critical 
warfighting deficiency in Marine Corps 
fire support. HIMARS primarily employs 
the guided MLRS rocket to provide preci- 



sion fires in support of maneuver forces. 
HIMARS is a transformational, 24-hour, 
ground-based, responsive, general-sup- 
port/general support-reinforcing, pre- 
cision, indirect fire weapon system that 
accurately engages targets at long ranges 
(greater than 40 miles) with high volumes 
of lethal fire under all weather conditions 
and throughout all phases of combat op- 
erations ashore. In early 201 1, HIMARS is 
fielded to two battalions (one active and 
one Reserve) in the Marine Corps. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The HIMARS program is in the op- 
erations and support phase. HIMARS 
achieved Initial Operational Capabil- 
ity in the Fourth Quarter FY2008. Full 
Operational Capability was achieved in 
FY2010. 



Procurement Profile: 
Quantity: 



FY 2011 FY 2012 




Developer/Manufacturer: 
Launcher and MFOM: Lockheed Martin 
Corporation, Missiles & Fire Control Division, 
Dallas, TX 

Re-Supply System: Oshkosh Truck 
Corporation, Oshkosh, Wl 



148 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



EXPEDITIONARY FIRE SUPPORT SYSTEM (EFSS) 



I 




DESCRIPTION 

The EFSS is the third and final system 
of the land-based fire-support Triad that 
also includes the Lightweight 155mm 
Howitzer and the High-Mobility Artil- 
lery Rocket System (HIMARS). Accom- 
panying Marine Air Ground Task Forces 
(MAGTFs) in all types of expeditionary 
operations, EFSS will be the primary in- 
direct fire-support system for the vertical- 
assault element of the Ship -To -Objective 
Maneuver (STOM) force. As such, the 
EFSS launcher, the mobility platform, a 
portion of the basic load of ammunition, 
and a portion of its crew will be inter- 
nally transportable by a single CH-53E/K 
helicopter or a single MV-22B tilt-rotor 
aircraft, and will possess the greatest pos- 
sible range and flexibility of employment 
for operational maneuver from the sea. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The EFSS will expand the maneuver 
commander's spectrum of fire support 



options and be capable of successfully 
engaging a spectrum of potential point 
and area targets, including motorized, 
light armored and dismounted person- 
nel; command and control systems; and 
indirect- fire systems. The EFSS will af- 
ford the MAGTF commander increased 
flexibility in tailoring his fire-support sys- 
tems to support the scheme of maneuver. 
EFSS-equipped units will be particularly 
well suited for missions requiring speed, 
tactical agility, and vertical transportabil- 
ity. The EFSS design and configuration 
will ensure that its tactical mobility, in the 
air and on the ground, is equal to that of 
the force supported. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The EFSS Program is in production 
and deployment. Full rate production 
was approved in June 2008 and Initial 
Operational Capability was achieved in 
March 2009, when one artillery regiment 
received six EFSS. 

Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 2012 
Quantity: 12 

Developer/Manufacturer: 
General Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical 
Systems, St. Petersburg, FL, with subcon- 
tractor TDA Armaments (THALES Group), La 
Ferte-Saint Aubin, France 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 149 



I 



ADVANCED FIELD ARTILLERY TACTICAL DATA SYSTEM (AFATDS) 
FAMILY OF SYSTEMS 




DESCRIPTION 

The AN/GYK- 
60 AFATDS is an 
automated fire sup- 
port command and 
control (C2) system 
that provides the 
MAGTF the ability to rapidly integrate all 
fire support assets into maneuver plans 
via digital data communications links. 
AFATDS supports the timely exchange of 
fire-support information and target pro- 
cessing essential to survival on the mod- 
ern battlefield through the integration of 
all fire support assets to include artillery, 
rockets, mortars, naval surface fire sup- 
port, and close air support. Additionally, 
the AN/PYG-1 Back-Up Computer Sys- 
tem (BUCS) and Mobile Tactical Shelter 
(MTS) are subsystems of the AFATDS 
program that fulfill requirements identi- 
fied in the USMC AFATDS Operational 
and Organizational Concept. 

The AN/PYG- 
1 BUCS is a hand- 
held computer sys- 
tem that resides on a 
ruggedized personal 
digital assistant (R- 
PDA) designed to 
provide a back-up 
capability for com- 
puting ballistic firing 
solutions, as well as 
survey and meteorological functions, in 
support of field artillery cannon systems. 
The BUCS hosts the following three soft- 
ware applications: (1) Centaur, the Light- 
weight Technical Fire Direction System 
application to compute safety param- 




eters and artillery technical firing solu- 
tions; (2) Field Artillery Survey Program 
(FASP) software to compute artillery sur- 
vey data; and (3) the meteorological soft- 
ware application to convert raw meteoro- 
logical Plot Balloon (PiBall) readings into 
ballistic and computer meteorological 
messages. 




The AN/TSQ-17 MTS is a modified 
U.S. Army-procured shelter mounted on 
a High-Mobility Multiple Wheeled Ve- 
hicle (HMMWV) employed by the bat- 
tery Fire Direction Center (FDC), Battery 
Operations Center (BOC), and Liaison 
Sections. It provides environmental pro- 
tection for the AFATDS, its associated 
peripherals, and the AFATDS Operators. 
The MTS is designed to protect against 
wind driven sand, dust, and rain. It will 
also permit FDC and liaison sections to 
perform required tasks at night without 
compromising light discipline. The MTS 
provides environmental protection at 
the battery level, while the Combat Op- 
erations Center (COC) provides environ- 
mental protection for AFATDS at the bat- 
talion and above. 



150 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



I 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

AFATDS will be the primary Com- 
manders Fire Support Coordination 
System employed from MEF to Battery 
level operations. AFATDS will be used to 
provide the commander with the ability 
to rapidly employ all fire support assets at 
his disposal. This will allow him the flex- 
ibility to determine what weapon systems 
to employ in shaping and dominating his 
battle space. AFATDS will greatly enhance 
the interchange of tactical data between 
all MAGTF Tactical Command and Con- 
trol Systems through the use of graph- 
ics, common operating applications and 
communications. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The AFATDS program is an Evolu- 
tionary Acquisition program, designated 
an Acquisition Category (ACAT) II for 
the Army. Since AFATDS is a multiple- 
service program and the Army is the 



Executive Service, there is no USMC- 
assigned ACAT designation, and by de- 
fault, the Commander Marine Corps 
Systems Command (MCSC) is the deci- 
sion authority for Marine Corps AFATDS 
program-related issues. The Program 
Decision Authority (PDA) was delegated 
by Commander, MCSC to the Director, 
Product Group 11 on 24 October 2007. 
The AFATDS program is in Post Mile- 
stone C - Sustainment (MS III December 
95). MTS is scheduled to achieve Initial 
Operational Capability (IOC) in October 
201 1. Full Operational Capability (FOC) 
will be achieved in October 2012. 



Procurement Profile: FY 201 1 
Quantity: 

Developer/Manufacturer: 
AFATDS: Raytheon, Ft Wayne, IN 

BUCS: Raytheon, Ft Wayne, IN 

MTS: SPAWAR, Charleston, SC 



FY 201 2 




CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 151 



I 



TARGET LOCATION, DESIGNATION, AND HAND-OFF SYSTEM (TLDHS) 



DESCRIPTION 

A joint fires/combined-arms tool, 
the TLDHS is a modular, man-portable, 
equipment suite that provides the capa- 
bility to quickly and accurately acquire 
targets in day, night, and near-all weather 
visibility conditions. It is the first system 
within the Department of Defense ap- 
proved for fielding that allows observ- 
ers to control close air support (CAS) as 
well as artillery and naval fire-support 
missions on a single system using digital 
communications. 



teams of the air and naval gunfire liaison 
companies, Marine Corps Special Op- 
erations Command, and the supporting 
training commands. TLDHS maintains 
interoperability with several systems, in- 
cluding AFATDS, Naval Fire Control Sys- 
tem, Joint Tactical Common Operational 
Picture Workstation Gateway, Common 
Laser Range Finder, and the AN/PRC- 1 1 7 
Tactical Combat Net Radio. TLDHS is of- 
ten employed in conjunction with intel- 
ligence surveillance and reconnaissance 
(ISR) assets by tactical air control parties. 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

TLDHS enables operators to conduct 
target acquisition and target hand-off to 
fire support agencies using existing and 
planned communications equipment to 
support maneuver units of the Marine 
Air Ground Task Force. Operators are 
able to accurately determine and desig- 
nate a target's location and then digitally 
transmit (hand-off) these target data to 
supporting-arms elements. The TLDHS 
employs a laser designator for precision- 
guided munitions and laser spot trackers, 
and it also generates accurate coordinates 
for global positioning system-guided 
weapons, including Excalibur and Joint 
Direct Attack Munitions. The primary 
operators are forward air controllers 
(FAC) and joint terminal attack controller 
(JTAC) for CAS, forward observers (FO) 
and joint forward observers (JFO) for 
field artillery missions, fire power control 



PROGRAM STATUS 

TLDHS is currently in Block II full 
rate production. TLDHS Block II pro- 
vides extended CAS functionality for the 
FAC/JTAC via enhanced digital interfaces 
with the A- 10, F-16, AV-8B and F/A- 18 
aircraft. Block II also adds the ability for 
FOs to conduct indirect-fire missions 
via the AFATDS. The program is sched- 
uled to reach FOC in the Fourth Quarter 
FY11. The AAO is 1,041 with more than 
750 fielded through FY2010. 

Procurement Profile: FY 201 1 FY 201 2 
Quantity: 281 

Developer/Manufacturer: 

Stauder Technologies, Saint Peters, MO 



152 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



THE FAMILY OF TARGET ACQUISITION SYSTEMS (FTAS) 



I 




DESCRIPTION 

FTAS is the Ground Combat Ele- 
ment's indirect-fire acquisition capabil- 
ity. The FTAS comprises the AN/TPQ-46 
Firefinder Ground Weapons Locating 
Radar (GWLR), the AN/TPQ-48 Light- 
weight Counter Mortar Radar (LCMR), 
and the Target Processing Set (TPS). 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The AN/TPQ-46 Firefinder provides 
the ability to locate indirect fire (IDF) 
weapons — which include mortars, ar- 
tillery, and rockets — within a 1600 mill 
search sector from ranges of .75 to 24 ki- 
lometers. It is the primary IDF detection 
system in the Marine Corps. 

The AN/TPQ-48 LCMR provides a 
6400 mil mortar-detection capability at 
ranges of 1 to 5 kilometers, short-range 
detection coverage, and slewing/cueing 



intelligence to the AN/TPQ-46 via the 
AN/TSQ-267. 

The AN/TSQ-267 TPS is the com- 
mand and control (C2) node of the FTAS 
capability providing radar deployment 
orders, support functions and target data 
to the counterfire/countermeasure-ser- 
vicing agent. The TPS uses the Advanced 
Field Artillery Tactical Data System as its 
primary communication, and C2 tool. 
As a program within Program Manager 
Radar Systems, the capability is being 
fielded under an Abbreviated Acquisition 
Program (AAP). 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The FTAS Program Office is support- 
ing the warfighter with all three systems. 
The Firefinder and LCMR are deployed. 
The Marine Corps is procuring and field- 
ing an additional 22 Firefinder radar sys- 
tems to support expanded requirements. 
The LCMR is being fielded under an AAP, 
with an Approved Acquisition Objec- 
tive (AAO) of 46 systems. Procurements 
for both the Firefinder and LCMR have 
been funded using overseas contingency 
operations procurement. AAO for TPS 
is seven sets, two for each active-duty ar- 
tillery regiment and one for the reserve 
component. Naval Surface Warfare Cen- 
ter, Crane, IN, is the system integrator. 

Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 2012 
Quantity: 

Developer/Manufacturer: 
AN/TPQ-46: Northrop Grumman/Thales 
Raytheon 

LCMR: Syracuse Research, Syracuse, NY 



l 153 



I 



JOINT NON-LETHAL WEAPONS PROGRAM (JNLWP) 



The Department of Defense defines 
non-lethal weapons as "weapons, de- 
vices and munitions that are explicitly 
designed and primarily employed to in- 
capacitate targeted personnel or materiel 
immediately, while minimizing fatalities, 
permanent injury to personnel and un- 
desired damage to property in the target 
area or environment. Non-lethal weapons 
are intended to have reversible effects on 
personnel and materiel." 

As U.S. troops overseas continue to 
face the daily challenges of irregular war- 
fare, non-lethal weapons are providing 
critical escalation-of-force tools in situ- 
ations where U.S. operating forces have 
only seconds to distinguish between ad- 
versaries and innocent civilians and act 
accordingly. Non-lethal weapons provide 
escalation-of-force options for warfight- 
ers, minimizing casualties and collateral 
damage to critical infrastructure. 

Non-lethal weapons have numer- 
ous counter-personnel and counter-ma- 
teriel applications across the spectrum 
of conventional and irregular warfare 
operations, providing capabilities that 
assist operating forces in discerning in- 
tent, delaying and deterring individuals, 
and discriminating targets in a variety 
of force application and force protection 
missions. Examples of operations with 
non-lethal weapons applicability include 
checkpoint/entry control, area (including 
forward operating bases and ports), con- 
voy security, law and order operations, 
humanitarian and disaster relief, stability 
operations, and urban operations. 



The Commandant of the Marine 
Corps serves as the Executive Agent for 
the DoD's Non-Lethal Weapons Program 
(JNLWP). Located in Quantico, VA, the 
Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Directorate 
manages the day-to-day operations of the 
program. 

The JNLWP sponsors research and 
development of new capabilities intend- 
ed to non-lethally deter, delay, deny or 
disrupt personnel or equipment, for ex- 
ample, stopping vehicles at checkpoints 
or clearing personnel from streets or fa- 
cilities. This includes research on new 
technologies — such as directed energy 
— that can provide a range of non-lethal 
effects and widen the choice of response 
options in multiple escalation-of-force 
scenarios. 

The program has put the following 
into the hands of warfighters: blunt-im- 
pact munitions (12-gauge and 40mm); 
optical warning/distraction devices (LA- 
9/P, Glare MOUT); acoustic hailing de- 
vices; vehicle arresting devices (vehicle 
lightweight arresting device and the por- 
table vehicle arresting barrier); mark- 
ing munitions, flash-bang grenades, and 
temporary incapacitation devices, such as 
human electro-muscular incapacitation 
devices (TASERs®); and escalation-of- 
force mission modules. 



154 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



HAILING AND WARNING GREEN BEAM LASER SYSTEMS 



I 



DESCRIPTION 

The Marine Corps adopted the use of 
Green Beam Laser Systems in support of 
Escalation of Force (EoF) type missions. 
This non-lethal device provides a visual 
warning capability to gain the attention of 
personnel approaching lethal force autho- 
rized zones. The current systems autho- 
rized for use are the Green Beam Designa- 
tor IIIC with the Safety Control Module 
(GBD-IIIC SCM) and the GLARE MOUT 
532P-M (Mini-Green) systems. These sys- 
tems provide safe and effective visual hail 
and warning technology that minimize 
the risk of injury or death to civilian and 
military personnel as well as limit collat- 
eral damage to property and local infra- 
structure. To help in further reducing the 
risk of injury, a Safety Control Module 
(SCM) has been incorporated onto the 
GBD-IIIC. The SCM prevents unsafe laz- 
ing of personnel that are within the nomi- 
nal ocular hazard distance of the system. 
Once incorporated on the GBD-IIIC, the 
system is designated as the LA-9/P. 



mounted, short-range (25 to 218 yards) 
device, while the LA-9/P provides a long- 
range capability (75 to 1,094 yards) to 
protect Marines against the threat of Ve- 
hicle Borne Improvised Explosive Devices 
(VBIEDs). 

PROGRAM STATUS 

A total of 1,185 GBD-IIICs have been 
fielded to date. All fielded GBD-IIICs have 
since been modified to incorporate the 
SCM, and the device is now designated 
as the LA-9/P. An additional 288 LA-9/ 
Ps have been procured and delivered to 
the Marine Corps during FY2010 to meet 
expanded operational requirements. The 
GLARE MOUT 532P-M was initially pro- 
vided to the Marine Corps by the Army's 
Rapid Equipping Force in 2008. The Ma- 
rine Corps procured an additional 948 
systems in FY2010. Both the LA-9/P and 
the GLARE MOUT 532P-M will be re- 
placed by the Ocular Interruption Device 
beginning in FY2015. 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The LA-9/P and GLARE MOUT 
532P-M allow personnel engaged in com- 
bat, stability and security, and force pro- 
tection operations to employ an intense 
visual cueing device to hail and warn 
personnel and vehicles at safe standoff 
distances. The GLARE MOUT 532P-M 
and LA-9/P provide Commanders with 
complementary, non-lethal hailing and 
warning capabilities in support of their 
EoF missions. The GLARE MOUT 532P- 
M provides personnel with a weapon- 



Procurement Profile: 


FY 2011 


FY 2012 


LA-9/P: 








GU\REMOUT 






532P-M: 









Developer/Manufacturer: 
TJ Inc., Christmas, FL 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 155 



I 



VENOM™ NON-LETHAL TUBE LAUNCHED 
MUNITIONS SYSTEM (NL/TLMS) 



DESCRIPTION 

The VENOM™ NL/TLMS is a 40mm, 
multi-shot, electrically actuated, non-le- 
thal munitions grenade launcher that can 
be mounted to the High-Mobility Mul- 
tipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) 
Marine Corps Transparent Armored Gun 
Shield (MCTAGS) turret, the Mine Resis- 
tant Ambush Protected (MRAP) vehicle 
Objective Gunner Protection Kit (OGPK) 
turret, or a M3-tripod. The NL/TLMS 
consists of three banks of ten launch 
tubes, each at fixed elevation angles of 10, 
20, and 30 degrees from the horizontal, 
achieving 360° degree coverage by tra- 
versing the MCTAGS and OGPK turrets. 
The NL/TLMS fires a multi-flash-bank 
grenade out to a maximum range of ap- 
proximately 135 meters. The system in- 
cludes a launcher, hand-controller, and 
cable subsystem. The hand-controller fir- 
ing system is used to select and fire the 
three banks of ten rounds each. 



PROGRAM STATUS 

A Limited User Evaluation was con- 
ducted on the NL/TLMS by representatives 
of the operating forces at the Expedition- 
ary Systems Evaluation Division (ESED) 
of the Naval Surface Warfare Center Crane 
Division located in Fallbrook, CA in April 
and May 2009. Additionally the U.S. Army 
Tank-Automotive and Armaments Com- 
mand (TACOM) is scheduled to conduct 
a 500-mile road test, followed by live-fire 
testing with the NL/TLMS attached to a 
MRAP OGPK turret in September 2010 to 
safety- certify the system for use on MRAP 
vehicles. The 25 NL/TLMS originally 
planned to be shipped to Afghanistan in 
the Second Quarter FY2010 will now be 
shipped upon successful completion of 
the TACOM test and new equipment 
training to provide the NL/TLMS capabil- 
ity on MRAP vehicles and HMMWVs. 

Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 2012 
VENOM™: 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The NL/TLMS will enable Marines 
to deter and dissuade errant vehicle op- 
erators from encroaching security zones 
established during convoy, vehicle check- 
point, and entry control point operations 
by providing a high volume of non-lethal 
fire at range during day and night missions. 
This capability will increase the standoff 
distance between Marines and a potential 
threat allowing time to determine intent 
and escalate force if necessary. 



Developer/Manufacturer: 

Combined Systems, Inc., Jamestown, PA 



156 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



MISSION PAYLOAD MODULE NON-LETHAL 
WEAPONS SYSTEM (MPM-NLWS) 



I 



DESCRIPTION 

The Mission Payload Module Non- 
Lethal Weapons System (MPM-NLWS) 
program will develop and field a new 
vehicle-mounted, tube-launched muni- 
tions-delivery system with a novel pyro- 
technic munition designed to suppress 
targeted personnel. It will distract, dis- 
orient or degrade an individual's ability 
to perform a specified action within a 
targeted zone of influence. The objective 
of the program is to provide improved 
non-lethal counter-personnel capabili- 
ties to operating forces for controlling 
crowds, denying and defending areas, 
controlling access, and engaging threats 
while providing increased standoff dis- 
tances for protection of friendly forces. 
The MPM-NLWS system will dispense 
non-lethal munitions and provide lon- 
ger range, greater area coverage, extended 
duration, and better scalability of effects 
than in-service non-lethal weapon sys- 
tems. The initial increment of the MPM- 
NLWS will be mounted onto the Marine 
Corps Transparent Armored Gun Shield 
(MCTAGS) on a High-Mobility Multi- 
purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) or 
its replacement vehicle. 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The MPM-NLWS will allow the Ma- 
rine infantryman to effectively launch 
non-lethal munitions to a broader area 
with a greater duration of effects and 
volume of fire. Employment of the MP-' 
MNLWS will provide commanders with 
additional options short of lethal force 
and greater flexibility in implementing 
rules of engagement with less-restrictive 
measures. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The MPM-NLWS achieved Milestone 
A in 2004. The Capability Development 
Document was approved in November 
2007. Technology Development Phase 
contracts were awarded to industry in the 
third quarter FY 10. A Milestone B deci- 
sion is anticipated in the First Quarter 
FY2012. The Approved Acquisition Ob- 
jective is 312 units, with IOC anticipated 
in the First Quarter FY2016. 

Developer/Manufacturer: 
To be determined. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 157 



ESCALATION OF FORCE MISSION-MODULE (EOF-MM) 



DESCRIPTION 

The Escalation of Force Mission- 
Module contains equipment required to 
satisfy the operational requirement for an 
enhanced capability to apply nonlethal 
force. The EoF-MM will consist of select- 
ed equipment that provides operational 
capabilities for use during escalation of 
force situations incurred primarily, but 
not exclusively, when operating under 
restricted rules of engagement. The EoF- 
MM will provide a variety of capabilities 
for the following requirements: 

• Vehicle and Entry control point 

• Convoy security 

• Crowd control and Detain personnel 

• Conduct search 

• Clear facilities and Conduct cordon 

• Urban patrol 

• Establish and secure perimeter 

The basic building block of the EoF- 
MM is the Equipment Set. Each Equip- 
ment Set will consist of specific material 
and non-material solutions that, when 
used together, enable Marines to ade- 
quately and safely complete a select mis- 
sion capability task. Two or more Equip- 
ment Sets combine to form a Capability 
Module that provides the equipment and 
supplies to perform a given task, such as 
establish and secure perimeters or con- 
duct cordons. 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The EoF-MM provides the appropri- 
ate weapons and equipment to employ a 
variety of non-lethal tactics and conduct 
a range of non-lethal operations. The 
fielding of the EoF-MM to the operating 
forces is intended to augment existing le- 
thal capabilities. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

EOF-MM Capability Sets will be pro- 
cured in increments, which will include 
Equipment Sets outfitted for specific ca- 
pabilities. The first increment will consist 
of 78 systems, of which 20 have already 
been sent in theater to fulfill an Urgent 
Universal Need Statement. The remain- 
ing 58 systems will be fielded throughout 
FY201 1 and will coincide with the dispos- 
al of the Force Protection Capability Sets 
that are presently in service. The capabil- 
ity required for the second increment is 
currently being developed by DC, CD&I 
and the quantity and delivery schedule are 
yet to be confirmed. 

Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 2012 
EoF-MM: 20 

Developer/Manufacturer: 

Aardvark Tactical Incorporated, Azusa, CA 



158 I USMC CONCEPTS & -PROGRAMS 2011 



I 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 159 




PART 6: A 




AVIATION STRATEGY 



I 



Fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft or- 
ganic to the Marine Air Ground Task 
Force (MAGTF) shape the battlespace 
and fight the battle, often in direct sup- 
port of individual Marines on the ground. 
This air-ground combined-arms team 
has proven unequalled in answering the 
Nation's calls across the spectrum of op- 
erations, from humanitarian assistance to 
delivering ordnance on target during cri- 
sis and conflict. 

Today, the priority is to replace legacy 
aircraft — some of which have been fly- 
ing since the Vietnam War — with far 
more capable aircraft. The Marine Corps 
challenge is to remain engaged operation- 
ally, sustaining the force while executing a 
transition strategy for the future. In that 
regard, the FY1 1 Marine Aviation Plan is 
a phased plan looking out ten years and 
beyond, incorporating force structure 
changes to balance the active-duty and 
reserve components. The Marine Corps 
is introducing generation-skipping tech- 
nologies while providing critical man- 
power increases simultaneously to all fly- 
ing squadrons and selected sections of the 
Marine Aircraft Group (MAG) and Ma- 
rine Aircraft Wing (MAW) headquarters. 
Critical to this effort are our numerous 
transition task forces leading the way as 
we transition from legacy aircraft to new 
platforms. 

The Marine Corps transition strategy 
can be separated into two mutually sup- 
portive, but challenging efforts: sustain 
the legacy fleet, and transition to new 



aircraft. The FY 11 Marine Aviation Plan 
is our roadmap for navigating through 
these challenges, to ensure our continued 
capability to carry out all six functions of 
Marine aviation: Assault Support, Anti- 
Aircraft Warfare, Offensive Air Support, 
Electronic Warfare, Control of Aircraft 
and Missiles, and Aerial Reconnaissance. 
This living document outlines the Ma- 
rine Corps' multiyear transition plan to a 
dramatically changed fleet, and provides 
details for: 

• Legacy aircraft modernization 

• Marine Aviation Command and Con- 
trol System (MACCS) sustainment 

• Aviation Ground Support systems 
sustainmentF-35B Short TakeOff / 
Vertical Landing Joint Strike Fighter 
(STOVL JSF) 

• MV-22B Osprey 

• H-l upgrades program (UH-1Y and 
AH-1Z) 

• KC-130J transition and Harvest Hawk 
system introduction 

• CH-53K program and heavy lift 
requirements 

• Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) 
programs and upgrades 

• Operational support aircraft 
sustainment and upgrades 

• Common Aviation Command and 
Control System (CAC2S) 

• AN/TPS-80 Ground/ Air Task Oriented 
Radar (G/ATOR) 

• Composite Tracking Network 



CHAPTER 3: PR06R- ■.■■:■■ I 161 



I 



AVIATION COMBAT ELEMENT (ACE) 
LEGACY AIRCRAFT MODERNIZATION 



The Marine Corps has several sig- 
nificant aviation modernization pro- 
grams underway to restore and enhance 
the capabilities of its existing aircraft and 
systems. These modernization efforts are 
vital to the Marine Corps' near- to mid- 
term combat capabilities. 



include lightweight ceramic armor and 
lightweight armored aircrew seats. CH- 
46E readiness and utilization rates are at 
historic highs, and the efforts underway 
will help these aircraft perform the mis- 
sion safely and effectively until their re- 
tirement in FY20 17. 



CH-46E SEA KNIGHT 



CH-53E SUPER STALLION 




The CH-46E Sea Knight performs 
medium-lift combat missions in the ex- 
ecution of the assault support function of 
Marine aviation. The CH-46E is fulfilling 
critical roles in combat operations around 
the globe and continues to be deployed 
with Marine Expeditionary Units. Sus- 
tainability, performance improvements, 
and paylo ad- recovery programs are es- 
sential to ensure the platform continues 
to meet MAGTF and joint warfighting 
requirements through 2019. Because the 
CH-46E continues to play a vital role in 
support of overseas contingency opera- 
tions, aircraft survivability equipment 
systems are being upgraded, including the 
missile warning system, countermeasures 
dispensing system and a system to defeat 
infrared missiles. Numerous weight re- 
duction initiatives have commenced and 



The heavy-rift CH-53E Super Stallion 
helicopter has been key to the assault sup- 
port function of Marine aviation. How- 
ever, the CH-53E cannot support the 
range and payload requirements of future 
Marine Corps warfighting concepts. The 
current fleet of aircraft is being flown at 
higher rates than planned due to global 
commitments. A sustainment strategy 
has therefore been implemented to ad- 
dress critical fatigue, obsolescence, and 
reliability issues. A fully new-build design 
of the Marine Corps heavy-lift platform, 
the CH-53K — focusing on reliabil- 
ity, maintainability, cost of ownership, 
and performance — is required to meet 
MAGTF and joint warfighting require- 
ments during the next 25 years. 



162 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 201 



I 



AV-8B HARRIER 




The AV-8B Harrier remains in the 
fight. The Open Systems Core Avionics 
Requirement (OSCAR), which updates 
obsolete software and computer equip- 
ment, has been improved to increase the 
weapons and sensors capabilities of this 
legacy aircraft. OSCAR with Operation- 
al Flight Program (OFP) H6.0 enables 
the AV-8B to carry the Digital Improved 
Ejector Rack (DITER) as part of its sus- 
pension equipment. This allows the Har- 
rier to carry multiple Joint Direct Attack 
Munitions (JDAMs), and, coupled with 
recent LITENING carriage expansion in 
H5.0, which includes the centerline sta- 
tion, this will allow for a more robust and 
diverse weapons mixes. In addition to 
the DITER, the AV-8B will upgrade to the 
2 IX radar tape and receive a fully inte- 
grated ALE-47 countermeasures system. 

Once OSCAR was fielded, every 
follow-on OFP included the AIM-120B 
Advanced Medium Range Air to Air Mis- 
sile (AMRAAM) as part of the authorized 
AV-8B weapons inventory. The addition 
of the MV-22 Osprey to the ACE, and the 



limited defense capability of the amphibi- 
ous task force, cemented the requirement 
for a beyond-visual-range missile for the 
U.S. Marine Corps Harrier. During H6.0 
Operational Test, the AIM-120B will be 
validated in order to expand the envelope 
with the 2 IX radar tape and permanently 
added to the inventory of air-to-air weap- 
ons. AMRAAM allows the AV-8B to en- 
gage enemy air threats at a much greater 
range than does its AIM-9 Sidewinder 
missile, and provides a potent deterrent. 

The upgrades to the LITENING pod 
continue to improve the AV-8B's lethality 
and survivability. The third-generation 
forward-looking infrared set, dual field- 
of-view television seeker, and infrared 
marker provide improved target recog- 
nition and identification and precision 
targeting capability. The "Plug and Play 
II" assemblies provide the pod with the 
Combat Information Network Appli- 
cation System (CINAPS), which stores 
imagery and video that can be accessed 
through the Combat Net Radio System 
(CNRS). Additionally, Plug and Play II 
pods are outfitted with a digital video re- 
corder to replace the obsolete 8mm tape 
recorder. The Marine Corps continues to 
incorporate new radios and waveforms 
within the pod that will pave the way for 
an aircraft data link, allowing the pod 
to act as a digital bridge in a larger net- 
work and to transmit stored images and 
streaming video over greater distances. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 163 



I 



F/A-18 HORNET 




The F/A-18 will continue to see tacti- 
cal enhancements and service life manage- 
ment, as it will remain active for the next 
12 years. The F/A-18 A-D aircraft will re- 
quire service life extensions and upgrades 
to bridge the gap to the complete fleet of 
fifth-generation jets, the F-35 Joint Strike 
Fighters. In early 201 1, the legacy Hornet 
is limited to 8,000 flight hours. Scheduled 
high flight hour inspections will increase 
the life span by 600 hours, while further 
inspections and maintenance through a 
service life extension program will allow 
the legacy Hornet to achieve 10,000 flight 
hours. Through the Hornet Integrated 
Master Plan, individual aircraft will be 
monitored and placed into scheduled de- 
pot-level maintenance in order to allow 
fleet squadrons to maintain their required 
aircraft on the flight line throughout the 
year. Although wing-root life expectancy, 
landings, and catapults and traps are all 
concerns, increasing aircraft flight hours 
is now the most critical aspect of ensur- 
ing specific F/A-18 A-D aircraft remain 
operational to scheduled sundown in 
FY2023. 



These legacy Hornets are relevant in 
tomorrow's fight, however. In order to 
ensure responsive Marine aviation strike- 
fighter capability, the baseline Hornet 
needs to be equivalent to the Lot XXI 
F/A-18. Engineering Change Proposal 
583 upgrades provide Lot F/A-18A+/C 
with a NACES ejection seat, the Joint Hel- 
met Mounting Cuing System, Multifunc- 
tional Information Distribution System/ 
Link- 16, the APG-73 radar, and the abil- 
ity to deliver current and future weapons. 
Marine F/A-18s will also incorporate up- 
grades to the in-service ALR-67v(3) radar 
warning receiver, the ALQ-214 and ALE- 
47 electronic weapons suite, and the APG- 
73 radar. As with the AV-8B, the LITEN- 
ING pod continues to provide the F/A-18 
with a superior targeting capability. 

EA-6B PROWLER 




EA-6B Prowlers are an essential, 
combat-proven element of the MAGTF 
and joint force. Their primary mission is 
electronic warfare (EW), which includes 
electronic attack (EA), electronic warfare 
support (ES), and electronic protection 



164 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



I 



(EP). EA-6B squadrons are in the process 
of transitioning to the Improved Capa- 
bilities III (ICAP III) weapon system. The 
core of the ICAP III is the ALQ-218 digital 
receiver system, the same system the Navy 
adapted for the new EA- 1 8G Growler. This 
is the first significant receiver upgrade to 
the Prowler since its fleet introduction in 
1971, and makes advanced signal target- 
ing possible. These new receivers and the 
additional computing capacity in ICAP 
III enable improved aircrew situational 
awareness, more precise and effective 
jamming, increased readiness and avail- 
ability, and a reduction in life cycle costs. 
The Marine Corps received its first 
ICAP III in April 2010 and plans to com- 
plete the transition to an all-ICAP III 
force by FY 2012. During this time the 
Marine Corps will retain its four opera- 
tional squadrons (VMAQs) with Prima- 
ry Mission Aircraft Inventory (PMAI) 
of 20 Prowlers. This structure will be 



maintained into 2016, at which time the 
USMC EA-6B "sundown" will begin, with 
one squadron standing down per year 
until finished in 2019. 

There will be no single platform to 
replace the EA-6B. Rather, EW capabil- 
ity for the MAGTF will be provided from 
numerous airborne and ground-based 
systems. The vision of MAGTF EW is a 
composite of manned and unmanned 
surface, air, and space-based assets, fully 
networked and collaborating to provide 
the MAGTF commander the ability to 
control the EM spectrum at the time and 
place of his choosing. For the next decade, 
however, the EA-6B ICAP III will be the 
cornerstone of MAGTF EW and will be 
joined over time by capabilities fielded on 
UAS, fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft and 
the Joint Strike Fighter, as well as in the 
Radio Battalions and other units within 
the GCE. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 165 



I 



AVIATION GROUND SUPPORT (AGS) 



3^J*2 




The Marine Wing Support Group 
(MWSG) provides functional support to 
enable Marine aviation operations in an 
expeditionary environment. These capa- 
bilities are also relevant to the joint force 
commander on the battlefield, where for- 
ward basing and rapid aviation-support 
might be required. AGS is scalable and 
sustainable, but must continue to mod- 
ernize to support current and future avia- 
tion combat element expeditionary op- 
erations. The MWSGs and Marine Wing 
Support Squadrons (MWSSs) are under- 
going several equipment and structure 
refinements and capability enhancements 
to plan and deploy rapidly and to provide 
AGS to the ACE commander's training 
and wartime requirements. Additionally, 
the MWSGs and MWSSs will integrate 
improvements in logistics processes and 
information technologies as part of the 
current logistics modernization (LOG- 
MOD) initiatives. 

Continued operational, training and 
equipment enhancements will keep AGS 
on par with evolving Marine Corps future 
operational and logistics concepts. Future 
AGS capability must provide measured 
AGS: required amounts of fuel, ammuni- 
tion, logistics, and ACE-specific services 
must be ready at a time and place of the 

166 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



ACE or site commander's choosing. The 
MWSS will maintain its core capability 
to establish and operate one forward op- 
erating base (FOB, or main airfield) and 
two forward arming and refueling points 
(FARPs) simultaneously. Embedded 
within the MWSS will be task-organized 
and equipped capability sets (internal to 
the squadrons and loaded aboard Mari- 
time Prepositioning Force ships) that can 
be employed rapidly for ACE mission 
tasking. Through capability enhance- 
ments, the MWSS will reduce its foot- 
print ashore and have the ability to set up 
swiftly, provide necessary AGS for short- 
duration operations, and displace and 
relocate within minutes. Using mobility 
to reduce vulnerability will be central to 
ACE force protection; also, military po- 
lice resident in the Marine Aircraft Wing 
enhances security and law-enforcement 
capability should the ACE be engaged at 
operational sites. 

AGS COMMAND AND CONTROL 

Key to the effective sustainment of 
the ACE and MAGTF fight will be greater 
integration into the ACE command and 
information architecture. To ensure seam- 
less mission planning and operations for 



I 



AGS, the MWSS Aviation Ground Sup- 
port Operations Center (AGSOC) will be 
linked to the ACE command information 
network and site command network to 
monitor ACE support requirements, to 
provide increased situational awareness 
to higher and adjacent commands, and to 
act rapidly to support ACE operations. 

LOGISTICS INTEGRATION 

The integration of all logistics assets 
ashore will be a critical enabler to MAGTF 
operations. Interoperability between the 
logistics combat element (LCE) and the 
MWSS will remain seamless. 

EXPEDITIONARY AIRFIELD 
(EAF) / AIRCRAFT RESCUE AND 
FIRE FIGHTING MODERNIZA- 
TION (ARFF) 

The AGS modernization initiative 
will ensure that the MWSS is capable of 
supporting the ACE during expedition- 
ary maneuver warfare operations. The in- 
tent of the expeditionary airfield (EAF)/ 
aircraft rescue and nrefighting (ARFF) 
modernization initiative is to provide a 
more rapidly deployable, maneuverable 
and responsive expeditionary airfield ca- 
pability that supports advanced aviation 
systems and platforms. EAF/ ARFF mod- 
ernization programs include: 

• Advanced lightweight matting capable 
of supporting F-35B Lightning II 
operations 

• Man-portable, all-weather airfield 
lighting systems 

• Rapidly- deployable, self-contained 
airfield damage-repair systems 



METEOROLOGICAL SUPPORT 




Meteorological and Oceanographic 
(METOC) Functional Realignment: 

Weather services capability will move 
seamlessly from the MWSG to the MACG 
while continuing to provide precise 
weather information and forecasts to the 
MAGTF. This shift will align function- 
ally our METOC support capabilities and 
ensure tactical capabilities become fully 
integrated with C4I architectures. ME- 
TOC capabilities will deploy as forward 
detachment units and will enhance a 
commander's ability to support forward- 
deployed units through networked ME- 
TOC capabilities. Additionally, this will 
enhance the commander's battlespace 
awareness through environmental sens- 
ing capabilities for integration onto the 
common operating picture (COP). 

Meteorological Mobile Facility 
Replacement - Next Generation: The 
Meteorological Mobile Facility Replace- 
ment-Next Generation (METMF(R)- 
NEXGEN) replaces the legacy METMF(R) 
weather van to provide a modular 
and scalable meteorological capabil- 
ity throughout the battlespace. It uses an 

CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 167 



HMMWV-mounted shelter outfitted to 
provide real-time environmental sens- 
ing and weather data in support of the 
MAGTF. The METMF(R) NEXGEN will 
enable the METOC forecaster to turn en- 
vironmental data into actionable intelli- 
gence, which will in turn facilitate timely 
operational decision-making. 

Regional Meteorological Centers: 
The Regional Meteorological Centers 
(RMC) became operational in FY 2009 
and provide centralized METOC support 
via consolidated hub architectures on 
each coast (MCAS Cherry Point, NC and 



MCAS Miramar, CA). Advanced tech- 
nology and capabilities allow the RMCs 
to distribute meteorological forecasts, 
weather warnings and advisories, and tac- 
tical weather products to Marine Corps 
air stations and facilities in the continen- 
tal United States. The RMC also serves 
as a training center for METOC person- 
nel and ensures that entry-level METOC 
personnel are trained to provide METOC 
support during garrison and ACE com- 
mands during training operations. 



168 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



AVIATION TRAINING SYSTEM (ATS) 



I 



DESCRIPTION 

Today's dynamic operational en- 
vironment requires Marine aviation to 
focus its training more effectively and 
efficiently in order to sustain the high- 
est levels of combat readiness. ATS inte- 
grates Marine aviation training processes 
and structures into a single, unified, and 
holistic system that spans all communi- 
ties. ATS is a completely integrated train- 
ing system that links training cost with 
readiness in order to provide the MAGTF 
commander with combat-ready units. 

SCOPE 

ATS integrates and coordinates policy, 
manpower, equipment, and fiscal require- 
ments of post-initial accession training 
for Marine aviation officers and enlisted 
personnel. The system also integrates 
initial accession aircrew training (Core 
Skill Introduction) for aviation units that 
conduct platform specific aviation train- 
ing (for example, the Fleet Replacement 
Squadron or the KC-130J Aviation Train- 
ing Unit). ATS concepts, processes, and 
programs are applicable to all current 
and future Marine aviation training pro- 
grams, including naval or joint programs 
in which Marine aviation participates. 



FOCUS 

ATS will integrate concepts, process- 
es, and programs for training that will 
institutionalize operational excellence re- 
flected in increased combat readiness, de- 
creased costs of training and preservation 
of personnel and assets. ATS will: 
• Provide operational commanders with 
a current, responsive, holistic and rele- 



vant training system for aircrew, aircraft 
maintenance, aviation ground support, 
and C2 personnel 

• Assist in the standardization of Marine 
aviation communities 

• Develop concurrent management pro- 
cesses to ensure the training system 
(curriculum, courseware, and training 
devices) remains relevant 

• Address training and safety issues 
through Systems Approach to Training- 
derived curricula and improved use of 
Operational Risk Management/Crew 
Resource Management/Risk Resource 
Management through risk mitigation 

• Stand up Marine Aviation Training Sys- 
tems Sites (MATSS) at MCAS to facili- 
tate the ATS program. 

PROCESS 

Training Management: Training is 
managed through the use of tools and 
processes that provide a common train- 
ing experience across the ATS, regardless 
of station, platform or system. Elements 
that support the management and inte- 
gration of training information are Train- 
ing Management Systems and Learning 
Management Systems. 

Learning Management Systems: The 
Training Management Process (TMP) 
provides an effective forum for the oper- 
ating forces to identify their training is- 
sues as the impetus for requirements gen- 
eration. The TMP determines common 
solutions to training issues, eliminating 
redundant "stovepipe" solutions that are 
wasteful and inefficient. 

Standardization and Evaluation: 
The process of training toward and 
achieving certifications, qualifications 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 169 



and designations is standardized and 
consolidated under the ATS. Standardiza- 
tion of aviation training and evaluation 
supports commanders by integrating 
and improving existing flight leadership, 
combat leadership and Naval Aviation 
Training and Operating Procedures Stan- 
dardization (NATOPS) and instrument 
programs. Standardization of training 
systems is facilitated by the Concurrency 
Management Process and Training Sys- 
tem Certification. 

Risk Mitigation: Risk is inherent in 
aviation operations, controlled and man- 
aged through awareness and aggressive 
training. Advancements in training de- 
vices allow for expansion of experience 
through exposure to real world scenarios, 
and require aircrew to exercise risk man- 
agement skills without exposing the air- 
crew or aircraft to risk of actual loss. The 
MATSS provides a venue that supports 
the instruction of the academic portions 
of risk management and aviation safety 
programs by experienced instructors. 
The skills to conduct risk management 
are found in the CRM, ORM, and RRM 
programs. These programs are integral 
to ATS and their principles are reinforced 
during all phases of training. 



MARINE AVIATION TRAINING 
SYSTEM SITES 

Implementation of ATS at each 
MAW is through MATSS, the focal point 
of ATS execution under the operational 
control of the Marine Aircraft Wing. It 
is product-, resource- and facility-inten- 
sive. ATS products/resources available at 
the MATSS include simulators and train- 
ing devices, web-based training man- 
agement systems, academic courseware, 
electronic classrooms, and the military, 
civilian and contractor manpower to sup- 
port the training system. The MATSS fa- 
cilitates simulator and academic resource 
use, standardization and evaluation, and 
training relevant and responsive to needs 
of the fleet. With increased USMC and 
joint-level awareness for ATS, leverag- 
ing common solutions across the various 
platforms, communities and services will 
result in significant cost savings, freeing 
funds for other requirements to enhance 
training across Marine aviation and the 
MAGTF. 



1 70 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 201 1 



F-35B LIGHTNING II SHORT TAKE-OFF VERTICAL LANDING (STOVL) 
JOINT STRIKE FIGHTER (JSF) 



I 



m f 




B* 



DESCRIPTION 

The F-35B Lightning II STOVL JSF 
is a single-engine, very low observable, 
supersonic strike-fighter aircraft capable 
of short takeoffs and vertical landings 
ashore and at sea. The multi-capable JSF 
combat system will combine the basing 
flexibility of the AV-8B with the multi- 
role capabilities, speed, and maneuver- 
ability of the F/A-18 and the electronic 
warfare dominance of the EA-6B. Co-lo- 
cated with Marine Air Ground Task Force 
maneuver elements, the JSF will fulfill 
the Marine Corps' air-to-ground and 
air-to-air requirements in support of the 
commander's intent. The very low radar 
cross-section, superior sensor integration 
and robust net-enabled capabilities far 
exceed even the most advanced legacy air- 
craft in the areas of survivability, lethality, 
and supportability. 

Designed from the outset with all six 
functions of Marine aviation — Assault 
Support, Anti-Aircraft Warfare, Offensive 
Air Support, Electronic Warfare, Control 
of Aircraft and Missiles, and Aerial Re- 
connaissance — in mind, the F-35B will 
ensure the MAGTF commander can ma- 
neuver in time and space at his discretion, 
and will deliver kinetic, non-kinetic, and 
intelligence, surveillance and reconnais- 



sance (ISR) resources (scaled appropri- 
ately), precisely when and where they are 
needed. 

The Joint Strike Fighter family of air- 
craft includes three variants: the B-model 
short takeoff, vertical landing variant for 
the Marine Corps; the A-model conven- 
tional takeoff and landing variant for the 
U.S. Air Force; and the C-model aircraft 
carrier-capable variant for the U.S. Navy. 
The JSF will replace the Marine Corps' 
AV-8B, EA-6B and F/A-18A, C and D; the 
Air Force's F-16C and A- 10; and the Na- 
vy's F/A-18C. Commonality among the 
variants helps reduce both development 
and lifecycle costs, and will result in the 
greatest "bang for the buck" compared to 
developing three new aircraft. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The STOVL JSF provides a multi- 
mission offensive air support and an of- 
fensive / defensive anti-air capability. The 
STOVL JSF also provides the MAGTF 
with a platform capable of tactical air 
control and tactical reconnaissance. Ad- 
ditionally, the aircraft will be able to pro- 
vide destruction of enemy air defenses as 
well as EW — electronic surveillance and 
electronic attack. 

The requirements for the JSF are fo- 
cused on readiness, the combined-arms 
concept, expeditionary capability, and 
expeditionary maneuver warfare. The F- 
35B will be a MAGTF integrator, bringing 
capabilities and options to the decision- 
maker. The JSF will incorporate advanced 
mission systems, including the Active 
Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) 
radar, Electro-Optical Targeting System 
(EOTS), and Distributed Aperture Sys- 

CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 171 



I 



tern (DAS). AESA, EOTS, and DAS infor- 
mation will be incorporated into a pilot's 
helmet-mounted display system, negat- 
ing the need for a traditional heads-up 
display in the cockpit. 

In addition to the F-35's inherent EW 
capability, the JSF has been selected as a 
threshold platform for the Next-Gener- 
ation Jammer (NGJ) program. The NGJ 
replaces legacy ALQ-99 jamming pods 
flown on both the EA-6B and EA- 1 8G air- 
craft. There is no intention to have a dedi- 
cated mission-specific EF-35; the NGJ is 
intended to be fielded on any variant of 
the more than 2,400 U.S. F- 3 5 aircraft to 
be acquired by all Services. (The Marine 
Corps' requirement is 420 aircraft.) This 
will move EW focus away from low den- 
sity/high-demand assets, like the aging 
EA-6Bs, and instead make EW ubiquitous 
throughout the battlespace. 

The Marine Corps' F-35B will be 
capable of operating from aircraft carri- 
ers, L-class amphibious assault ships, and 
main operating bases and austere sites 
ashore. (The Italian Navy will also em- 
ploy the STOVL variant on board their 
aircraft- capable ships.) The F-35B will 
have a 450-nautical mile combat radius 
when employed from a ship and be capa- 
ble of 550-foot short takeoffs with a full 
internal payload (two 1,000 pound-class 
weapons and two air-to-air missiles) on 
ship-launched missions. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The JSF is a joint program with the 
U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy, U.S. Marine 
Corps, and international partners Aus- 
tralia, Canada, Denmark, the Nether- 



lands, Norway, Turkey, and the United 
Kingdom. These countries are ground- 
floor participants and partners in the 
F-35 program. The JSF Systems Develop- 
ment and Demonstration (SDD) phase 
is scheduled to last until 2016. The SDD 
phase will include the certification of var- 
ious precision engagement capabilities, as 
well as of cutting-edge sensor fusion that 
will directly support MAGTF and joint 
force commanders. Since completing the 
critical design review, the prime contrac- 
tor has begun assembling long-lead items 
in preparation for starting low-rate initial 
production. 

The first STOVL test article, BF-L 
successfully completed first flight in June 
2008 and executed its first vertical land- 
ing in March 2010. In early 2011, BF-L 
BF-2, BF-3, and BF-4 are at NAS Patuxent 
River as our program builds to a total of 
five aircraft in developmental flight test. 
The Marine Corps' robust developmental 
test schedule will be followed by opera- 
tional test during which the design will be 
evaluated for operational suitability and 
employment with our operating forces. 

Procurement Profile: FY 201 1 FY 2012 

Quantity: 3 6 

Developer/Manufacturer: 

Air Vehicle: Lockheed Martin, Northrop 

Grumman, British Aerospace Engineering 

Propulsion: Pratt & Whitney and General 

Electric 



172 1 USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 201 1 



JOINT STRIKE FIGHTER (JSF) TRANSITION PLAN 



I 




The Corps will employ the F-35B 
to support the six functions of Marine 
Corps aviation: Assault Support, Anti- 
Aircraft Warfare, Offensive Air Support, 
Electronic Warfare, Control of Aircraft 
and Missiles, and Aerial Reconnaissance. 
This remarkable breadth of employment 
will allow the Marine Corps to decrease 
its tactical aviation inventory while in- 
creasing aircraft lethality, survivability, 
and supportability compared to those of 
legacy aircraft. 



The VMFAT-501 Warlords, the 
first Marine Corps JSF STOVL training 
squadron, stood up on 2 April 2010 as 
part of the JSF Integrated Training Center 
at Eglin AFB, Florida. VMFAT-501 will be 
assigned to 2d Marine Aircraft Wing for 
operational control and administrative 
control, but the Warlords will maintain 
a command training relationship and 
co-location with the U.S. Air Force 33d 
Fighter Wing. Students are expected to 
start training in 2012. The Operational 
Test and Evaluation (OT&E) detach- 
ment stands up at Edwards AFB during 
2012 and commences Block 2.0 OT&E 
in 2013. 

The Marine Corps' requirement for 
STOVL is 420 aircraft. Once the F-35B 
enters service, the Marine Corps will be- 
gin retirement of AV-8Bs and all models 
of the F/A-18 Hornet. All legacy tactical 
strike aircraft platforms should be retired 
by 2024. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 173 



MV-22B OSPREY 




high-altitude, 
aircraft. 



fuel-efficient turboprop 



DESCRIPTION 

The MV-22B Osprey tilt-rotor air- 
craft — the only such operational military 
aircraft in the world — is an advanced- 
technology vertical/short takeoff and 
landing (VSTOL), multi-purpose tactical 
aircraft that will replace the current fleet 
of Vietnam-era CH-46E helicopters. The 
MV-22B is a multi-mission aircraft de- 
signed for use by the Marine Corps, Navy, 
and Air Force. 

The MV-22B joins the Joint High 
Speed Vessel and Landing Craft Air Cush- 
ion as the seabasing connectors necessary 
to execute expeditionary maneuver war- 
fare. Specific missions for the MV-22B 
include expeditionary assault from land 
or sea; medium-lift assault support; aerial 
delivery; tactical recovery of aircraft and 
personnel; air evacuation; and rapid in- 
sertion and extraction. 

The MV-22B's design incorporates 
the sophisticated but mature technologies 
of composite materials, fly-by- wire flight 
controls, digital cockpits, and advanced 
manufacturing processes. The MV-22B's 
prop-rotor system, engine and transmis- 
sions are mounted on each wingtip and 
allow it to operate as a helicopter for take- 
off and landing. Once airborne, the na- 
celles rotate forward ninety degrees, tran- 
sitioning the MV-22 into a high-speed, 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The MV-22 will be the cornerstone of 
Marine Corps' assault support capability, 
with the speed, endurance, and surviv- 
ability needed to fight and win on tomor- 
row's battlefield. This combat multiplier 
represents a quantum improvement in 
strategic mobility and tactical flexibil- 
ity for expeditionary forces. The Osprey 
has a 325-nautical mile combat radius, 
can cruise at 262 knots, and is capable of 
carrying 24 combat-equipped Marines 
or a 12,500-pound external load. With a 
2,100 nautical-mile single-aerial refueling 
range, the aircraft also has a strategic self- 
deployment capability. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The Marine Corps' transition from 
the CH-46E to the MV-22B continues 
at the approximate rate of two Ospreys 
delivered per month and two squadrons 
transitioned per year. Production of the 
MV-22B is based on a block production 
strategy, which is designed to provide 
continual life-cycle and capability im- 
provements throughout the life of the 
platform. 

Block A-series aircraft are designed to 
serve as non-deployable, training aircraft 
only, and they include software enhance- 
ments, a nacelle reconfiguration, and ad- 
ditional reliability and maintainability 
improvements compared to the original 
aircraft design. As of January 2011, 30 
Block A aircraft have been delivered and 
were primarily in service at Marine Corps 
Air Station New River. 



174 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



I 



Block B-series aircraft are the deploy- 
able configuration of the MV-22B Osprey. 
These aircraft provide improvements in 
effectiveness and maintainability for op- 
erators and maintainers, including im- 
proved access to the nacelle for inspec- 
tion purposes and substantial reliability 
and maintenance improvements across 
the entire platform. As of January 2011, 
84 Block B aircraft had been delivered to 
the fleet. 

Block C series aircraft will incorpo- 
rate mission enhancements and increased 
operational capability. Enhancements 
will include multiple additions: weather 
radar; a forward-firing ALE-47 dispenser; 



improved hover coupled features; an im- 
proved environmental conditioning sys- 
tem; and a troop commander situational 
awareness station. The first Block C air- 
craft are projected to be delivered to the 
fleet in FY2012. 

Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 2012 
Block C: 30 30 

Developer/Manufacturer: 

Bell Helicopter Textron, Fort Worth, TX 

The Boeing Company, Philadelphia, PA 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 175 



I 



H-1 UPGRADE (UH-1Y VEN0M/AH-1Z VIPER) 





DESCRIPTION 

The H-1 upgrades program (UH-1Y/ 
AH-1Z) replaces the current two-bladed 
rotor system on the UH-1N and AH-1W 
aircraft with new four-bladed, all-com- 
posite rotor systems coupled with a so- 
phisticated, fully integrated, state-of-the- 
art cockpit in each model aircraft. The 
UH-1Y and AH-1Z also incorporate new 
performance-matched transmissions, a 
four-bladed tail rotor, four-bladed drive 
system, and upgraded landing gear. Ad- 
ditionally, structural modifications to 
the AH-1Z provide the aircraft six weap- 
ons stations — two more than on the 
AH-1W. The advanced cockpit common 
to both aircraft reduces operator work- 
load, improves situational awareness, 
and provides growth potential for future 
weapons and joint interoperability. The 
cockpit integrates onboard planning, 
communications, digital fire control, self- 
contained navigation, and night targeting 
and weapons systems in mirror-imaged 
crew stations. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The UH-1Y Venom (commonly re- 
ferred to as "Yankee") and the AH-1Z 
Viper (commonly referred to as "Zulu") 

1 76 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 201 1 



have approximately 84 percent identical 
components, which significantly benefits 
MAGTF maintainability and supportabil- 
ity. The H-1 upgrades program resolves 
existing operational UH-1N power mar- 
gin and AH-1W aircrew workload issues 
while enhancing significantly the tactical 
capability, operational effectiveness and 
sustainability of our attack and utility he- 
licopter fleet. 

The Marine Corps' UH-lNs are 
reaching the ends of their useful lives. Due 
to airframe and engine fatigue, they rou- 
tinely take off at maximum gross weight 
with no margin for error. Continued 
implementation of the Yankee (Forward) 
strategy - the successful completion of 
the first UH-1Y deployment (with the 
13th Marine Expeditionary Unit in July 
2009) and the first full squadron deploy- 
ment of Yankees to Afghanistan in the fall 
of 2009 — is a top Marine Corps aviation 
priority. Due to significant operational 
demands and aircraft attrition in the ex- 
isting attack and utility helicopter fleets, 
the Marine Corps adopted a "build new" 
strategy for the UH- 1 Y. 

Similarly, the Marine Corps has be- 
gun investing in non-recurring engineer- 
ing for the production of 58 AH- 1Z build 



I 



new aircraft. These AH-IZs will augment 
the existing AH-lWs, which will be re- 
manufactured. This combined build new 
and remanufacture strategy will enable 
the Marine Corps to increase the number 
of AH- Is available to support a Marine 
Corps of 202,000 personnel while miti- 
gating the operational shortfalls caused 
by aircraft attrition. New squadrons are 
being established in support of the Com- 
mandant's "202K" Grow-the-Force de- 
cision: HMLA-467 stood up at Marine 
Corps Air Station (MCAS) Cherry Point 
in October 2008; HMLA-469 stood up 
at MCAS Camp Pendleton in early 2009; 
and HMLA-567 will stand up at MCAS 
Cherry Point in April 201 1 and will per- 
form duties as the East Coast Tactical 
Training Unit for the UH-1Y conversion 
of all East Coast tactical squadrons. Both 
HMLA-467 and HMLA-567 will relocate 
to MCAS New River once hangar facili- 
ties become available in FY 2012-13. 



PROGRAM STATUS 

Forty- three production aircraft (31 
UH-lYs and 12 AH-IZs) were delivered 
through the end of FY 2010. The UH-1Y 
achieved IOC on 8 August 2008 and re- 
ceived its favorable full-rate production 
decision on 17 September 2008. The AH- 
1Z completed operational evaluation in 
July 2010 and is on schedule to achieve 
IOC in second quarter FY2011. The H-l 
upgrades overall procurement objective 
is 160 UH-lYs and 189 AH-IZs. 

Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 2012 
Quantity: 27 26 

Developer/Manufacturer: 

Airframe: Bell Helicopter Textron Inc., 

Fort Worth, TX 

Integrated Cockpit: Northrop Grumman, 
Woodland Hills, CA 

AH-1Z Target Sight System: Lockheed 
Martin, Orlando, FL 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 177 



I 



KC-130J HERCULES 




DESCRIPTION 

The KC-130 is a versatile four-engine 
tactical aerial refueler and assault-sup- 
port aircraft. It is the only long-range, 
fixed-wing assault-support capability or- 
ganic to the Marine Corps. The KC-130J, 
in addition to its increase in speed (+20 
percent) and range (+35 percent) com- 
pared to the legacy KC-130T, also features 
an improved air-to-air refueling system 
and a state-of-the-art flight station. Oth- 
er improvements include a Rolls Royce 
AE 2100D3 propulsion system, a Dowty 
R391 advanced-technology six-bladed 
propeller system, and a 250-knot cargo 
ramp and door, providing the MAGTF 
commander with a state-of-the-art, 
multi-mission, tactical aerial-refueler/as- 
sault-support transport asset to 2025 and 
beyond. All of the active forces' legacy 
KC-130 aircraft have been replaced with 
KC-130Js. Once the reserve squadrons 
have transitioned to the J model, a transi- 
tion that begins in FY2014 and finishes in 
FY2029, the Marine Corps will have one 
type/model/series tactical aerial-refueler/ 
assault-support aircraft. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The KC-130J provides tactical in- 
flight refueling for fixed-wing, rotary- 
wing, and tilt-rotor aircraft; rapid ground 
refueling of aircraft or tactical vehicles; 
assault air transport of air-landed or aer- 
ial-delivered (parachute) personnel and 



equipment; airborne command and con- 
trol augmentation; Pathfinder support; 
battlefield illumination; tactical aero- 
medical evacuation; and tactical recovery 
of aircraft and personnel support. 

In response to an Urgent Universal 
Need, the Marine Corps has integrated 
a bolt-on/bolt-off Multi-Sensor Imagery 
(MIR)/Weapon Mission Kit for in-service 
KC-130J aircraft. This kit, known as Har- 
vest HAWK, rapidly reconfigures the KC- 
130J aircraft into a platform capable of 
performing persistent MIR, targeting and 
delivery of precision fires using Hellfire 
and Griffin munitions. Future capability 
is planned to incorporate high-volume 
suppressive fires from a 30mm cannon. 
Harvest HAWK is designed as a comple- 
mentary capability that takes advantage 
of the aircraft's extended endurance and 
will not detract from the KC-130J's pri- 
mary mission of air-to-air and ground re- 
fueling. This force multiplier is well suited 
to the mission needs of the forward-de- 
ployed MAGTF. The KC-130J brings in- 
creased capability and mission flexibility 
to combat planning and operations. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The Marine Corps KC-130J require- 
ment (active and reserve) is 79 aircraft. 
The KC-130J is procured as a com- 
mercial-off-the-shelf aircraft currently 
in production. Current programming 
brings the total number of KC-130J air- 
craft to 56. Initial Operational Capability 
was achieved in 2005. 

Procurement Profile: FY 201 1 FY 201 2 
Quantity: 1 

Developer/Manufacturer: 

Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, 

Marietta, GA 



1 78 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 201 1 



CH-53K HEAVY LIFT HELICOPTER 



I 




Artist Rendition 

DESCRIPTION 

The CH-53K is critical to sea-based 
expeditionary maneuver warfare for the 
Marine Corps of 2025. The CH-53K will 
provide the Marine Corps the ability to 
transport 27,000 pounds of cargo out to 
110 nautical miles, generating three times 
the lift capability of the CH- 53E un- 
der the same environmental conditions 
while fitting within the same shipboard 
footprint. The CH-53K will provide 
unparalleled lift capability under high- 
temperature and high-altitude austere 
conditions, similar to those found in Af- 
ghanistan, thereby expanding greatly the 
commander's operational reach. It is the 
only shipboard-compatible helicopter 
that can lift 100 percent of Marine Corps 
equipment from amphibious shipping to 
inland objectives at high altitudes and in 
hot weather. 

Major system improvements of the 
new-build helicopter include: larger 
and more capable engines; an expanded 
gross weight airframe; an enhanced drive 
train; advanced composite rotor blades; a 
modern interoperable cockpit; improved 
external and internal cargo handling 
systems; and increased survivability and 



force-protection measures. The CH-53K 
is designed to reduce logistics shipboard 
reduce operating cost per aircraft, reduce 
direct maintenance man hours-per-flight 
hour, and increase survivability compared 
to the CH-53E. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

Maintainability and reliability en- 
hancements of the CH-53K will decrease 
recurring operating costs significantly, 
while improving aircraft efficiency and 
operational effectiveness compared to the 
in-service CH-53E. The CH-53E's fully 
burdened operating costs are estimated 
to exceed $27,000 per flight hour in 2016. 
The performance improvements will en- 
able the vertical insertion of two combat- 
loaded up-armored HMMWVs, one Light 
Armored Vehicle, or three 9,000-pound 
sustainment loads to three separate land- 
ing zones. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

In 2010 the CH-53K program con- 
ducted its Critical Design Review. Its 
critical technologies have reached their 
requisite maturity level and the aircraft is 
projected to meet or exceed all of its Key 
Performance Parameters. The team will 
begin assembling the first test aircraft in 
March 2011. 

Developer/Manufacturer: 
Sikorksy Aircraft, Stratford, CT 



CHAPTER 3; PROGRAMS I 179 



I 



UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS (UAS) 



DESCRIPTION 

The Marine Corps has employed 
UAS since 1986. Since 2001, the demand 
for dedicated aerial reconnaissance air- 
craft has grown exponentially, and UAS 
have played a critical part in supporting 
the aerial reconnaissance requirement. 
The Marine Corps has refined its UAS re- 
quirements and CONOPS, and has begun 
the procurement and fielding of improved 
systems at every level of the MAGTF. 

The Marine Corps UAS CONOPS di- 
vides UAS requirements into three levels 
that coincide with the various echelons of 
command in the MAGTF. The larger and 
more capable systems support higher lev- 
els of command, whereas the smaller but 
more numerous systems directly support 
lower tactical units. Requirements are: 

• Marine Corps Tactical UAS (MCTUAS): 
the in-service system is RQ-7B Shadow 

• Small Tactical UAS (STUAS): the 
in-service system is RQ-21 Integrator 

• Small UAS (SUAS): the in-service sys- 
tem is RQ-1 IB Raven 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT : MCTUAS 

As the largest MAGTFs, the MEF and 
MEB are supported by MCTUAS, the 
largest of our UAS systems. The Marine 
Corps currently supports this require- 
ment with the RQ-7B Shadow UAS. The 
first system was deployed with VMU- 1 to 
support OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM 
in September 2007. Employing electro- 
optical and infrared (EO/IR) sensors, 
communications relay payloads and laser 
designators, commanders on the ground 
have increased visual and communica- 
tions access within their areas of respon- 



sibility. The VMU squadron supports 
commands with route reconnaissance, 
fires integration and coordination as well 
as with force-protection enhancers prior 
to, during, and after their missions. 

PROGRAM STATUS : RQ-7B 
SHADOW 




Programmed upgrades for the 
RQ-7B include TCDL (Tactical Com- 
mon Data Link) and a UGCS (Universal 
Ground Control Station) that will in- 
crease joint interoperability with other 
aircraft, UAS, and data systems common 
within DoD. Procured as a near-term 
solution to shortfalls in the older RQ-2B 
program, the RQ-7B continues to pro- 
vide near-term capabilities in support 
of the MAGTF. Upgrades to the RQ-7B 
are planned through FY2016. These up- 
grades will smooth transition to a larger 
(Group-4) UAS that will to provide the 
MAGTF with full strike, electronic war- 
fare, and signals intelligence capabili- 
ties on board a faster UAS platform with 
greater endurance and also maintain an 
expeditionary support footprint. 

Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 2012 

Systems/Air Vehicle 

Quantity: 13/52 13/52 



180 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



I 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT : STUAS 

The MEU and the infantry regiment 
are supported by STUAS. These UAS and 
personnel are sourced as detachments 
from VMU squadrons in the Marine Air- 
craft Wings. These systems are designed to 
provide reconnaissance, communications 
relay and target acquisition. The Marine 
Corps contracts UAS services for this re- 
quirement under an ISR services contract 
with Insitu Inc. Under a fee-for-services 
construct, the ISR services contract cur- 
rently employs the Scan Eagle UAS. 



ble of performing aerial reconnaissance 
with EO or IR sensor within a radius of six 
nautical miles. SUAS are organic to bat- 
talion-size units and allow commanders 
to provide immediate aviation support to 
their own forces in the form of route re- 
connaissance, surveillance, fire direction, 
deception and harassment, security, and 
force-protection missions. After-action 
reports from Marines using these systems 
in combat reflect their desire to improve 
fielding, training, and capability for this 
organic aviation asset. 



PROGRAM STATUS : RQ-21A 
INTEGRATOR 

The Marine Corps has selected the 
RQ-21A Integrator (Insitu Inc.) as a 
government-owned material solution for 
this requirement, and we are immediately 
fielding this system in 20 1 1 under an Ear- 
ly Operational Capability (EOC). As 32 
systems are fielded, they will begin to re- 
place the remaining contract ISR services 
in OPERATION ENDURING FREE- 
DOM. The program recently completed 
source selection and is planned for LRIP 
the Fourth Quarter FY2012 and FRP and 
IOC in the Fourth Quarter FY2013. 



Procurement Profile: 
Systems/Air Vehicle 
Quantity: 



FY 2011 FY 2012 



0/0 



0/0 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT : SUAS 

Battalion-level units across the Ma- 
rine Corps are supported by their own 
organic SUAS. These UAS systems are 
small, hand-launched and highly mobile, 
each consisting of three air vehicles capa- 



PROGRAM STATUS : RQ-11B 
RAVEN 




The RQ-11B Raven (AeroVironment 
Inc.) is the current program of record. In 
2008, 467 RQ-11 systems began replacing 
all the older RQ-14 Dragon Eye (135 sys- 
tems). The Marine Corps has addition- 
ally purchased limited quantities of the 
smaller Wasp III UAS (AeroVironment 
Inc.) to perform a user assessment for 
its possible addition to the UAS Family 
of Systems. 

Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 2012 

Systems/Air 

Vehicle Quantity: 467/1 ,401 467/1 ,401 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS 



181 



I 



OTHER UAS APPLICATIONS 
Cargo UAS 

Cargo UAS has been added as an ini- 
tiative to enhance our assault support ca- 
pabilities and to reduce the vulnerability 
of ground logistics supporting Marines 
stationed at remote combat outposts. 
Contract cargo UAS service will be field- 
ed in 201 1, followed by a formal program 
of record that by FY2016 will provide 
the MAGTF with a UAS system capable 
of cycling five tons of supplies between a 
support base and remote outpost within a 
24-hour period. 



Electronic Attack and UAS 

The Marine Corps will incorporate 
an EA capability into current and future 
UAS platforms, partly to address the 
eventual retirement of EA-6B Prowlers. 
This EA capability in UAS will comprise 
a portion of the system-of systems-ap- 
proach by which electronic warfare capa- 
bilities are distributed across manned and 
unmanned aerial systems. The system-of 
systems-approach allows the nation to 
move away from low-density/high-de- 
mand assets (like the EA-6B) and make 
electronic warfare ubiquitous across the 
battlespace. 



182 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



OPERATIONAL SUPPORT AIRLIFT (OSA) 



I 




OSA aircraft provide time- sensitive 
air transport of high-priority passengers 
and cargo between and within a theater 
of war, and execute short-notice, time- 
critical logistical air missions, scalable to 
complement the economical and efficient 
use of tactical platforms. This frees up 
front-line tactical squadrons for higher- 
order missions and tasks, thereby serving 
as a combat multiplier for MAGTF, joint 
force, and regional combatant command- 
ers. OSA aircraft provide airlift in support 
of national defense, humanitarian assis- 
tance and disaster relief, theater security 
cooperation and engagement with US al- 
lies. 

Based on proven civil designs, these 
Marine Corps assets are 27 commercial- 
variant aircraft, ranging in size from an 
eight-passenger light twin-engine tur- 
boprop to 90-passenger jets. The Marine 
Corps operates four different types of 
aircraft to meet its operational support 
airlift requirements: 

• C-20G Gulfstream IV 

• C-9BSkytrain 

• UC-12B/F/W King Air 

• UC- 35C/D Citation 560 Ultra 
and Encore 



Marine Corps UC-35s are forward 
deployed in Southwest Asia, providing in- 
valuable daily support to the component 
commander and relief to MAGTF tactical 
aircraft by moving personnel and cargo 
throughout the theater. OSA aircraft have 
sufficient tactical radios to ensure inte- 
gration with MAGTF and joint opera- 
tions. UC-12W and UC-35D aircraft have 
been equipped with aircraft survivability 
equipment to detect and defeat enemy 
surface-to-air infrared missiles. 

Marine OSA supports the MAGTF 
directly at combined-arms exercises such 
as Enhanced Mojave Viper. The incor- 
poration of OSA into MAGTF exercises 
relieves participating tactical squadrons 
from much of the exercise-associated ad- 
ministrative logistical airlift requirements. 
This in turn enables tactical squadrons to 
focus time and resources on combat-re- 
lated flight training. 

The acquisition of low-risk, commer- 
cial-off-the-shelf aircraft is a cost-effec- 
tive way to provide MAGTF commanders 
relevant and sustainable operational sup- 
port. OSA aircraft provide swift, effective, 
short-notice, time-critical logistical air 
support, with aircraft flown by Marine 
aviators and fully integrated into MAGTF 
operations. 

CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 183 



I 



PROGRAM STATUS 

The Marine Corps has a Service- 
endorsed OSA Master Plan, developed to 
provide MAGTF commanders with the 
right mix of the right aircraft to ensure 
time-sensitive movement of personnel 
and cargo. The plan articulates delib- 
erated OSA aircraft recapitalization to 
modernize the Fleet to meet current and 
future needs, and prescribes a minimum 
quantity of 27 aircraft of four basic air- 
craft types. 

The C-9B is out of production, and is 
now 35 years old. A suitable replacement 
would provide an increase in capabilities 
and a reduction in operating costs. The 
replacement aircraft must have the abil- 
ity to transport larger payloads further 
distances. 

The C-20G is a Gulfstream G-IV 
aircraft, manufactured in Savannah, GA. 
Efforts to install ASE equipment are 
underway. 

The UC-35C/D aircraft are manu- 
factured by Cessna Aircraft in Wichita, 



KS. The UC-35D aircraft are having ASE 
equipment installed, as funds are made 
available. 

The UC-12B/F aircraft were made by 
Beechcraft Corporation, and average 27 
years of age. They are being replaced by 
the UC-12W, which is a King Air 350ER. 
The UC- 12W is manufactured by Hawker 
Beechcraft Corp, in Wichita, KS. The Ma- 
rine Corps received six UC-12W aircraft 
in FY2010. Integrated Developmental 
Test was completed in August 2010. The 
aircraft achieved Initial Operational Ca- 
pability in the Fourth Quarter FY2010. 
The procurement objective is 12 aircraft. 
Funding is being sought for remaining six 
aircraft. 

Procurement Profile: FY 201 1 FY 201 2 
UC-12W 2 

Developer/Manufacturer: 

Hawker Beechcraft Corporation, Wichita, KS 



184 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



MARINE AVIATION LOGISTICS TRANSFORMATION 



I 



Marine aviation is reshaping the 
Corps' aviation logistics elements to en- 
able more responsive, flexible, and reli- 
able combat support for future conflicts, 
while meeting today's readiness needs. 
Marine aviation logistics provides orga- 
nizational and intermediate levels of avi- 
ation maintenance, supply, ordnance, and 
avionics in support of the ACE as a key 
component of the MAGTR The Naval 
Aviation Enterprise's (NAE) continuous 
process improvement strategy — End-to- 
End Alignment (E2E) and AIRSpeed — is 
the key enabler to modernizing the time- 
tested Marine Aviation Logistics Sup- 
port Program (MALSP) and to providing 
the foundation for improving current 
readiness. 

Current Readiness (CR): Marine 
aviation commanders and leaders, in con- 
cert with the Naval Aviation Enterprise, 
are responsible for aligning and manag- 
ing the key processes supporting man- 
ning, equipment, and training to readi- 
ness levels that are necessary to generate 
core-competent units for warfighting 
missions. The process management deci- 
sions implemented by the TMS team lead 
through CR, with detailed analysis, sup- 
port attainment and sustainment of near- 
and long-term Marine aviation readiness 
goals and institute best practices that 
provide effective training, qualified per- 
sonnel, and efficient maintenance. The 
CR process links all decision-makers hor- 
izontally so that problems can be solved 
cross-functionally. 

Marine Aviation Logistics Support 
Program II (MALSP II): Marine Aviation 
Logistics Support Program II (MALSP 
II) is the expeditionary logistics solution 



for Marine aviation. It increases Marine 
aviation's ability to deploy, employ, sus- 
tain and redeploy rapidly to and from 
austere regions. MALSP II implements 
a demand-pull system utilizing logistics 
nodes across the chain that includes: the 
parent Marine Aviation Logistics Squad- 
ron, en-route support base (ESB), main 
operating base, and forward operating 
base. By applying the NAE E2E/ Airspeed 
methodologies, MALSP II becomes the 
comprehensive aviation logistics program 
that expands the future ACE's operational 
freedom of maneuver with a reliable and 
effective logistics system that is lighter, 
more adaptive, and proactive. 

In 20 1 0, the Marine Corps established 
an ESB in Bahrain to evaluate the MALSP 
II concept of operations. This proof of 
concept employs E2E/ AIRSpeed method- 
ologies in support of select aviation air- 
craft material support across the logistics 
nodal chain. In addition, MALSP II also 
introduced the first release of its infor- 
mation technology (IT) functionalities, 
called the Expeditionary Pack-Up Kit 
(EPUK). Encompassing both hardware 
and software, EPUK is a critical IT ca- 
pability to MALSP II, allowing near-real 
time satellite transaction for order, issue, 
stow, and receipt of aircraft parts requisi- 
tions. It is currently undergoing its field 
use evaluation. Upon completion, EPUK 
will be fielded to the ESB in support of 
future MALSP II proofs of concept. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 185 



I 



GROUND/AIR TASK-ORIENTED RADAR (G/ATOR) 




DESCRIPTION 

The AN/TPS-80 G/ATOR is a three- 
dimensional, expeditionary, short-/me- 
dium-range multi-role radar capable of 
detecting low-observable, low-radar cross 
section targets such as rockets, artillery, 
mortars, cruise missiles, and unmanned 
aerial systems. The G/ATOR is being de- 
veloped and fielded in three increments 
and will be employed by the Marine Air 
Ground Task Force (MAGTF) across the 
range of military operations. The three 
increments will cover both aviation and 
ground missions and will replace three 
in-service legacy radars and the function- 
ality of two systems already retired. 

Increment I is the Air Defense/Sur- 
veillance Radar. It provides real-time 
radar measurement data to the Tactical 
Air Operations Center (TAOC) through 
the AN/TYQ-23(V)4 Tactical Air Opera- 
tions Module, AN/TSQ-269 Mobile Tac- 
tical Air Operations Module (MTAOM), 
Composite Tracking Network (CTN), 
and the Common Aviation Command 
and Control System (CAC2S). Incre- 
ment I will have the ability to function as 



a Short-Range Air-Defense (SHORAD) 
radar with the ability to provide fire qual- 
ity data to a future Ground-Based Air- 
Defense (GBAD) system. 

Increment II will fill the Ground 
Weapons Locating Radar (GWLR) func- 
tions and provide counter-battery/target 
acquisition for the ground combat ele- 
ment. Increment IV provides an expedi- 
tionary airport surveillance radar capa- 
bility to the MAGTF. 

G/ATOR comprises three major sub- 
systems: ( 1 ) the Radar Equipment Group 
(REG); (2) Communications Equipment 
Group (CEG); and (3) Power Equipment 
Group (PEG). The REG is an integrated 
radar and trailer combination towed 
behind an MTVR. The CEG is pallet- 
ized communications and radar con- 
trol systems transported in the armored 
M1151A1 HMMWV. The PEG is a pallet 
assembly containing a tactical generator, 
cables, and ancillary equipment trans- 
ported in the bed of the MTVR. 

The REG, CEG, and PEG without 
prime movers are considered mission-es- 
sential equipment and are rapidly deploy- 
able via helicopter/tilt-rotor, KC-130 or 
ground vehicles during the first stages of 
operations. This system can augment sea- 
based air-defense sensors and command 
and control capabilities. G/ATOR will 
provide naval and joint forces with an ex- 
peditionary radar and cruise missile de- 
tection capability that extends landward 
battle space coverage. When fully fielded, 
the diverse capabilities of G/ATOR and 
the many warfighting functions it sup- 
ports will make it a highly valued asset to 
the MAGTF commander. 



186 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



I 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

G/ATOR's expeditionary, multi-role 
capabilities represent the next generation 
in ground radar technology and will pro- 
vide crucial enhancements to warfighting 
capabilities for Marine Corps and joint 
force commanders: greater range, greater 
detection and target classification against 
new and evolving threats including low- 
observables, and greater performance 
against enemy countermeasures. The G/ 
ATOR will provide increased mobility, re- 
liability and improved situational aware- 
ness with the ability to act as the land- 
ward extension of Sea Shield, enabling 
Sea Strike against deeper inland targets. 



PROGRAM STATUS 

The AN/TPS-80 G/ATOR was desig- 
nated a Special Interest Program by the 
Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisi- 
tion, Technology and Logistics (AT&L) 
in February 2009. The Department of the 
Navy will continue to be the lead acquisi- 
tion agency for G/ATOR. The Approved 
Acquisition Objective is 69 units. 

Procurement Profile: FY 201 1 FY 201 2 
Quantity: 1-EDM* 

*Engineering Development Model 

Developer/Manufacturer: 

Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems, 

Linthicum, MD 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 187 



I 



AVIATION COMMAND AND CONTROL (AC2) 
FAMILY OF SYSTEMS AND MARINE AIR COMMAND 
AND CONTROL SYSTEM (MACCS) SUSTAINMENT 



DESCRIPTION 

The Aviation Command and Control 
(AC2) Family of Systems (FoS) and the 
MACCS legacy sustainment efforts sup- 
port the systems employed by MACCS 
tactical agencies and operational facili- 
ties, each having different functions, tasks 
and equipment suites. These agencies 
are fielded and supported by squadrons 
within the MACG in support of the ACE. 
The tactical agencies are: the Tactical Air 
Command Center (TACC), the Tactical 
Air Operations Center (TAOC), and the 
Direct Air Support Center (DASC). 

The core AC2 FoS consists of the 
CAC2S (IOC FY2011), G/ATOR (IOC 
FY2016), and the fielded AN/TPS-59 Ra- 
dar and the Composite Tracking Network 
(IOC FY2011). MACCS legacy systems 
in the sustainment life cycle include: the 
AN/TYQ-23(V)4 Tactical Air Operations 
Module (TAOM); AN/TYQ-101 Commu- 
nications Data Link System (CDLS); AN/ 
MRQ-12(V)4 Communications Interface 
System (CIS); AN/TYQ-87(V)2 Sector 
Anti Air Warfare Facility; AN/UYQ-3B 
Direct Air Support Central/ Airborne Sys- 
tem (DASC/ AS); and the AN/MSQ-124 
Air Defense Communications Platform 
(ADCP) 

In addition to the core MACCS pro- 
grams, the Sustainment Program Office 
has management responsibilities for the 
Link Management System Multi-Tactical 
Data Link (TDL) (LMS-MT), AN/GRC- 
171B(V)4 Ultra High Frequency (UHF) 
Radio, AN/URC-107(V)10 Joint Tactical 
Information Distribution System ( JTIDS) 
Terminal Radio, AN/USQ-140(V) 11(C) 
Multifunctional Information Distribu- 
tion System Low Volume Terminal, AN/ 
TYQ-145 Beyond Line of Sight Gateway 
(BLOS-GW), and AN/GRC-256 High 



Frequency Radio. External influences in- 
clude the Marine Corps wide moderniza- 
tion of radios, cryptological devices, high 
mobility multi-purpose wheeled vehicles, 
trailers, and Environmental Control Units 
(ECUs). 

MACCS sustainment is responsible 
for one program that is in the production 
phase. The AN/TSQ-269 Mobile Tacti- 
cal Air Operations Module (MTAOM) is 
slated for Initial Operational Capability 
(IOC)inFY2011. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The MACCS Sustainment Program 
Office ensures that the TACC, TAOC, and 
DASC systems remain ready, relevant, and 
capable until Full Operational Capability 
(FOC) of CAC2S. This is accomplished 
through selected engineering initiatives, 
software sustainment, and maintenance 
of the appropriate logistics resources. In 
doing so, the MACCS FoS Sustainment 
program will continue to support the 
warfighter. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The systems of the TACC, TAOC, 
and DASC, with the exception of the 
MTAOM, are in the operations and sup- 
port phase of their life cycles and must 
be kept relevant, ready, and capable until 
CAC2S FOC is achieved. The re-baselined 
CAC2S program schedule has impacted 
all projected MACCS sustainment sys- 
tem support requirements and program 
funding as the legacy systems' item-exit 
dates are extended. Currently, MACCS 
FoS sustainment will continue until the 
end of calendar year 2018. 



I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 201 1 



MOBILE TACTICAL AIR OPERATIONS MODULE (MTAOM) 



I 



DESCRIPTION 

The MTAOM consists of the Sector 
Anti-Air Warfare's System Server Assem- 
bly and other COTS/GOTS components 
rack-mounted in an S/788-G Lightweight 
Multipurpose Shelter (LMS) and trans- 
ported on a Ml 152 high mobility multi- 
purpose wheeled vehicles. Additional 
rack-mounted components include Joint 
Range Extension (JRE) Data Link Trans- 
lator (DLT), SunAir 9000D 1 Kilowatt 
HF Radio, AN/GRC-171B(V)4 UHF 
Radio, AN/VRC-103(V)3 UHF/VHF/ 
Satellite Communications Radio, AN/ 
USQ-140(V) 11(C) Multifunctional In- 
formation Distribution System (MIDS) 
Low Volume Terminal (LVT), MIDS ca- 
pable JRE Interface Unit (JIU), and vari- 
ous data link communications modems 
and encryption devices. MEP and ECUs 
are provided from an Integrated Tactical 
ECU and Generator (ITEG) system. Op- 
erator stations (up to 20) and associated 
display equipment are tent-based. 

The MTAOM leverages TAOC Pre- 
planned Product Improvement Initiatives. 
These initiatives consist of three key addi- 
tions to the current suite of equipment. 
The first of these additions is the AN/ 
AYK-14 Replacement Computer (ARC) 
running the Reconfigurable Processor for 
Legacy Avionics Code Execution capabil- 
ity. The ARC is a Versa Module Eurocard 
circuit board processor that emulates the 
AN/AYK-14 computer for processing 
legacy CMS-2 code. The second addition 
is the Radar Communications Proces- 
sor Suite, which allows the integration of 
non-organic sensors. Tactical Data Links 
(TDLs) A and B, North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization Link 1 , and the Army Tac- 
tical Data Link-1 (ATDL-1) provide the 
MTAOM the capability to perform mis- 
sions of the TAOC. The third component 
is the MIDS capable JIU, which provides 



the MTAOM with Link 16 data via the 
JRE system or the MIDS LVT-1 1. 

The operational capacities of a single 
MTAOM configuration with RCPS are: 

• 1 TDL-A (HF or UHF) 

• 1MIDSTDL-J 

• 1 Joint Range Extension Application 
Protocol (JREAP) -C 

• 2 JREAP-A 

• 4JREAP-B 

• 8 Point-to-point links for TDL-B and 
ATDL-1, or 1 NATO Link 1 

• 20 operator work stations (maximum) 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The AN/TSQ-269 Mobile Tactical 
Air Operations Module (MTAOM) pro- 
vides a mobile system to conduct air C2 
and air-defense operations. The MTAOM 
provides the flexibility for rapid move- 
ment and deployment required by the tac- 
tical situation and mission. The MTAOM 
provides mobility not currently available 
with the TAOM. As with the TAOM, the 
MTAOM provides interfaces to adjacent 
and higher commands. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

MTAOM system transportability and 
mobility requirements are documented 
in Change 3 of the TAOM Operational 
Requirements Document dated 13 Feb 
2009. The Authorized Acquisition Objec- 
tive for MTAOM is 10 systems. 

Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 2012 
MTAOM 

Developer/Manufacturer: 

Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane 

Division, Crane, IN 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 189 



I 



REMOTE VIDEO VIEWING TERMINAL 



DESCRIPTION 

The Remote Video Viewing Terminal 
(RWT) is an Intelligence, Surveillance, 
and Reconnaissance (ISR) asset that will 
allow viewing and exploitation of video 
and metadata from multiple unmanned 
aircraft systems and manned LITENING 
pod-equipped aircraft. As a program of 
record, the RWT will replace the previ- 
ous two generations of remote viewing 
terminals (ROVER and VideoScout) that 
were fielded through the UUNS process. 
RWT will also assume the operations 
and maintenance of these legacy systems. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

RWT provides Marine Forward Air 
Controllers and Joint Tactical Air Con- 
trollers a more complete view of the bat- 
tlefield by allowing them to view video 
from various ISR assets that are in their 
area of operations in a compact portable 
form-factor. RWT allows the Marine 
to view real-time video first hand rather 
than being told over radio communica- 
tions, thus enabling the warfighter to de- 
lineate more effectively potential threats. 



PROGRAM STATUS 

RWT is in the pre-materiel solution 
analysis phase. The current focus of the 
program is maintenance and sustainment 
of the VideoScout systems until the RWT 
program of record systems are fielded, in 
early 2011 scheduled for FY2016. Mile- 
stone B is anticipated in FY2013, and 
Milestone C in FY2014. The Approved 
Acquisition Objective is: 

• VideoScout: 599 

• Remote Viewing Terminals: 512 



Procurement Profile: 


FY 2011 


FY 2012 


VideoScout 


42 





Remote Viewing 






Terminals 









Developer/Manufacturer: 

Legacy VideoScout: L3 Communications, 

San Diego, CA 

Remote Viewing Terminals: 
To be determined 



1 90 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



P-19A AIRCRAFT RESCUE AND FIREFIGHTING (ARFF) 
VEHICLE REPLACEMENT 



I 




DESCRIPTION 

This initiative replaces the A/S32P- 
19A Aircraft Crash and Structure Fire 
Fighting Truck, known as the P-19A. The 
P-19A was introduced into service in 
1984. It had a service life of 12 years and 
has had multiple depot-level rebuilds. 

The P-19A is the Marine Corps' 
only major Aircraft Fire Fighting Vehicle 
(FFV). This vehicle is used at Marine 
Corps Air Stations and forward operating 
bases. The P-19A FFV Replacement pro- 
vides rescue and aircraft fire-fighting ca- 
pabilities to permanent and expedition- 
ary airfields and may also be employed 
to fight structural fires in support of base 
camps and as firefighting support to other 
elements of the MAGTF, at ammunition 
supply points, fuel distribution points, or 
hazardous material storage facilities. 

The end state is a reliable major 
aircraft fire-fighting vehicle that sup- 
ports fixed and rotary aircraft operations 
through 2038. 



establishments. The legacy P-19 fleet is 
exhibiting considerable readiness issues 
stemming from reliability and electrical 
failures due to the age of the vehicles. The 
current P-19A is a maintenance challenge 
to station and wing mechanics, result- 
ing in 50 to 75 percent material/readi- 
ness levels. In addition, because of the 
unavailability of P-19As, some units are 
not able to conduct the necessary train- 
ing required to keep firefighting person- 
nel proficient. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

P-19A Replacement Initial Opera- 
tional Capability is planned for FY2016. 
IOC is achieved when one MWSG has 
received a complete issue of P-19A re- 
placements; the assigned mechanics and 
crews have received initial training at the 
operator/crew, field and sustainment lev- 
els; and sufficient repair parts are in place 
to support operations. 

P-19A Replacement FOC is desired 
by FY 2017 to meet the Approved Acqui- 
sition Objective of 176. The program is 
awaiting final requirements documents 
to continue with the fielding strategy. 
P-19 replacement Capabilities Develop- 
ment Document (CDD) has been signed 
by DC CD&I. Program moving towards a 
Milestone B decision. CD&I (LID), APX, 
SYSCOM and I&L may pursue a two- 
prong fielding strategy — a COTS and a 
tactical variant. 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The P-19A replacement will be deliv- 
ered to the objective area via strategic air- 
lift (C-17 and C-5) or surface transport 
modes. The vehicle will provide the same 
capability in garrison at the supporting 



Procurement Profile: FY 201 1 


Developer/Manufacturer: 
To be determined 



FY 2012 
2 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 191 




laiW 



^ 







i 

- 


Ik 



PART 7: EXPEDITIONARY 
LOGISTICS 




S> 



■•■#u 



3Sfe \- 






EXPEDITIONARY LOGISTICS STRATEGY 



I 



The intent of the Expeditionary Lo- 
gistics Strategy is to enhance the effective- 
ness and lethality of the MAGTR In order 
to be relevant to the MAGTF commander, 
our enhanced logistics capabilities must 
be responsive to the mission, provide the 
highest level of certainty, and be con- 
trolled by the MAGTF Commander. 

Key to improving responsiveness, 
certainty and control is the continued 
development and fielding of state-of-the- 
art Logistics Chain Management (LCM) 
and Command and Control for Logistics 
(C2 for Log) systems, complemented by 
improved processes and organization. 
Global Combat Support System-Marine 
Corps (GCSS-MC) represents the Infor- 
mation Technology backbone of mod- 
ernization efforts, and in concert with 
other systems, such as MAGTF Logistics 
Support Systems (MLS2), will provide the 
MAGTF with an unprecedented logistics 
advantage. 

RESPONSIVENESS 

Responsiveness is about being pre- 
pared... anticipating what is needed, 
when and where... so that the Marine 
Corps can rapidly tailor and deliver the 
logistical support needed to the MAGTF 
warfighters. 

Our experiences in collaborating, 
forecasting, and positioning logistics sup- 
port have underscored several challenges, 
including: an inability to anticipate and 
effectively respond to requirements for 
fairly predictable needs, such as hydraulic 
fluid and radio batteries; lack of trucks in 
forward logistics units; a large footprint of 
supplies ("The Iron Mountain"); and the 



need to positively track patients in-transit 
from the point of injury to the point of 
treatment. Additionally, systems inter- 
face with Army and Navy supply chains is 
sporadic and compounds the difficulty of 
drawing on in-theater support from joint 
forces. These and other thorny challenges 
are addressed by initiatives now reaching 
the operating forces, with others to follow 
during the coming years. 

Enhancements that the operating 
forces are starting to see today include lo- 
gistics decision support tools, such as the 
Marine Corps Equipment Readiness In- 
formation Tool, or MERIT; Common Lo- 
gistics Command and Control System, or 
CLC2S; and the Transportation Capacity 
Planning Tool, or TCPT. These are ini- 
tial efforts to automate processes previ- 
ously accomplished via laborious "stubby 
pencil drills" or locally designed spread- 
sheets. Another improvement is the pack- 
ing of shipping containers and pallets in 
a manner that minimizes handling and 
repacking of the supplies at locations in 
the battle space. This innovation, dubbed 
the "pure pallet" initiative, has placed the 
burden of assembling these shipments at 
the beginning of the logistics chain, where 
the material handling equipment and 
other personnel and facilities resources 
are best arrayed to efficiently and effec- 
tively build pallets and containers that do 
not have to be touched again until they 
reach the ultimate destination. 

Additionally, the Forward Resuscita- 
tive Surgery System has been proven as a 
flexible, resuscitative surgery capability 
that can be quickly configured and erected 

CHAPTER 3: PROGR " : I 193 



to support any tactical medical situation 
ashore in a forward combat environment, 
and provide immediate medical life-sav- 
ing capabilities to support MAGTF op- 
erations on a 24-hour basis. 

CERTAINTY 

Logisticians have been plagued for 
years by the inability to have visibility of 
the end-to-end logistics pipeline and pro- 
vide the requester with an accurate status 
of their request. We need to improve, 
and are improving, our ability to provide 
timely and accurate situational awareness 
of items and services in the logistics pipe- 
line even when unforeseen actions impact 
their delivery. 

The challenges in the area of certain- 
ty all stem from the absence of actionable 
logistics information and the underlying 
inaccuracy of logistics data in our myriad 
logistics information systems. This was 
magnified during OPERATION IRAQI 
FREEDOM by the fact our forward com- 
bat forces were using the legacy Support- 
ed Activities Supply System, (SASSY), 
Marine Corps Integrated Maintenance 
Management System (MIMMS) and As- 
set Tracking for Logistics and Supply Sys- 
tem (ATLASS), while the Marine Logistics 
Command (MLC) was using the ATLASS 
11+ interim solution that, for all intents 
and purposes, did not "talk" to these 
legacy systems. Additionally, the lack of a 
robust long-range data communications 
capability within the Logistics Combat 
Element led to a situation where Iridium 
telephones using dialup communications 
speeds of 9.800 bits of data per second — 



1980's technology in the private sector — 
had to be used to register sustainment 
requests in the supply system when the 
units could stop to transmit their needs. 

An immediate, temporary solu- 
tion was to return all USMC units to the 
SASSY/MIMMS/ATLASS common stan- 
dard, until GCSS-MC can be fielded. 
Other capabilities being implemented 
include the Logistics Support Wide Area 
Network (LSWAN), which is a Very 
Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) data 
communications tool that supports the 
Battle Command and Sustainment Sup- 
port System (BCS3) and the Warehouse 
to Warfighter-Last Tactical Mile system 
(W2W-LTM). BCS3 represents the capa- 
bilities envisioned by the Logistics Com- 
bat Element for a common operational 
picture (COP), supported by the Joint 
Tactical COP Workstation (JTCW). The 
Automated Manifesting System-Tactical 
(AMS-TAC) will ultimately provide the 
"last tactical mile" in-transit visibility 
originally envisioned under the Ware- 
house to Warfighter initiative. Each of 
these solutions has been developed and 
fielded, and while we acknowledge they 
do not completely satisfy all of the vis- 
ibility requirements of the battlefield and 
the logistics chain, they are providing 
enhanced visibility into the location of 
supplies and equipment while we actively 
work with developers for more complete 
and integrated solutions. 

CONTROL 

Our final focus area is control. The 
intent is to ensure the MAGTF com- 



194 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



I 



mander has the ability to command and 
control the end-to-end Logistics Chain, 
in order to provide logistics support that 
is responsive and certain. The capability 
of the MAGTF to shift the priority of lo- 
gistics support must be immediate and 
absolute. Many of the challenges have al- 
ready been discussed, as they impact the 
areas of responsiveness and certainty, for 
example: the lack of long-range and on- 
the-move data communications assets for 
the Logistics Combat Element; a supply, 
maintenance and transportation process 
and systems that are not well integrated; 
poor forecasting tools to anticipate the 
needs of the supported unit; and a lack of 
visibility into the logistics chain. An addi- 
tional enhancement that has been fielded 
to help increase situational awareness and 
convoy control within the LCE is the Blue 
Force Tracker (BFT). 

LCE COMMUNICATING IN A 
LESS THAN MATURE THEATER 

The LCE requires the communica- 
tions assets to operate on a digital infor- 
mation-enhanced battlefield. Modular, 
scalable, and deployable equipment is 
required to provide the robust band- 
width necessary to transmit voice, data, 
and video teleconferencing internal and 
external to the battlefield. In 2011, for 
example, there is a capability gap within 
the LCE for line-of-sight, beyond line-of- 
sight, and on-the-move communications, 
which degrades the effectiveness of logis- 
tics support for MAGTF operations. The 
following systems are being fielded to sat- 
isfy the identified communications gaps 
in the near and mid terms: 



• The LSWAN VSATs are beginning to fill 
a void in beyond line-of-sight capabil- 
ity within the Marine Logistics Group 
(MLG). LSWAN VSAT will create a 
more net-centric environment and 
mitigate line-of-sight limitations. 

• The Command and Control On-the- 
Move Network Digital Over-the-Hori- 
zon Relay (CONDOR), being fielded to 
the LCE in 2011, will provide on-the- 
move beyond-line-of-sight data, voice, 
and video capability within the Marine 
Logistics Group (MLG). 

• The Transition Switch Module (TSM) 
will provide enhanced multiplexing 
capabilities and an integrated services 
digital networks capability. This allows 
the Logistics Combat Element to pro- 
vide a secure VTC capability over the 
circuit switched network. 

Voice and data communications 
equipment — such as Enhanced Multi- 
band multi-mode radio, High Frequency 
Radio, Tactical hand held radio, integrated 
intra-squad radio, Enhanced Position Lo- 
cation Reporting System, and the Defense 
Advanced Global Positioning System Re- 
ceiver — are currently being fielded to 
the MLG via supplemental funding to 
support on-the-move communications 
requirements. These capability enhance- 
ments will bring the Logistics Combat El- 
ement up to par with the Air and Ground 
Combat Elements of the MAGTF. 

NEAR-TERM INITIATIVES 

The first set of initiatives all pertain 
to Logistics Command and Control en- 
ablers, and contain the emerging technol- 
ogies implemented during OPERATIONS 

CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 195 



I 



IRAQI FREEDOM and ENDURING 
FREEDOM to improve asset visibility 
within the logistics chain, to simplify the 
process for requesting logistics support, 
or to enhance the data communications 
capabilities that must be in place to allow 
these systems to work effectively. These 
systems have recently been codified and 
standardized for implementation Corps- 
wide, and are designated as MAGTF 
Logistics Support Systems (MLS2). 

• Battle Command Sustainment Support 
System (BCS3) 

• Common Logistics Command and 
Control System (CLC2S) 

• Transportation Capacity Planning Tool 
(TCPT) 

• Warehouse to Warfighter-Last Tactical 
Mile (W2W-LTM) 

• Electronic Retrograde Management 
System (eRMS) -Navy 

• Bird Track - Navy 

Use of these systems is enhanced 
by use of the Marine Corps Equipment 
Readiness Information Tool (MERIT). 

These systems are considered part 
of the GCSS-MC portfolio's family of 
systems, and may be replaced by future 
blocks of the GCSS-MC, as that program 
matures. Other MLS2 systems may be 
adopted permanently as complementary 
systems to GCSS-MC, or be replaced by 
more capable systems. 

LSWAN VSATs are part of the long- 
term C4 solution for addressing the 
LCE's communications challenges, and 
are making a difference today. 

The MAGTF Distribution initiative is 
already well underway within the MEFs, 



but the underlying policy and enabling 
directives required to institutionalize this 
end-to-end logistics chain approach to 
distribution will take time to complete, 
particularly given ties to other U.S. Trans- 
portation Command initiatives. 

The Marine Aviation Logistics Sup- 
port Program II addresses many of the 
same logistics challenges within the avia- 
tion community that face the rest of the 
MAGTF. Marine aviation is reshaping its 
logistics elements to enable agile com- 
bat support for future conflicts using the 
same continuous process improvement 
tenets that are used by the ground logis- 
tics community's logistics modernization 
efforts. 

Automatic Identification Technology 
(AIT) refers to a suite of technologies, 
such as bar codes (linear, two-dimen- 
sional, and data matrix), radio frequency 
identification (active and passive), voice 
recognition, contact memory buttons, 
integrated circuit cards, and satellite tags. 
These and other emerging technolo- 
gies are used to enable and facilitate the 
identification and rapid transmission of 
machine-readable data to Automated In- 
formation Systems (AIS) to enhance the 
readiness of deploying forces with im- 
proved knowledge of equipment. AIT wall 
pass through a series of Full Operational 
Capability (FOC) events during the next 
few years as the range of technologies that 
are available and required to be imple- 
mented to meet the full spectrum of lo- 
gistics identification requirements within 
the Marine Corps. 

Naval Logistics Integration consists 



196 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



I 



of 14 separate efforts aimed at better co- 
ordinating the activities of the ground 
logistics system with the Navy logistics 
system. Among the most promising ac- 
complishments to date have been the use 
of the Cargo Routing Identification File 
for shipment routing, the Fleet Industrial 
Supply Center for shipping, the Priority 
Management Office for sourcing and ex- 
pediting urgently needed requirements, 
and the Advanced Traceability and Con- 
trol system to handle the shipment and 
retrograde of reparable repair parts, such 
as engines and transmissions, in support 
of deployed MAGTFs. For all of these 
early accomplishments, NLI will not be 
full operational capable until all Navy and 
Marine units can seamlessly receive and 
provide logistics support among them- 
selves. 

MID-TERM INITIATIVES 

MAGTF Logistics Integration (MLI) 
is very similar to Naval Logistics Integra- 
tion, in that it will only be FOC when all 
Marine ground and aviation units can 
seamlessly receive and provide logistics 
support between themselves using com- 
mon processes and interoperable systems. 

The Materiel Readiness Process Im- 
provement (MRPI) initiatives aimed at 
realigning supply and maintenance ac- 
tivities within the MAGTF to improve ef- 
fectiveness are basic concepts supporting 



the overall logistics modernization effort. 
The fielding of GCSS-Marine Corps can 
be viewed as the IOC point for these con- 
cepts, since it is the principal technology 
enabler that will empower logistics mod- 
ernization throughout the Marine Corps. 

Autonomic Logistics (AL) is early 
in its development, on a cycle that will 
take several years. The IOC for Auto- 
nomic Logistics will roughly correspond 
to the fielding of weapons systems that 
incorporate autonomic logistics sensors. 
This will include current efforts to ret- 
rofit the High Mobility Multi- Wheeled 
Vehicle (HMMWV), Medium Tactical 
Vehicle Replacement (MTVR), and the 
Light Armored Vehicle (LAV). Addition- 
ally, several new weapons systems are be- 
ing designed with Autonomic Logistics 
in mind, such as the Joint Light Tactical 
Vehicle (JLTV) and the Marine Personnel 
Carrier (MPC). 

GCSS-MC reflects milestones for the 
initial capability being delivered to the 
operating forces. Block 1 of GCSS-MC is 
critical to moving our logistics modern- 
ization efforts forward. However, there 
are future capabilities envisioned under 
GCSS-MC, which will cover areas in- 
cluding distribution and transportation, 
health services, and engineering, well 
into the next decade. The following pages 
highlight key logistics programs. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 197 



I 



LOGISTICS MODERNIZATION 



The Logistics Modernization pro- 
grams are now incorporated under Ma- 
rine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) 
Expeditionary Logistics. The MAGTF 
expeditionary logistics initiative includes 
remaining Log Mod issues, results of the 
on-going MAGTF Expeditionary Lo- 
gistics Capabilities-Based Assessment 
(CBA) and other initiatives that will im- 
prove logistics support throughout the 
MAGTF. These actions are vital to refin- 
ing and posturing MAGTF logistics to 
support future Marine Corps operations. 
The Marine Logistics Group reorganiza- 
tion, Logistics Operational Architecture, 
MAGTF Distribution, and tasks from the 
solution-planning directive were com- 
pleted and continue to be refined within 
the Expeditionary Logistics CBA and 
USMC combat development process. 

MAGTF expeditionary logistics is an 
overarching initiative that incorporates 
people, processes and technology to en- 
hance support to Marine expeditionary 
forces operating in less than mature the- 
aters. The MAGTF expeditionary logis- 
tics initiative supports a balanced, multi- 
capable force which is integral to the 
vision and strategic direction of the Ma- 
rine Corps as described in Marine Corps 
Vision and Strategy 2025 and supports the 
logistics concepts in Joint Vision 2010. 

To support its statutory responsibil- 
ity to be an air-ground force in readiness, 
the Marine Corps must be capable of op- 
erating in expeditionary environments 
and have the logistics capabilities to en- 
able MAGTF operations across the full 
range of military operations. While the 

198 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



Marine Corps' MAGTFs are self-sustain- 
ing, MAGTF expeditionary logistics is en- 
visioned to further expand Marine Corps 
expeditionary capability and preserve the 
ability to primarily operate from the sea 
with an enhanced sea-based maintenance 
capability, improved logistics chain infor- 
mation management, capabilities to in- 
clude visibility of joint and multinational 
information, and a reduced logistics 
footprint. 

The success of the future MAGTF is 
also dependent upon using improved lo- 
gistics processes and technologies as inte- 
grated resources to better sustain expedi- 
tionary forces. Improvements in logistics 
technology to include the Global Combat 
Service Support-Marine Corps and the 
Expeditionary Logistics Technology Tools 
will significantly enhance supply, mainte- 
nance and distribution functions. 

Integration with other service logis- 
tics providers is key to the future logis- 
tics support of worldwide expeditionary 
MAGTF operations. The Naval Logistics 
Integration and MAGTF Logistics Inte- 
gration initiatives are being included into 
the integrated supply, maintenance, and 
distribution processes to ensure Marine 
Corps logistics is operationally effective 
afloat and ashore. 

The goal of the MAGTF expedition- 
ary logistics initiative is to improve sup- 
port to expeditionary operations. Com- 
bined, these efforts will produce a smaller 
and more agile footprint, greater adapt- 
ability, increased operational reach, and 
an enhanced ability to operate across the 
continuum of operations. 



TOTAL LIFE CYCLE MANAGEMENT 



I 



The Total Life Cycle Management 
(TLCM) initiative is a Marine Corps-wide, 
cross-functional effort to better integrate 
the distinct but interdependent processes 
that compose the total life cycle for ground 
weapon systems, equipment and materiel 
with the ultimate aim of enhancing the 
combat readiness of Marine Air- Ground 
Task Forces. The initiative encompasses the 
activities of Headquarters Marine Corps, 
Marine Corps Combat Development 
Command, Marine Corps Systems Com- 
mand, and Marine Corp Logistics Com- 
mand that are focused on equipping the 
operating forces. TLCM improvements 
will unify, align, and streamline the efforts 
of these stakeholders to provide effective, 
timely, and responsive ground equipment 
support to the warfighter. 

Clearly aligned roles, responsibilities 
and relationships among the stakeholders 
have been an early focus of the TLCM im- 
provement efforts, as has the identification 
of gaps, overlaps and friction points in the 
multiple processes that compose the equip- 
ment life cycle. As the initiative matures, 
continuing efforts to improve integration 
of activities across the life cycle will: 

• Field new and improved MAGTF 
capabilities 

• Maximize equipment readiness 

• Assure with the highest probability of 
success that ground weapon systems, 
equipment, and materiel will be available 
for use when and where needed 



• Eliminate waste throughout the process 

• Allow better program planning for re- 
quirements development, acquisition, 
fielding, operation, sustainment, and 
disposal 

• Provide accurate equipment account- 
ing and visibility through enhanced 
Marine Corps-wide asset management 
capability 

• Provide enhanced Marine Corps-wide 
sustainment capability 

• Provide visibility of Total Ownership 
Cost for planning, programming, bud- 
geting, and execution purposes 

• Provide capability for Marine Corps-wide 
supply chain management 

• Provide ability to assess and improve 
TLCM effectiveness by monitoring per- 
formance and identifying areas for im- 
provement through the use of valid and 
reliable data 

• Strengthen coordination with external 
agencies 

To guide and direct the TLCM initia- 
tive, the Marine Corps established a cross- 
functional, cross-command governance 
structure including the TLCM Executive 
and Corporate Boards, supported day-to- 
day by a TLCM Office embedded within 
Installations and Logistics Department. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 199 



I 



SENSE AND RESPOND LOGISTICS 




The increasing agility, force projec- 
tion, and speed of command required on 
the distributed battlefields of today and 
tomorrow require an adaptable, flexible, 
and self-synchronizing logistics support 
network to maintain operational advan- 
tage. Marine Air Ground Task Force Sense 
and Respond Logistics is both a strategy 
and ultimately a technical approach by 
which the Marine Corps will develop and 
field current and future capabilities in 
support of Marine Corps Vision and Strat- 
egy 2025, Marine Corps Operating Concepts 
for a Changing Security Environment, the 
Marine Corps Service Campaign Plan, the 
Marine Corps Logistics Roadmap, and ongo- 
ing USMC Logistics Modernization. As an 
overarching enterprise/portfolio strategy, 
MAGTF Sense and Respond Logistics will 
leverage existing service, joint, and Depart- 
ment of Defense programs and guide key 
investments in future logistics capabilities 
to seamlessly integrate with and share in- 
formation across the Command and Con- 
trol, Maneuver, and Intelligence domains. 



The foundation to achieve 
this MAGTF Sense and Re- 
spond Logistics capability will 
be the integration and syn- 
chronization of four capability 
approach areas: (1) Logistics 
Management Information; (2) 
Decision Support; (3) Logis- 
tics Chain Management; and 
(4) Command and Control for 
Logistics. Key capabilities will 
include Global Combat Sup- 
port System — Marine Corps, 
Autonomic Logistics — Ma- 
rine Corps Services, AIT, and decision-sup- 
port capabilities, such as intelligent course- 
of-action support, risk and opportunity 
cost assessment, and dynamic planning and 
re-planning. 

One primary example of how MAGTF 
Sense and Respond Logistics will expand 
the tactical flexibility and operational 
reach of commanders is the Autonomic 
Logistics - Marine Corps. Autonomic Lo- 
gistics will provide enhanced platform and 
weapon system diagnostics and prognos- 
tics, including collecting mission-critical 
data (position, location, identification, fuel 
and ammunition levels, equipment health, 
and mobile loads). AL will provide the in- 
frastructure and services to collect, inform, 
and disseminate near-real time automated 
operational/readiness data and status from 
vehicle and weapon system platforms that 
will provide commanders with real-time 
combat-endurance assessments for their 
units and life cycle managers with accurate 
platform performance data. 



200 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



I 



Autonomic Logistics consists of the 
Electronic Maintenance Support System 
(EMSS), Embedded Platform Logistics 
System (EPLS), and Autonomic Logistics 
— MC Services (ALS). EMSS provides the 
critical technical conduit and infrastruc- 
ture to enable a net-centric "maintainer" 
data environment for platform perfor- 
mance data to enable efficiencies in the 
maintenance process. It provides ground 
maintenance personnel with an electronic 
decision support tool and capability to ac- 
cess Interactive Electronic Technical Man- 
uals (IETMs) and subject matter experts as 
far forward on the battlefield as possible. 
EPLS provides the "on-platform" system/ 
infrastructure (e.g., sensors, data controller, 
automated health monitor) to acquire plat- 
form health, fuel, ammunition, and mobile 
load data; the ability to monitor and report 
vehicle status, health, and logistics needs 
for MAGTF ground tactical vehicles; and 
timely situation awareness and equipment 
readiness/status to MAGTF commanders. 
This information supports platform/fleet 
total life-cycle management by improving 
the ability to monitor usage, maintenance, 
failures, and repairs and to provide plat- 
form historical performance data and in- 
formation. 



ALS will provide a net-enabled deci- 
sion support service capability and the 
"Off-platform" data/information-sharing 
(networking, data management, and ap- 
plications) framework (communications, 
information assurance, and interfaces) 
and application program interfaces to be 
interoperable with the MAGTF C2 and 
Logistics Enterprises. Autonomic Logistics 
supports the Logistics Management Infor- 
mation, Decision Support, and C2 for Lo- 
gistics MAGTF S&RL capabilities approach 
areas to enable more informed decision- 
making, support more responsive combat 
service support, enhance overall C2, and 
reduce total life cycle costs. Autonomic 
Logistics supports DoD implementation 
of Condition-Based Maintenance Plus, as 
well as improved Total Life Cycle Manage- 
ment and affordability. 

The Marine Corps is also partnered 
with the Navy and the Offi.ce of Naval Re- 
search through Naval Logistics Integration 
to develop Sense and Respond capabilities 
that integrate Naval Expeditionary Combat 
Command shore units within the MAGTF. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 201 



I 



ELECTRONIC MAINTENANCE SUPPORT SYSTEM (EMSS) 



DESCRIPTION 

EMSS provides maintenance person- 
nel a decision support tool capable of 
wireless connectivity and access to inter- 
net applications (GCSS-MC, Interactive 
Electronic Technical Manuals (IETMs), 
Computer Based Training, forms, and 
files). EMSS also provides automated 
updates of technical data and supports 
GCSS-MC by providing access for parts 
ordering and maintenance documenta- 
tion. Additionally, EMSS provides reach- 
back capability to SME/Program Office 
personnel to enhance and assist in main- 
tenance of weapon systems and support 
equipment. EMSS is a critical enabler 
of logistic modernization efforts (Item 
Unique Identification (IUID), Condition- 
Based Maintenance, Embedded Platform 
Logistics System, and AL Services). 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

EMSS provides ground maintenance 
with an electronic decision support tool 
with the capability to access IETMs and 
SMEs as far forward as possible. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

EMSS has received a full fielding de- 
cision for 2,141, 2,147 and 3,521 MOSs. 
Fielding is approximately 75 percent 
complete. 



Procurement Profile: 
Quantity: 



FY 2011 FY 201 2 
800 800 



Developer/Manufacturer: 
Electronic Maintenance Device (EMD), 
Servers and Charger Rack: Naval Surface 
Warfare Center, Crane Division, Crane IN 



202 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 201 



EMBEDDED PLATFORM LOGISTICS SYSTEM (EPLS) 



I 



DESCRIPTION 

The Embedded Platform Logistics 
System capability provides accurate vis- 
ibility of combat and support vehicles 
operational status (fuel, ammo, system 
health, mobile loads, and passenger man- 
ifest) improving readiness reporting and 
enhances operational availability. EPLS 
uses asset health monitoring systems to 
monitor, collect, process, and display es- 
sential platform operating status. The ini- 
tial capability is designed and integrated 
into the AAV, MTVR, and LAV platforms 
and provides the hardware infrastructure 
for Autonomic Logistics. EPLS is a critical 
enabler for condition-based maintenance 
and provides the ability to "alert and 
fix" a vehicle before major failure. CBM 
enhancements increase combat vehicle 
availability by reducing the time required 
to diagnosis and correct problems the 
first time. 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

EPLS provides platform health and 
logistics status for operators, maintain- 
ers, and local commanders. This basic 
platform health and logistics data are 
transmitted to MAGTF commanders 
to facilitate logistics support decision- 
making and more effective maintenance 
planning. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

EPLS successfully completed Field 
User Test and Evaluation in AAV, MTVR 
and LAV vehicles. Fielding decision is 
projected for Third Quarter FY201 1. 

Procurement Profile: FY 201 1 FY 201 2 
Quantity: 

Installation 258 275 

Developer/Manufacturer: 

EPLS System: Lockheed Martin Simulation 

Training and Support, Orlando, FL 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 203 



AUTONOMIC LOGISTICS - MARINE CORPS SERVICES (ALS) 



DESCRIPTION 

ALS provides a MAGTF capability by 
integrating equipment operational status, 
system health and logistics needs in to 
operational and logistics decision plan- 
ning process. Information is integrated 
into C2 applications via VMF messages 
to provide aggregate view of unit level 
vehicle fuel, ammo, vehicle status, mobile 
load, and passenger list. Logistic require- 
ments for refueling, ammo distribution, 
corrective maintenance needs, and mo- 
bile load distribution are integrated into 
GCSS-MC to provide accurate and timely 
support requests and in transit visibility. 
Decision support tools provide networked 
access to ALS data for "drill-down" analy- 
sis, in both SIPR and NIPR environments 
via cross-domain guards ensuring access 
to all authorized users. 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

This capability allows the operational 
and support planners the ability to access 
current status of operational equipment 
in the area of operation. Additionally, fu- 
ture operation planners will use informa- 
tion to select the equipment to support 
pending operations based on equipment 
status and its ability to accomplish com- 
mander's intent successfully. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

A Materiel Development Decision is 
pending. 

Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 2012 
Quantity: 

Developer/Manufacturer: 
N/A 



204 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



NAVAL LOGISTICS INTEGRATION (NLI) 



I 




On a day-to-day basis, the naval 
services maintain a persistent presence 
in forward areas. Across the globe, Na- 
val Logistics Integration (NLI) enables 
the support of globally dispersed mari- 
time forces through integrated coherent, 
rapid, and agile logistics capability, with 
a focus on sustainment and end-to-end 
naval logistics support for the warfighter 
afloat and ashore. NLI directly supports 
Marine Corps Vision and Strategy 2025, 
the Marine Corps Operating Concepts, 
the Marine Corps Service Campaign Plan, 
the Marine Corps Logistics Roadmap, and 
ongoing USMC Logistics Modernization, 
as well as the tenets of Sea Power 21, the 
Naval Operational Concept 2010, Joint 
Vision 2020, the Navy's Engagement in 
Joint Logistics, and the Tri-Service Mari- 
time Strategy. 

NLI has a clear end state: an inte- 
grated naval logistics capability that can 
operate seamlessly afloat or ashore, suc- 
cessfully supporting and sustaining op- 
erating units in a joint warfighting en- 
vironment. NLI has enabled dramatic 
improvements in sustaining deployed 
Navy and Marine Corps operating forces 
by pursuing several initiatives. Examples 
include the Navy's Cargo Routing Infor- 
mation File (CRIF) that more accurately 
tracks ship movements and has reduced 
customer wait time by more than 50 per- 
cent for critically needed materiel ship- 



ments; deployed Marine Expeditionary 
Units routinely report receipt of urgently 
needed items within ten days while afloat. 
The Navy's Advanced Traceability and 
Control (ATAC) process, which is now 
being used by Marine units, has expe- 
dited the shipment of more than 172,000 
repairable components with better than 
99 percent proof of delivery — 44.1 mil- 
lion pounds of cargo since ATAC fielded 
in FY2005. Moreover, the cost to ship has 
reduced from $4.28 to $2.28 per pound 
during this period. 

The NLI effort is also exploring new 
initiatives for the integration and optimi- 
zation of critical Navy and Marine Corps 
logistics capabilities ashore. Initiatives 
include a Total Life Cycle Management 
approach to the common acquisition 
of ground personal protective, sharing 
depot-level maintenance capacity man- 
agement, sharing tactical level equipment 
maintenance, and common material req- 
uisitioning capabilities. 

NLI is a formal and collaborative ef- 
fort among Headquarters Marine Corps, 
the Office of the Chief of Naval Opera- 
tions (OPNAV), and Coast Guard Head- 
quarters, with extensive, ongoing par- 
ticipation of the Marine Forces and the 
Numbered Fleets. NLI is challenging the 
logistics status quo in science and tech- 
nology, policy and doctrine, business 
practices and processes, and training and 
education. 

The NLI homepage is hosted on the 
Navy Knowledge Online (www.nko.navy. 
mil) portal under the expeditionary lo- 
gistics community link. Additionally, the 
NLI home page provides pertinent refer- 
ences and associated historical documen- 
tation as well as providing information 
on past and future events. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 205 



I 



JOINT PRECISION AERIAL DELIVERY SYSTEM - 
ULTRA LIGHT WEIGHT (JPADS-ULW) 




DESCRIPTION 

JPADS-ULW is a Global Positioning 
System (GPS) guided parachute system 
capable of delivering between 250 and 
699 pounds (rigged weight) of supplies or 
equipment to Marines on the ground in 
austere or remote locations from 24,500 
feet above ground level (AGL). JPADS- 
ULW will autonomously deliver cargo to 
within 150 meters of a pre-determined 
impact point or small drop zone from 
high altitude and lateral offset aerial re- 
lease points. The JPADS-ULW system is 
sophisticated, versatile, and rugged yet 
easy to operate. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The Marine Corps' future warfight- 
ing concepts call for increasing the dis- 
tance between units in order to generate 



greater effect across the battlespace. A 
lightweight JPADS has been identified to 
help re-supply small units spread across 
the battlefield. This system will provide 
a critical capability when enemy forces 
possess a significant anti-air threat, air- 
space has been denied, or clandestine re- 
supply is paramount. High Altitude High 
Opening (HAHO) re-supply systems al- 
low aircraft to operate above and offset 
from potential ground to air threats. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The JPADS-ULW is an NDI and an in- 
crement of the JPADS Family of Systems. 
Due to the demonstrated performance 
of JPADS and joint development expe- 
rience with the U.S. Army, this program 
has been tailored to enter the Acquisition 
Management System in the Production 
and Deployment phase. System product 
qualification and integration of the sys- 
tem will be validated, and an evaluation 
will verify key operational performance 
parameters prior to fielding. 

Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 201 2 
Quantity: 163 

Developer/Manufacturer: 
TBD 



206 I USMC CONCEPTS ■& PROGRAMS 2011 



MARINE AIR GROUND TASK FORCE (MAGTF) DISTRIBUTION 



I 



MAGTF Deployment and Distribu- 
tion is the synchronization of processes 
and systems to include visibility, capac- 
ity, and control to successfully deploy and 
sustain a MAGTF engaged in combat op- 
erations. It is the operational process of 
synchronizing all elements of the logistics 
system to deliver the "right things" to the 
"right place" at the "right time" to support 
the geographic combatant commander. 
Additionally, MAGTF Deployment and 
Distribution is an integral component of 
supply chain operations — the vital part 
of the supply chain that provides for the 
timely delivery of required supplies and 
materiel. 

A critical element of MAGTF De- 
ployment and Distribution is the ability 
to provide the Commander Total Asset 
Visibility (TAV) and In-Transit Visibility 
(ITV) of all classes of supply in the dis- 
tribution pipeline. It also provides criti- 
cal information on unit move sourcing, 
preparation and execution. The ability to 
provide this level of information involves 
several key enablers. 

MAGTF Deployment Support Sys- 
tem II (MDSSII): MDSS II is a deploy- 
able software application that provides 
commanders at various echelons of the 
MAGTF with the ability to build and 
maintain a database containing person- 
nel and equipment information reflect- 
ing how the MAGTF is configured for 
deployment. 

Joint Force Requirements Genera- 
tor II ( JFRG II): JFRG II is a Global Com- 



mand and Control System-Joint (GCCS- 
J) mission application that provides the 
Joint services with a state-of-the-art, 
integrated and fully deployable auto- 
mated information system that supports 
the planning, and execution of strategic 
force movement deployments and rede- 
ployments. JFRG II provides the ability to 
rapidly create and modify unit data and 
interfaces directly with MDSS II. 

Integrated Computerized Deploy- 
ment System (ICODES): ICODES, Single 
Load Planning Capability (SLPC), gives 
load planners the ability to create a load 
plan for all modes in a single system with 
a onetime entry of the data. 

Cargo Movement Operations Sys- 
tem (CMOS): CMOS provides an end- 
to-end distribution capability and real- 
time ITV during all passenger and cargo 
movements. 

Battle Command Sustainment Sup- 
port System (BCS3): BCS3 fuses together 
information needed to define the Logis- 
tics Common Operating Picture (LCOP) 
in a tactical environment. 

Automated Manifest System - Tacti- 
cal (AMS-TAC): AMS TAC is a transpor- 
tation tool that provides ITV and TAV 
for material flowing through the Defense 
Transportation System. AMS TAC fully 
integrates AIT, including optical memory 
cards, radio frequency tags, and barcode 
scanning and printing. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 207 



I 



FEEDING MARINES 




CHANGING EXPECTATIONS 
FOR GARRISON MESS HALL 
OPERATIONS 

Mealtime while in garrison should 
provide Marines a break from their daily 
routine to relax and renew. To this end, 
new menus have been developed and the 
eating environment and operating hours 
have been tailored to fit high-tempo life- 
styles. New menu offerings provide food 
items that mess hall patrons desire while 
balancing health and nutrition. Options 
include Fusion (food made to order upon 
request); Market Street Grill (similar in 
concept to Boston Market™) providing 
an upscale fast-food offerings that include 
gourmet hamburgers, pizza and focaccia 
bread sandwiches; and an extensive soup, 
salad bar, and dessert bar. Alternative 
menu initiatives implemented in recent 
years include the SubMarine program 
(made-to-order sandwiches); Simply- to- 
Go (take-out meals); and Xtreme Burrito 
Program. Another welcome change is the 
extended hours of operation offered at 
select mess halls, providing patrons flex- 
ibility beyond traditional meal hours. 



These initiatives are designed to provide 
the very best service possible and are in 
keeping with questions and ideas that 
have surfaced from myriad customer sur- 
veys — ensuring that the Individual Ma- 
rine remains the focus of attention. 



TRANSITIONING EXPECTA- 
TIONS FOR FIELD FEEDING 
OPERATIONS 

On par with actions taken to sup- 
port garrison mess hall operations, field 
feeding has taken on the challenge to 
support the needs of Marine warfight- 
ers by investing in new technologies 
and equipment capable of preparing the 
highest-quality meals in the most austere 
environments. One of the ways that this 
is being achieved is with the fielding of 
the Enhanced Tray Ration Heating Sys- 
tem, which increases a unit's capability 
to prepare a wider variety of rations and 
provide the means to serve up to twice 
daily a company- sized unit in forward 
remote areas. This capability is packed, 
stored, and transported in a Small Field 
Refrigeration System, allowing the unit 
to double as a field refrigerator and the 
system's embarkation container. Another 
field feeding system that is currently be- 
ing prepared for production and fielding 
is the Expeditionary Field Kitchen (EFK). 
The trailer-mounted EFK is intended to 
support the entire family of combat ra- 
tions on a highly mobile and expedition- 
ary equipment platform. When fielded, 
the EFK can support up to 500 personnel 
with two hot meals per day. The system 
allows food service personnel the ability 
to setup or tear down the kitchen rapidly 
in support of high-tempo operations and 
is sure to be the forward- feeding solution 
of the future. 



208 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



MOBILE TRAUMA BAY (MTB) 



I 




DESCRIPTION 

The MTB is a shelter measuring 15 
feet 10 inch X 86 inches X 82 inches (in- 
ternal measurements) and 20 feet X 8 feet 
(external measurement) that is mounted 
on a Logistics Vehicle System Replacement 
(LVSR). The MTB is armored contains 
five ballistic windows, can accommodate 
three litter patients, contains egress ability 
to move litter patients in and out, can use 
power from in-service USMC generators, 
is environmental- controlled, contains 
the capability to communicate between 
the MTB and vehicle cab, and is operable 
and maintainable under all conditions 
of climate and terrain to which Marines 
deploy. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

MTB provides a light armored, self- 
powered, environmentally controlled 
space designed to facilitate forward re- 
suscitative medical care. The MTB en- 
ables Shock Trauma Platoons to provide 
resuscitative care for up to three patients 
simultaneously. MTB provides modular, 
mobile and expeditionary capability that 
can be deployed directly behind combat 
personnel to provide immediate medi- 



cal care for critically wounded Marines. 
MTB enables the Shock Trauma Platoon 
to provide forward deployed emergency/ 
trauma care through task-organized tac- 
tical trauma teams with a means of force 
protection and environmental control. 
MTB is not designed to transport person- 
nel or be used as a casualty evacuation 
asset. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The Maintenance Center at Albany, 
GA, is the Original Equipment Manufac- 
turer. The Logistics Vehicle System Re- 
placement (LVSR) is prime mover for the 
MTB. Nine systems have been produced: 
Six systems were fielded to OEF; and are 
currently participating in combat opera- 
tions; two systems were fielded for home 
station training; one system fielded to I 
MEF; and one system fielded to II MEF; 
one system was built as the engineering 
development prototype and is currently 
fielded to III MEF for home station train- 
ing. II MEF signed the Urgent Universal 
Need Statement in May 2009, the State- 
ment of Need was approved by CDD in 
June 2009, and the MROC approved in 
July 2009. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 209 



FAMILY OF FIELD MEDICAL EQUIPMENT (FFME) 




DESCRIPTION 

The Family of Field Medical Equip- 
ment (FFME) consists of medical sys- 
tems designed to provide Health Service 
Support (HSS) personnel with the medi- 
cal equipment and supplies necessary 
to maintain the combat effectiveness of 
the force and safely stabilize and evacu- 
ate casualties from the battlefield. FFME 
Systems act as a force multiplier by ensur- 
ing equipment, supplies, and medicine 
are available to treat the wounded and 
sick as far forward as possible and return 
them to the fight. There are 30 different 
medical systems or Authorized Medical/ 
Dental Allowance Lists (AMALs/ADALs). 
AMALs/ADALs and four medical kits, 
which include medical equipment and 
materiel that provide Marine Corps units 
with point of injury care — Individual 
First Aid Kit (IFAK), Corpsman Assault 
Pack (CAP) and Casualty Evacuation 
(CASEVAC) — to Shock/Surgical Triage, 
forward resuscitative surgery, and post- 
operative En Route Care evacuation. 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

FFME systems provide the Marine 
Air Ground Task Force with First Re- 
sponder and Forward Resuscitative Care 
Capabilities, medical equipment and sup- 
plies to treat the wounded and sick and 
prevent the spread of disease. Loss of any 
of the capability provided by FFME sys- 
tems would adversely affect health care 
management throughout the Marine 
Corps and potentially result in the loss of 
life. Each AMAL/ADAL and medical kit 
is modeled by the Naval Health Research 
Center, verified by Subject Matter Experts 
(SMEs), and stocked to reflect current 
casualty rates and protocols. Planned 
enhancements to FFME systems to im- 
prove the quality of health care provided 
to the warfighter include: Portable Patient 
Transport Litter System (PPTLS), im- 
proved tourniquets; and the Vaccine and 
Reagent Refrigeration System. Other ef- 
forts include joint study efforts with other 
services in the research and development 
of hematology analyzers and the Mobile 
Anesthesia Delivery Module (MADM). 

PROGRAM STATUS 

A review with NHRC, HQMC, 
CD&I, MARCORSYSCOM, and SMEs 
is conducted on each AMAL/ADAL and 
medical kit every four years. The AMAL/ 
ADL or medical kit is then updated with 
the latest state-of-the-art medical tech- 
nology and reconfigured based on cur- 
rent casualty rates and protocols. New 
or updated equipment to be added to the 
AMAL/ADAL or medical kit is acquired 
and fielded the following year and obso- 
lete equipment is disposed of properly. 



210 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



MARINE CORPS FAMILY OF POWER AND 
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL EQUIPMENT 



I 



DESCRIPTION 

The Marine Corps Family of Power 
Equipment encompasses a portfolio pro- 
gram to procure, update, and replenish 
continuously more than 30,000 items 
of power equipment, including skid- 
mounted and trailer-mounted diesel gen- 
erators, floodlights, power distribution 
sets, electrician toolkits, power supplies, 
radio power adaptors, battery chargers, 
renewable energy systems, and on-board 
vehicle power systems. The Marine Corps 
Family of Environmental Control Equip- 
ment continuously procures, updates, 
and replenishes more than 8,000 items 
that include tactically hardened Environ- 
mental Control Units, refrigerated con- 
tainers, and refrigeration tool kits. Both 
families of equipment are used to support 
all command, ground combat, aviation, 
and logistics elements throughout the 
Marine Corps that require tactical power 
and environmental control in support of 
air control, communication/information 
systems, life support systems, and general 
power/heating-ventilation-air condition- 
ing requirements. Paramount in each 
family is fielding Environmental Protec- 
tion Agency- compliant equipment to 
meet stringent air quality and zero-ozone 
depleting standards, while maintaining 
military compatibility, energy efficiency, 
transportability, durability, and simplic- 
ity of operation. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

Procurement of these systems will 
ensure that the Command Element, Avia- 
tion Combat Element, Ground Combat 
Element, and Logistics Combat Element 
entities have the ability to support all 
requirements of the Marine Air Ground 



Task Force with deployable and energy 
efficient equipment. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

Within the families of power equip- 
ment and environmental control equip- 
ment, various items are replaced as de- 
termined appropriate by the life cycle 
manager, Program Manager Expedition- 
ary Power Systems. All items are managed 
as acquisition or abbreviated-acquisition 
programs, with multiple acquisition pro- 
grams in progress at any point in time. 

Developer/Manufacturer: 

Environmental Control Units: NordicAir Inc, 

Geneva, OH 

Current Tactical Generators: DRS, 
Bridgeport, CT and L-3, Tulsa, OK 

Future Tactical Generators; ONAN 
Cummins, Minneapolis, MN 

Battery Chargers: Bren-tronics Inc., 
Commack, NY 

Battery Managers and Analyzers: PulseTech 
Corporation, Waco, TX 

Refrigerated Containers: SeaBox Inc., 
East Rutherford, NJ 

Solar Power System: IRIS Technology, 
Irvine, CA 

Power Distribution: LEX Product, 
Stamford, CT 

Floodlights and Generators: Magnum 
Products, Berlin, Wl 

Integrated Trailer, ECU and Generator: 
General Dynamics, Tucson, AZ and Magnum 
Products, Berlin, Wl 

On-Board Vehicle Power System: Oshkosh 
Truck Co., Oshkosh, Wl and DRS, 
Huntsville, AL 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 211 



I 



TEST MEASUREMENT AND DIAGNOSTIC EQUIPMENT (TMDE) 



DESCRIPTION 

Marine Corps TMDE encompasses 
an extensive variety of both General- 
Purpose and Automated Test Measure- 
ment Equipment, ranging from handheld 
voltmeters, spectrum analyzers, and os- 
cilloscopes, to mobile machine shops, ex- 
peditionary engine dynamometers, and 
calibration systems. TMDE also procures 
a vast array of General-Purpose Tools, 
Sets and Kits used by the 30,000-plus 
ground equipment maintainers. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

TMDE procurements enable Marine 
Corps ground mechanics and techni- 
cians to safely repair broken or combat- 
damaged motor transport, ordnance, 
communication electronics and engineer 
systems as far forward as possible on the 
battlefield in support of the scheme of 
maneuver and logistical requirements of 
the Marine Air Ground Task Force, using 
tools and test measurement equipment 
verified to meet appropriate National In- 
stitute of Standards and Technology mea- 
surement standards 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The TMDE program supports the en- 
tire Marine Corps' ground maintenance 
capability. As technology advances, there 
is a continuous upgrade and replacement 
of predominately commercially available 



Tools and Test Equipment as determined 
necessary to safely and effectively install, 
operate and maintain the latest weapons 
systems fielded throughout the Operating 
Forces. Specific items may be managed as 
acquisition or abbreviated-acquisition 
programs, and there are multiple acqui- 
sition programs in progress at any point 
in time. 

Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 2012 
Quantity: Various Various 

Developer/Manufacturer: 
Handheld Spectrum Analyzers: Agilent Tech- 
nologies, Santa Clara, CA 

Handheld Oscilloscopes and meters: Fluke 
Corporation, Everette, WA 

Mobile Machine Shops: Seabox, Riverton, 
NJ 

Mobile Tool Trailers and Carts: Snap-On 
Tools, Kenosha, Wl 

Portable Tool Kits: Danaher Tool Group, 
Sparks, MD 

Automated Ground Radio Test Set: Aeroflex, 
Wichita, KS 

Automated Test Program Sets: Mantech, 
Chantilly, VA, and DME, Orlando, FL 

Automated Optic Test Set: Santa Barbara 
InfraRed, Santa Barbara, CA 

Calibration Equipment: Mahr Federal, Provi- 
dence, Rl; AKO Torque Specialties, Enfield, 
CT; and Tegam, Geneva, OH 



212 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



EXPEDITIONARY - WATER PACKAGING SYSTEM (E-WPS) 



I 



DESCRIPTION 

The E-WPS is a skid-mounted, au- 
tomated, self-contained, water packag- 
ing system, capable of packaging wa- 
ter at 75 Gallons Per Hour (GPH). The 
E-WPS places potable water into bags 
ranging from 1 to 3 liters. The E-WPS is 
integrated on a standard High-Mobility 
Multi- Wheeled Vehicle trailer. The system 
serves as source of resupply for currently 
fielded hydration systems or stand-alone 
packaged water for relief missions. The 
E-WPS is capable of being used with the 
Lightweight Water Purification System 
(LWPS), the Tactical Water Purification 
System and other potable water sources. 



tribute potable water on location at for- 
ward operating bases and other outposts, 
significantly decreasing or eliminating 
the need to transport bottled water. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The E-WPS program was initiated 
December 2009. A contract for the initial 
test articles was awarded June 2010, tech- 
nical testing will conclude in April 2011. 
A Milestone C Decision is scheduled for 
August 2011. Fielding is estimated to be 
completed by February 2013. 



Procurement Profile: 



FY 201 1 
16 



FY 201 2 
61 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

Water usage rate in Iraq is estimated 
to be 5.9 liters per day per Marine. E-WPS 
provides the capability to package and dis- 



Developer/Manufacturer: 

Global Technologies, Frederick, MD 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 213 



I 



LIGHTWEIGHT WATER PURIFICATION SYSTEM (LWPS) 



DESCRIPTION 

The Lightweight Water Purification 
System (LWPS) is a lightweight, modular, 
highly transportable, self-contained water 
purification system. This system allows a 
crew of two Marines to provide potable 
water to company-sized organizations 
across the spectrum of conflict with lim- 
ited logistical support. The LWPS is ca- 
pable of producing 125 Gallons Per Hour 
(GPH) from a fresh or brackish surface 
water source and 75 GPH from a natural 
surface seawater source or groundwater 
source, with a daily production capacity 
of 1,500-2,500 gallons of water per day 
depending on the raw water quality. This 
production rate meets the 1,500 gallons of 
water daily — the complete potable water 
needs of one Marine infantry company. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The LWPS provides the capability to 
produce purified water from almost any 
water source, significantly reducing the 
logistics requirements associated with 
the transport of bulk potable water on a 
distributed battlefield. The light weight 
modular design allows operational units 



to purify water where use of the less mo- 
bile Tactical Water Purification system 
(TWPS) is not operationally feasible. 
A single High-Mobility Multipurpose 
Wheeled Vehicle or helicopter can trans- 
port an entire system in order to provide 
flexibility in executing expeditionary op- 
erations. 



PROGRAM STATUS 

The LWPS program was initiated on 
May 2007. A Full Rate Production Deci- 
sion was granted July 2010, and a Field- 
ing decision is planned for the Fourth 
Quarter FY2010, with Fielding scheduled 
to be complete by the end of FY2012. A 
total of 189 LWPS will be procured, with 
25 LWPS being provided in support of 
OPERATION ENDURING FREEDOM 
in response to an Urgent Statement of 
Need. 

Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 201 2 
44 28 

Developer/Manufacturer: 
Terra-Group Corporation, Allentown, PA 



214 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



CONVENTIONAL GROUND AMMUNITION (CLASS V(W)) 



I 



DESCRIPTION 

Supply Class V(W) Conventional 
Ground Ammunition consists of more 
than 300 individual ammunition and ex- 
plosives items in the Marine Corps am- 
munition stockpile. These items support 
all major weapons systems employed by 
the Marine Corps, including artillery, 
tank, small arms (such as 9mm, 5.56mm, 
7.62mm, and .50-caliber), shoulder-fired 
rockets and missiles, medium caliber 
(25mm and 40mm) weapons, mine clear- 
ance systems, 120mm rifled mortars for 
the Expeditionary Fire Support System, 
and the family of 60mm and 81mm mor- 
tar ammunition. Conventional ground 
ammunition also includes individually 
employed and hand-emplaced material, 
such as grenades, demolition equipment, 
pyrotechnics, and signaling devices. Also 
included are training and mission-unique 
items, such as non-lethal munitions, Spe- 
cial Effects Ammunition Markings Sys- 
tem, and Military Working Dog Scent 
Kits. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

Ammunition procurement supports 
a wide spectrum of Marine Corps re- 
quirements that are categorized within 
two major elements. The first is the War 
Reserve Munitions Requirement, which 
includes combat, current operations/ 
forward presence, and strategic readiness 
requirements. The second is the Training/ 
Testing Requirement, which includes live- 
fire training and weapons-systems testing. 
The combination of these two categories 
constitutes the Marine Corps' Total Muni- 
tions Requirement (TMR). With the con- 
tinuing global missions facing the Nation, 
it is imperative that the Marine Corps 



maintains a healthy procurement profile 
as well as a robust munitions stockpile 
to address the growing demands of the 
Marine forces for both war-reserve and 
live-fire training. Past efforts within the 
ammunition procurement appropriation 
have helped the Marine Corps to main- 
tain readiness levels while meeting cur- 
rent demands for ammunition and ex- 
plosives required for current operations. 
During the previous three fiscal years, 
ammunition investment has allowed for 
sufficient flexibility in supporting several 
munitions based urgent need statements 
generated by the operating forces as well 
as training growth as a result of Overseas 
Contingency Operations. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

Planned conventional ammunition 
processes and the current funding pro- 
file will continue to ensure sufficient am- 
munition is available for future combat 
or peacekeeping operations involving 
active-duty and Reserve Marine forces. 

Procurement Profile: 

Using the Marine Corps ammunition stock- 
pile as a baseline, and assessed against 
the TMR, the FY201 1 and FY2012 budget 
includes procurements of approximately 
75 individual line items of ammunition in 
various quantities. Select representative 
procurement quantities, by general muni- 
tions family, is provided at the following: 

Procurement 

Profile: FY 2011 FY 2012 

Small Arms 

Family 157,852,000 153,087,000 

Mortar Family 341 ,000 1 47.000 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 215 



I 



Tank Family 13,000 4,000 

Artillery 520,000 241,000 

Rocket Family 102,000 27,000 

40MM 4,248,000 4,233,000 

Grenades 898,000 794,000 

Developer/Manufacturer: 
Small Arms Family: Alliant Tech Systems, 
Independence, MO, and General Dynamics 
Ordnance Systems, Marion, IL 

Mortar Family: American Ordnance, Milan, 
TN; Medico, Wilkes-Barre, PA; L3 Com- 
munications, Lancaster, PA; HITECH, East 
Camden, AR; Wilkinson Manufacturing, Port 



Calhoun, NE; and Armtec Defense Products, 
Coachella, CA 

Tank Ammunition: Alliant Tech Systems, 
Plymouth, MN, and American Ordnance, 
Middleton, IA 

Artillery Ammunition: Chamberlain Manufac- 
turing, Scranton, PA, and American Ord- 
nance, Middleton, IA 

Rockets: NAM MO /Talley Defense Systems, 
Mesa, AZ, and SAB Bofors Dynamics, Karl- 
skoga, Sweden 



216 1 USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 201 1 



COMMUNICATION ELECTRONICS EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE 
COMPLEX (CEEMC) RIGID WALL SHELTER 



I 



DESCRIPTION 

The Marine Corps has operational 
requirements in support of OPERATION 
IRAQI FREEDOM/NEW DAWN AND 
OPERATION ENDURING FREEDOM, 
as well as mission need statements, and 
operational requirements addressing a 
critical need for field maintenance and 
repair capability for critical communica- 
tion electronic equipment systems. 

The Communication Electron- 
ics Equipment Maintenance Complex 
(CEEMC), in accordance with the Re- 
quired Operational Capability (ROC) 
dated 1 February 1983 and the State- 
ment of Need (SON) dated 21 April 2008, 
will provide the warfighter with a Rigid 
Wall Shelter. The shelter will be durable, 
expandable, tactical and modular. The 
CEEMC will also have interchangeable 
Internal Appointment Modules (IAMS) 
that will optimize work space. The shel- 
ters are easily re-locatable and require 
minimum maintenance. The CEEMC 
will also protect equipment and person- 
nel while conducting maintenance func- 
tions needed to support deployed opera- 
tions. In addition to these characteristics, 
CEEMC Systems are compatible with 
standard organic Marine Corps power 
generators, environmental control units, 
and transportation assets. The CEEMC 
System also meets the International Stan- 
dardization Organization (ISO) certifica- 
tion requirements. 

The CEEMC System is an expandable 
rigid wall shelter approved by DoD Joint 
Committee on Tactical Shelters (JOCO- 
TAS) that will be used to replace legacy 
non-expandable rigid wall shelters that 
have met or exceeded their service lives. 



The CEEMC system will be deployed in 
the same manner as the legacy non-ex- 
pandable shelters. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The Marine Corps has critical field 
electronics maintenance capability re- 
quirements in support of current op- 
erations and global mission needs. The 
CEEMC will significantly enhance the 
warfighters' readiness by optimizing 
the capacity to perform Operator/Crew 
through Field Level repair of satellite 
radio systems; ground radio systems; 
command, control, communications, 
computers, and intelligence systems 
(C4I); ground radio systems, telephone 
systems, fiber optic communication sys- 
tems; night-vision goggles; cryptographic 
equipment; Light Armored Vehicle (LAV) 
weapons systems; and small arms. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

CEEMC achieved a MS C Full Rate 
Production Decision in FY 10 and will be- 
gin fielding in FY1 1." 

The Approved Acquisition Objective 
(AAO) is 65 shelters, with two CEEMC 
shelters being produced per month. Once 
a shelter is fully integrated with IAMs and 
components, the shelter will be packaged 
and shipped to the unit identified in the 
Fielding Plan. Initial Operation Capa- 
bility of 12 will be achieved when a Ma- 
rine Corps Logistics Group from a Ma- 
rine Expeditionary Force has been fully 
equipped, trained, and supported. Full 
Operational Capability will be achieved 
when all Marine Corps owning units have 
been equipped. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 217 



I 



Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 2012 
Quantity: 8 

Developer/Manufacturer: 

Guichner Shelter Systems, Dallastown, PA 



218 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



FAMILY OF TACTICAL SOFT SHELTERS (FTSS) 



I 




DESCRIPTION 

The Marine Corps FTSS are shelters 
for tactical use that maximize modular- 
ity, ease of use, operational effectiveness, 
durability, and the ability to connect with 
vehicles and similar shelters. It includes 
the Expeditionary Shelter System, Gener- 
al Purpose Medium Shelter, Lightweight 
Maintenance Enclosure, Combat Tent, 
10-Man Arctic Tent, and the Extreme 
Cold Weather Tent. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The FTSS will provide protection 
from the natural environment to the 
operating forces for use in varied mis- 
sion roles (e.g., command and control, 



administration, billeting, supply, medical, 
dental and messing). The FTSS is not de- 
signed to counter a specific threat. Rather, 
it is intended to improve the effectiveness 
with which a variety of battlefield func- 
tions are accomplished. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The FTSS is currently in Post Mile- 
stone C and is being fielded to the operat- 
ing forces. 

Procurement Profile: FY 201 1 FY 2012 
Quantity: 11,200 10,212 

Developer/Manufacturer: 

Base-X Inc., Fairfield, VA 

Camel Manufacturing Company, Pioneer, TN 

Diamond Brand, Arden, NC 

Johnson Outdoors, Binghamton, NY 

Outdoor Ventures Corporation, Stearns, KY 

Utilis USA, Fort Walton Beach, FL 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS t 219 



MARITIME SUPPORT TO EXPEDITIONARY OPERATIONS 



I 



During the 1920s and '30s the Navy 
and Marine Corps began experimenting 
with new concepts and techniques that 
would change the way they conducted 
expeditionary operations. The Navy ex- 
perimented with carrier operations using 
a converted coal ship and two partially 
completed battle cruisers. At the same 
time the Marine Corps began to experi- 
ment with amphibious tractors, close-air 
support, and combined arms to develop 
doctrine and training for amphibious 
operations. The inter- war years of experi- 
mentation and concept development re- 
sulted in a Navy and Marine Corps team 
that won the War in the Pacific during 
World War II. 

Today, we are at a similar point in 
the evolution of new expeditionary capa- 
bilities and a similar commitment to ex- 
perimentation and concept development 
is needed. The concept of seabasing is 
maturing and becoming a reality as new 
platforms and technologies that allow 
us to operate more effectively from a sea 
base are delivered. Until recently, Marines 
have been able to conduct sea-based op- 
erations only from amphibious shipping 
because today's prepositioned capabilities 
can only be employed once forces are as- 
sembled ashore. Additionally, our prepo- 
sitioned equipment has been perceived as 
a "break glass in time of war" capability 
primarily reserved for major combat op- 
erations. However, to meet the demands 
of today's security environment, our 
amphibious and prepositioning assets 
must become more integrated to better 
support steady-state operational require- 



ments and eliminate the false perception 
that amphibious and prepositioning ca- 
pabilities are separate and distinct capa- 
bilities. Amphibious and prepositioning 
capabilities are complementary and in the 
future will become more interoperable. 
Both capabilities must evolve to provide 
greater utility, particularly in irregular 
warfare and other low to mid-intensity 
operations, while retaining the capabil- 
ity to fully execute major combat opera- 
tions. Our Maritime Prepositioning Force 
(MPF), in particular, must develop a full 
at-sea arrival and assembly capability to 
better support operations ashore. 

EXPEDITIONARY NAVAL 
FORCES IN SUPPORT OF 
NATIONAL STRATEGY 

The tri-Service A Cooperative Strategy 
for 21st Century Seapower states that for- 
ward-deployed and globally engaged Ma- 
rine Corps expeditionary forces, with the 
Navy and Coast Guard "act across the full 
range of military operations to secure the 
United States from direct attack; secure 
strategic access and retain global freedom 
of action; strengthen existing and emerg- 
ing alliances and partnerships and estab- 
lish favorable security conditions." Most 
significantly, these "persistently present 
and combat-ready" maritime forces also 
"provide the Nation's primary forcible- 
entry option in an era of declining ac- 
cess." 

The Marine Corps' amphibious and 
prepositioning capabilities contribute to 
the Joint force's expeditionary capability 
and fulfill the nation's maritime strategic 

CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 221 



imperatives of: 

• Limiting regional conflict with forward- 
deployed, decisive maritime power 

• Deterring major power war 

• Winning our Nation's wars 

• Contributing to homeland defense in 
depth 

• Fostering and sustaining cooperative 
relationships with more international 
powers, and 

• Preventing or containing local disrup- 
tions before they impact the global 
system 

Operating in concert with the Navy, 
Marine Corps expeditionary forces can 
be employed from a sea base to comple- 
ment other joint means of projecting 
power and influence. These forces lever- 
age the advantages afforded by our com- 
mand of the seas and ability to dominate 
the maritime domain to conduct opera- 
tions in the littorals. The Marine Corps' 
expeditionary forces also contribute sig- 
nificantly to achieving the Marine Corps' 
core competencies 

OPERATIONAL ROLE OF 
MARINE CORPS 
EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 

Our strategies and concepts address 
the following requirements: the ability 
to maintain open and secure sea lines of 
communication for this maritime nation; 
the ability to maneuver over and project 
power from the sea; the ability to work 
with partner nations and allies to conduct 
humanitarian relief or noncombatant 
evacuation operations; and the ability 
to conduct sustained littoral operations 



along any coastline in the world. 

Marine Corps expeditionary forces 
provide a balanced and scalable set of 
capabilities to counter irregular threats, 
respond to emerging crises, and conduct 
major combat operations. In this era of 
strategic uncertainty, "a forward deployed 
expeditionary force, consistently engaged 
and postured for rapid response, is criti- 
cal for national security in the future as it 
is today." 

The Marine Corps' expeditionary 
capability is enabled by the complemen- 
tary employment of both amphibious 
shipping and prepositioned equipment. 
Together they provide responsive and 
scalable options to project influence and 
power and provide support across the full 
spectrum of operations to include en- 
gagement operations and crisis response. 
The deployment of the 22d and 24th 
Marine Expeditionary Units (MEUs) 
on board amphibious shipping and the 
prepositioning ship USNS Lummus to 
support operations in Haiti in 2010 is an 
example of the complementary capability 
to rapidly respond to an emerging crisis. 
These forces provide a similar capability 
to respond at the high end of the spec- 
trum to create littoral maneuver space for 
the Joint force. The expeditionary charac- 
ter and versatility of Marine Corps expe- 
ditionary forces provide the nation with 
the asymmetric advantage of seamlessly 
adjusting the size of its military footprint 
to match the changing situation ashore. 



222 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



I 



CURRENT AMPHIBIOUS 
CAPABILITY 

Among the many capabilities pro- 
vided by integration of combat ready 
MAGTFs with amphibious ships, three 
are of critical importance: 

• Forward presence to support engage- 
ment and theater security cooperation 

• A ready force to immediately respond to 
emergent crises, and 

• A credible and sustainable forcible en- 
try capability 

Forward-deployed amphibious forc- 
es are unique in that they are postured to 
immediately respond to emerging crises 
while conducting persistent forward en- 
gagement to prevent and deter threats 

— particularly in the areas of instabil- 
ity found in the littorals. Often the pres- 
ence of an amphibious force capable of 
delivering a stunning amphibious blow 
at a point and time of their own choos- 
ing, is enough to stabilize an escalating 
crisis. The inherent versatility and flex- 
ibility of amphibious forces — exempli- 
fied by their ability to conduct missions 
across the range of military operations 

— achieves advantages disproportionate 
to the resources employed. 

An amphibious capability creates 
four strategic benefits for a nation de- 
pendent on its ability to exploit its com- 
mand of the seas to project influence and 
power. 

• Increased Freedom of Action: Am- 
phibious forces can use the maritime 
domain as a base from which to con- 
duct operations. They can loiter indefi- 
nitely in international waters and ma- 



neuver ashore at the time and place of 
its choosing. 

• Deterrence: While a standoff strike is 
sometimes an adequate response, other 
situations require the rapid insertion of 
sustainable combat forces — "boots on 
the ground" — to underscore the Na- 
tion's commitment. 

• Assured Access: Amphibious forces 
contribute unique and essential capa- 
bilities toward the Nation's ability to 
enter a region without regard to access 
constraints and impediments. 

• Uncertainty for Adversaries: A credible 
forcible-entry capability compels po- 
tential adversaries to invest in a broad 
range of systems and spread their de- 
fenses over a larger area of concern. 

The Marine Corps' lengthy experi- 
ence in conducting forward engagement 
and security cooperation operations in 
the littorals has dispelled the misper- 
ception that forcible entry is the only 
yardstick by which the requirement for 
amphibious capability and capacity is 
measured. More relevant metrics in to- 
day's security environment, as presented 
in the 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review, 
are the capability to conduct persistent 
forward engagement activities and pro- 
vide a crisis response force while retain- 
ing the capability to respond to major 
contingencies. 

The importance of amphibious 
forces is highlighted by the increased em- 
ployment of Marine Corps expeditionary 
forces since the end of the Cold War. From 
1946 through 1989, amphibious forces 
were employed on average 2.45 times per 

CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 223 



I 



year; since 1990, the rate has increased to 
5.47 times per year. The demand for am- 
phibious forces to support steady-state 
operations is projected to increase even 
more in the coming years as combatant 
commanders place greater emphasis on 
conducting sea-based persistent forward- 
engagement activities throughout their 
areas of responsibility (AORs). Com- 
batant commanders' global demand for 
amphibious ready groups (ARGs) and 
Marine Expeditionary Units (MEUs) has 
increased 86 percent and 53 percent for 
independent amphibious ships during 
the FY2007 to FY201 1 period. 

The ability to meet the demand for 
amphibious ships with the programmed 
amphibious fleet is a critical concern. The 
increased demand for amphibious forces 
has placed a strain on amphibious ship- 



ping as the employment of amphibious 
forces has increased while the inventory 
of amphibious ships has declined. While 
newly delivered amphibious ships, such as 
the San Antonio class LPD, are more capa- 
ble than the ships they replace, a ship can 
be in only one place at a time. Although 
the fleet retains a responsive surge capa- 
bility, the constrained number of in-ser- 
vice ships precludes fully supporting the 
growing demand for rotational MEU and 
Global Fleet Station (GFS) deployments 
and other requirements. The Marine 
Corps amphibious ship and associated 
connector requirements are highlighted 
in the following pages. 



224 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



AMPHIBIOUS WARSHIPS 



I 




Amphibious warfare ships are the 
centerpieces of the Navy/Marine Corps' 
presence, forcible-entry and sea-basing 
capability and have played essential roles 
in global operations. These ships are 
equipped with aviation-assault and sur- 
face-assault capabilities, which, coupled 
with their inherent survivability and self- 
defense systems, support a broad range of 
mission requirements. They provide the 
most formidable expeditionary forcible- 
entry capability in the world, the devel- 
opment and maintenance of which is the 
responsibility of the Marine Corps under 
U.S. Code Title X. 

The Marine Corps operational re- 
quirement is for two Marine Expedition- 
ary Brigade Assault Echelons (MEB AE) 
of forcible-entry capability reinforced by 
an additional MEB from the Maritime 
Prepositioning Force (Transition). The 
two-MEB AE forcible-entry capability 
requires 34 amphibious warfare ships (17 
ships per MEB). When forward-presence 
requirements are considered with the 2.0 
MEB lift requirement, AE requirements 
total 38 ships. Of these 38 ships, 1 1 must 
be aviation-capable large-deck ships — 
LHA/LHD/LHA(R) — to accommodate 
the MEB's Aviation Combat Element. 

Ten large- deck ships (eight Wasp 



class LHDs and two Tarawa-Class LHAs) 
are in service in early 2011. The eighth 
Wasp-class multi-purpose amphibious 
assault ship, the USS Makin Island (LHD 
8), was delivered in 2009. LHD 8 is similar 
to LHD 1 through LHD 7 but is powered 
by gas turbine engines and has all-electric 
auxiliaries. 

AMPHIBIOUS ASSAULT SHIP 
REPLACEMENT (LHA(R)) 

The amphibious fleet is organized for 
persistent forward presence and includes 
nine Amphibious Ready Groups — each 
comprising three amphibious ships. The 
centerpiece of the ARG is a Wasp (LHD 
1)- class or Tarawa (LHA 1) -class am- 
phibious assault ship. The Tarawa-class 
amphibious assault ships reach the ends 
of their expected service lives by FY2014. 
The first of two transitional LHA Replace- 
ment (LHA(R)) ships, the USS America 
(LHA 6), began construction in 2008. LHA 
6 design modifications optimize aviation 
support for MV-22B Osprey and F-35B 
Joint Strike Fighter operations. Removal 
of the well deck provides for an extended 
hangar deck with two wider high-bay ar- 
eas, each fitted with an overhead crane 
for aircraft maintenance. Other enhance- 
ments include a reconfigurable command 
and control complex, a hospital facility, 
and extensive support activities. Efforts 
are underway to incorporate a well deck 
into the FY2016 LHA(R) platform and 
to incorporate changes in the basic ship 
design to ensure optimized aviation and 
surface operations and service life. 

CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 225 



I 




SAN ANTONIO-CLASS (LPD 
17) AMPHIBIOUS TRANSPORT 
DOCK SHIP 

The LPD- 17 San Antonio-class am- 
phibious warfare ship represents the De- 
partment of the Navy's (DoN) commit- 
ment to a modern expeditionary fleet and 
will assist the Marine Corps's naval forces 
across the spectrum of warfare. The first 
five ships of the class — the USS San An- 
tonio (LPD-17), USS New Orleans (LPD- 
18), USS Mesa Verde (LPD-19), USS 
Green Bay (LPD-20), and USS New York 
(LPD-21) — have been commissioned as 
of early 201 1. The San Antonio class LPDs 
will replace the remaining ships of the 
LPD-4 Austin class. 

The LPD-17 class' unique design 
facilitates expands force coverage and 
decreases reaction times of forward-de- 
ployed MEUs. In forcible-entry opera- 
tions, the LPD-17 helps maintain a robust 
surface assault and rapid off-load capa- 



bility for the Marine Air Ground Task 
Force well into the future. The San Anto- 
nio class warships incorporate advanced 
characteristics for amphibious ships. 
Each ship has 699 enhanced berths for 
embarked Marines, plus a surge capac- 
ity of another 101 berths. Each also has a 
vehicle-stowage capacity of 24,600 square 
feet, cargo-stowage capacity of more than 
33,000 cubic feet, and a well deck sized for 
two Landing Craft Air Cushions (LCAC) 
or one Landing Craft Utility. Flight decks 
can support operations by two CH-53E/K 
Super Stallions, two MV-22B Osprey tilt- 
rotor aircraft, four CH-46E Sea Knight 
helicopters or a various mix of H-l attack 
utility helicopters. The ships in this class 
are outfitted with two Rolling Airframe 
Missile launchers for self-defense and in- 
corporate design features that present a 
significantly reduced radar cross-section, 
compared to previous amphibious ships. 



226 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



JOINT HIGH SPEED VESSEL (JHSV) 



I 




The Joint High-Speed Vessel (JHSV) 
will provide the critical intra-theater, 
surface-connector capability that will en- 
able the joint force commander to proj- 
ect forces and sustainment at high speeds 
over operational distances. The JHSV will 
be capable of self- deploying to the the- 
ater of operations and, once in theater, 
provide the high-speed means to move 
forces and supplies within that theater. 
Specifically, the JHSV will provide the ca- 
pability to deliver equipment, personnel, 
and supplies over the intra-theater ranges 
to shallow, austere, and degraded ports. It 
will provide support to seabasing and will 
bridge the gap between low-speed sealift 
and high-speed airlift. 



The JHSV reached Milestone B in 
November 2008, which authorized sys- 
tem design development and detailed de- 
sign. Low rate initial production was also 
approved. The JHSV lead ship is sched- 
uled to deliver in FY2012 with additional 
ships to follow in the subsequent years. 
The contract includes options for eight 
additional vessels to be awarded between 
FY201 1 and FY2015. In the interim, high- 
speed vessels will continue to be leased in 
the Pacific Command area of responsibil- 
ity to satisfy compelling requirements. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 227 



LANDING CRAFT AIR CUSHION (LCAC) / 
SHIP-TO-SHORE CONNECTOR (SSC) 




The LCAC is a high-speed, fully am- 
phibious craft with a design payload of 60 
tons at speeds in excess of 40 knots and a 
nominal range of 200 nautical miles. The 
LCAC's ability to ride on a cushion of air 
allows it to operate directly from the well 
decks of amphibious warships and to ac- 
cess more than 70 percent of the world's 
beaches, compared to 17 percent for con- 
ventional landing craft. A service life exten- 
sion program (SLEP) began in late 2000 for 
the 72 active LCACs, which provides major 
refurbishment that will extend craft life to 
30 years. The goal is to carry out five LCAC 
SLEPs per year. During SLEP, LCACs re- 
ceive a system upgrade that includes new 
command, control, communication, and 
navigation equipment; buoyancy box and 
rotating machinery refurbishment; en- 
hanced engines; and upgrades of the cur- 
rent skirt system with an improved deep 



skirt, thereby increasing the performance 
envelope. 

The Ship-to-Shore Connector (SSC) 
program was begun to develop a replace- 
ment for the in-service LCACs and the 
LCAC (SLEP) as these craft reach the ends 
of their service lives. In December 2007, 
the Navy Resources, Requirements Review 
board selected the 74 Short-Ton Air- Cush- 
ion Vehicle concept in the approved Initial 
Capabilities Development Document as 
the LCAC replacement platform. 

The Joint Requirements Oversight 
Council approved the Capability Devel- 
opment Document in June 2010 and the 
Request for Proposal for Detail, Design, 
and Construction is planned for release 
to allow for the contract award in FY201 1, 
and delivery of the test and training craft 
inFY2016. 



228 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



EVOLUTION OF MARITIME PREPOSITIONING 



I 



The Marine Corps' current preposi- 
tioning programs provide the equipment 
and supplies for elements of three Marine 
Expeditionary Brigades (MEBs) afloat and 
elements of a fourth MEB in Marine Corps 
Prepositioning Program-Norway (MCPP- 
N). The current program, however, must 
continue to evolve to meet the challenges 
of a strategic environment with greater 
anti-access challenges. Marine Corps prep- 
ositioning, both ashore and afloat, is pro- 
grammed for significant change through 
2025 and beyond. The most marked chang- 
es will occur in the afloat program, where 
the capability to conduct sustained sea- 
based operations with limited host-nation 
infrastructure in the joint operating area 
(JOA) will provide a greatly expanded set 
of options for the combatant commanders. 
A detailed integration plan has been de- 
veloped to ensure the new capabilities are 



seamlessly incorporated into the existing 
program. 

The first stages of this plan have al- 
ready been realized. Each Maritime 
Prepositioned Squadron (MPSRON) has 
increased organic ship-to-shore move- 
ment capability with the fielding of the 
Integrated Navy Lighterage System (INLS). 
The INLS provides operability in higher 
sea states and greater throughput capacity 
than the legacy lighterage it replaces. The 
Maritime Prepositioning Force (MPF) has 
been recapitalized with the Military Sea- 
lift Command (MSC) either purchasing 
or terminating the program's leased ships. 
The recapitalization plan also included the 
addition of a general-purpose container 
ship and a tanker ship, which are now op- 
erational. The final major enhancement is 
the integration of a Large Medium- Speed 
Roll-On/Roll-Off (LMSR) ship into each 










CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 229 



I 



MPSRON. The LMSRs provide more 
stowage space to accommodate the larger 
and more numerous equipment of the 
MEB. The addition of these three LMSRs 
will provide a net increase of more than 
400,000 square feet. The first LMSR (USNS 
Sister) was integrated into MPSRON- 1 in 
2008; the second (USNS Dahl) was added 
to MPSRON-3 in February 2010; and the 
third (USNS Seay) will join MPSRON-2 in 
February 2011. 

While the current prepositioning pro- 
gram provides significant capability to the 
combatant commanders, it is limited in 
some areas, especially the ability to con- 
duct sea-based operations. The closure of 
forces requires a secure airfield and a secure 
port or beach landing site in the JOA — a 
significant constraint on some operations. 
Current MPF platforms can embark lim- 
ited personnel pier side, at anchor, or via a 
single-spot flight deck capable of support- 
ing rotary-wing operations, including the 
CH-53E. However, the platforms lack the 
billeting and support services to facilitate 
a sea-based force. Equipment and supplies 
are currently administratively stowed to 
maximize all available space. This "dense 
packing" of the ships precludes the conduct 
of assembly operations aboard MPF ships. 
Current platforms can support the lim- 
ited employment of forces from a sea base; 
however, this requires significant planning 
prior to back-loading the ships during the 
preceding MPF Maintenance Cycle. Since 
there are no maintenance facilities aboard 




current MPF vessels, all reconstitution 
must be done ashore before back loading 
any of the equipment or supplies. 

Between 2012 and 2016, new MPF 
ships will be integrated to the MPSRONs. 
Each new platform will incrementally 
transform the existing MPSRONs and pro- 
vide an immediate operational benefit to 
the Combatant Commanders. A Mobile 
Landing Platform (MLP) with associated 
Ship-to-Shore Connectors will provide the 
squadrons their first organic over-the-ho- 
rizon surface connector capability. The Dry 
Cargo/ Ammunition (T-AKE) ship will en- 
able the selective access of supplies allow- 
ing the building of tailored sustainment 
packages for the forces operating ashore. 
During this transition period, training and 
exercises will focus on the development of 
new tactics, techniques, and procedures as 
well as doctrinal and organizational chang- 
es to fully realize the enhanced ability and 
operational utility of afloat prepositioning. 
The LMSR will interface with the vehicle 
transfer system on the MLP permitting at- 
sea transfer of equipment and personnel 
through NATO sea state three. 



230 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



NAVAL SURFACE FIRE SUPPORT (NSFS) INITIATIVES 



I 




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Firepower, including responsive, lethal 
and persistent fires from U.S. Navy surface 
warships, is essential in expeditionary op- 
erations. A robust, around-the-clock, all- 
weather, sea-based surface fire support ca- 
pability is vital to the success of naval forces 
engaged in littoral combat operations. 
The current Naval Surface Fires Support 
(NSFS) capability does not meet required 
range, volume, and accuracy for support- 
ing expeditionary operations throughout 
an extended battlespace. The Navy contin- 
ues to pursue development and testing of 
an extended-range and guided-fire support 
capability to support the Marine Corps Vi- 
sion and Strategy 2025 and the combined- 
service strategic vision articulated in A 
Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Sea- 
power. 



Completed in 2009, the Joint Expedi- 
tionary Fires Analysis of Alternatives iden- 
tified the optimum U.S. Navy programs to 
support Marine Corps naval surface fire 
support requirements. This study estab- 
lished the baseline capabilities of the cur- 
rent naval surface fire support program of 
record (13nm projectile of the 5-inch gun 
and the Advance Gun System of the DDG- 
1000) to be insufficient in mitigating fire 
support gaps. The study determined that 
extended range 5 -inch munitions would 
serve as a complementary alternative to 
the three DDG 1000s. Dramatic improve- 
ments in 5-inch projectiles can extend the 
naval surface fire support maximum range, 
across the 106 guns in the surface fleet, 
from 13 to 52 nautical miles with precision, 
high angle attack for use in operations in 
urban terrain, and potential effectiveness 
against moving targets. 

In December 2005, The Joint Require- 
ments Oversight Council validated the 
Joint Fires in Support of Expeditionary 
Operations in the Littorals Initial Capabili- 
ties Document (ICD). The ICD identified 
NSFS as a potential solution to mitigate 
gaps in weapons and engagement capabil- 
ity in the littoral environment. The gaps 
include the ability to engage targets in close 
support of maneuver forces or when col- 
lateral damage is a concern, the ability to 
provide volume effects over an area target 
or for sustained periods of time, and the 
ability to engage moving point and area 
target under restricted weather conditions. 
An Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) is being 
conducted to determine what weapons sys- 
tems and platforms will meet the ICD re- 
quirements. This AoA will be the basis for 

CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 231 



I 



a combined Marine Corps/Navy strategy 
to map out those programs and initiatives 
necessary to address the recognized gaps in 
fire support capability and capacity. 

Beginning in 2016, the Navy will field 
a fully integrated, transformational fire 
support system: the DDG-1000 Zumwalt 
class multi-mission destroyer. Equipped 
with two 155mm Advanced Gun Systems 
(AGS), each with a 300-round magazine, 
the DDG-1000 will add considerable fire- 
power and flexibility to an Expedition- 
ary Strike Group or Expeditionary Strike 
Force. The AGS, firing the Long- Range 
Land- Attack Projectile, will increase the le- 
thal effects of the Marine Air Ground Task 
Force (MAGTF) NSFS fires to greater than 
63 nautical miles. The DDG-1000 will also 
be the first naval ship designed to integrate 
counter-fire detection with the dual-band 
radar (DBR). The DBR will be networked 
and can digitally communicate the infor- 
mation to the supporting-arms coordina- 
tion center or fire-support coordination 
center for engagement. 



Future technologies will further de- 
velop transformational NSFS. New science 
and technology efforts are underway, which 
include the Electromagnetic Rail Gun. Fu- 
ture battlefield commanders may harness 
the destructive power of mach 7-plus pro- 
pelled projectiles launched by electromag- 
netic energy generated on board the Navy's 
future family of all-electric ships. The Ma- 
rine Corps will continue to monitor devel- 
oping technologies with an eye toward how 
they might be integrated to support future 
operating concepts. 

NSFS will offer a complementary ca- 
pability to tactical aviation and ground fire 
systems, completing the joint triad of fires. 
Emerging capabilities will reshape the way 
fires are planned and used by the MAGTF. 
With continued commitment, the Marine 
Corps and the rest of the Joint community 
can rely upon NSFS as readily available, 
all-weather fire support systems capable 
of engaging targets across the full range of 
military operations in the littorals. 



232 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



MINE COUNTERMEASURES (MCM) 



I 



Mines employed at sea as well as on 
land have continued to proliferate due to 
their relatively low cost, ease of acquisi- 
tion or manufacturing, and most of all by 
their proven effectiveness. For example, 
between the end of World War II and ear- 
ly 2011, 15 of 19 U.S. warships that were 
sunk or severely damaged by adversary 
actions were mine victims. Mines as part 
of integrated access-denial system pres- 
ents a severe challenge to the Navy and 
Marine Corps Team's ability to conduct 
Expeditionary Maneuver Warfare. In fact, 
naval forces are incapable of successfully 
executing JFEO in acceptable timeframes 
when very shallow water ( VS W ) , surf zone 
(SZ), and beach zone (BZ) mines and ob- 
stacles are present. Additionally, naval 
forces are not currently trained to the 
standard required to successfully conduct 
MCM operations of the scale required by 
a MEB- or MEF-level amphibious opera- 
tion. In order to close this gap, a family of 
Navy and Marine Corps MCM systems is 
being developed to allow joint and com- 
bined sea-based forces to conduct expedi- 
tionary operations at a time and place of 
our choosing, to include terrain defended 
by anti-access systems such as mines and 
obstacles. In addition to materiel solu- 
tions, tactics, techniques, and procedures 
are being developed to support seamless 
naval expeditionary operations through- 
out the littoral and beyond. 

FROM THE STERN GATE 
THROUGH THE BEACH 

Sea-based forces require an effective 
mine countermeasures capability to open 
and maintain sea lines of communication 
and to operate within the littoral battle 
space. The ability to operate in areas de- 



fended by enemy mines and obstacles re- 
quires a family of capabilities, which in- 
cludes detection, location, neutralization, 
marking, and data dissemination. When 
fielded, this family of capabilities will 
allow commanders to detect and avoid 
mines and obstacles when possible, and 
breach when necessary. 

In conducting Operational Maneu- 
ver from the Sea (OMFTS) and ship-to- 
shore movement, the Marine Corps relies 
upon the Navy to maneuver its amphibi- 
ous forces to the beach, allowing the de- 
ployment and prosecution of operations 
ashore. Forces, equipment, and supplies 
will have to cross the beach regardless of 
vertical-lift capabilities. In specific areas 
of national strategic interest, the assault 
force faces challenges in detection and 
avoidance of littoral waters and landing 
beaches fouled by mines and obstacles. In 
these areas of present and future interest, 
suitable landing beaches are limited — 
and our potential adversaries are aware of 
them. As a Navy MCM adage explains, 
"the easy way is always mined." 

The Navy's triad of deep-water MCM 
capabilities resides in surface mine coun- 
termeasure ships (SMCM), airborne mine 
countermeasure (AMCM) helicopter 
squadrons, and underwater mine coun- 
termeasures teams consisting of explosive 
ordnance disposal (EOD) detachments, 
some equipped with marine mammal 
systems and unmanned vehicles. 

The Navy is engaged in an effort to 
augment the triad with MCM systems 
embarked on ships of aircraft carrier 
and amphibious ready groups, as well as 
equipping the Littoral Combat Ships 
with MCM mission modules. These are 
designed to provide a self-contained, "or- 
ganic" capability to detect, avoid, and/or 

CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 233 



I 



neutralize mines within an operationally 
acceptable timeline and with acceptable 
levels of operational risk. This next gen- 
eration of systems includes the Remote 
Mine-Hunting System and the MH-60s 
AMCM helicopter with advanced sonar 
and sweep gear among others. 

The physics of ship-draft require- 
ments, sensor and system operating lim- 
its, diver physiology, mine characteristics, 
and an extremely dynamic environment, 
combined with the requirement for co- 
vert operations and many other factors, 
limit effectiveness of deep-water systems 
in very shallow water (water 10 to 40 feet 
deep), the surf zone (water 10 feet deep 
to the beach), and Beach Zone (BZ) op- 
erations. In response, the Navy has devel- 
oped a specialized family of capabilities 
to contend with mines and obstacles in 
these technologically challenging envi- 
ronments. Explosive Ordnance Disposal 
Mobile Unit 1 (EOD MU 1) — formerly 
known as the Naval Special Clearance 
Team 1 (NSCT-1), consists of a 180-man 
unit of Navy EOD, Marine Reconnais- 
sance divers, and support personnel — 
fulfills an important part of the require- 
ment. EOD MU-1 employs unmanned 
underwater vehicles, marine mammals, 
and divers to conduct low- visibility mine 
exploration, reconnaissance, and clear- 
ance operations in VSW waters from 40- 
to 10-feet deep and BZ operations. Data- 
collection capabilities, such as the Coastal 
Battlefield Reconnaissance and Analysis 
(COBRA) System, will provide the Navy 
and Marine Corps with essential visual 
reconnaissance information on mine lines 
and SZ/BZ defenses. The Navy's science 
and technology effort is also investigating 
the effectiveness of precision-delivered 
Joint Direct Attack Munitions (JDAM) 

234 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



against certain SZ/BZ mines and obsta- 
cles. The JDAM Assault Breaching System 
(JABS) capability provides a limited SZ/ 
BZ MCM, obstacle-breaching capability. 
In the long term, the science and 
technology endeavor is pursuing "smart" 
bomb- and gun-delivered munitions 
designed to destroy concentrations of 
SZ/BZ mines. This includes the Navy's 
Counter Mine System (CMS), which uses 
a spray of small darts to neutralize mines 
in the beach and surf zones. This prom- 
ising technological approach offers the 
potential for standoff operations and the 
removal of men and mammals from the 
minefield. 

THROUGH THE BEACH 
AND BEYOND 

Once ashore, naval expedition- 
ary forces must be capable of detecting, 
breaching, clearing, proofing, marking 
land mines and obstacles, and the dis- 
semination mine and obstacle data across 
the naval forces from the critical Navy- 
Marine Corps handoff in the vicinity of 
the beach exit to the force objectives and 
beyond. Marine Corps commanders must 
be able to detect and avoid landmines and 
improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and 
obstacles when possible and breach them 
when necessary. The Marine Corps' cur- 
rent inventory of MCM systems includes 
Route Clearance Sets consisting of an ar- 
ray of Mine-Resistant Ambush Protected 
(MRAP) vehicles with varying detection 
and interrogation capabilities, the AN/ 
PSS-14 Mine Detector that uses ground 
penetrating radar to locate mines, Light- 
weight Metal Detectors used to detect 
IEDs with a low metallic content), IED 
Detector Dogs (IDDs) specifically bred/ 



I 



trained to detect an array of conventional 
explosives as well as homemade explo- 
sives (HME), explosive breaching systems 
— the Assault Amphibian Vehicle with 
Mkl54 Triple-Shot Line Charge, Mkl55 
Mine Clearing Line Charge (MICLIC), 
and Anti-Personnel Obstacle Breach- 
ing System (APOBS) — and mechanical 
breaching, clearing, and proofing systems 
(Ml tank with track- width mine plow 
and armored D-7 dozer). 

The Assault Breacher Vehicle (ABV) 
has been fielded to meet its Initial Opera- 
tional Capability scheduled for FY2009. 
ABV is a single-platform minefield 
breaching/clearing/proofing/marking 
system that has the speed and mobility of 
modern mechanized forces. Combining 
two Mkl55 Line Charges, a Full-Width 
Mine Plow, and a breached-lane marking 
system on an Ml tank chassis, the ABV 



currently offers deliberate and "in-stride" 
breaching capabilities — allowing com- 
manders to maintain initiative and mo- 
mentum. 

MCM doctrine, training, and equip- 
ment is slowly evolving to cover capa- 
bility gaps, replace obsolete equipment, 
and meet the challenges posed by newer 
threats, such as the greatly increased use 
of IEDs, off-route mines, and anti-heli- 
copter mines. 

Current Marine Corps MCM sys- 
tems face challenges in providing force 
commanders with the desired a in-stride" 
capability to achieve and maintain initia- 
tive and momentum in a full spectrum 
anti-access environment. The Marine 
Corps has a MAGTF MCM master plan 
designed to fill remaining capability gaps 
and provide a road map for the future. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 235 



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PART 9: TRAINING AND 
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INTRODUCTION 

The training and education of Marines is the cornerstone of ensuring that the 
Marine Corps remains the world's premier warfighting organization. The training as- 
sociated with preparing Marines for the full spectrum of conflict is demanding and en- 
sures that they are ready for the challenges of an uncertain world. Through a deliberate 
building-block approach to training and education conducted at world-class facilities, 
the Marine Corps continues to provide the individual Marine and Marine organiza- 
tions, from fire teams to Marine Expeditionary Brigades, with the requisite skills to 
meet their assigned mission essential tasks. This training is enhanced with the integra- 
tion of modeling, simulation, and training systems. 

As the Marine Corps continues combat operations in Afghanistan, we are simulta- 
neously reconstituting the force to ensure our ability to meet both current and future 
requirements. Looking toward the uncertain future, we will continue to maintain our 
irregular warfare skills developed in support of Operations Iraqi Freedom and Endur- 
ing Freedom, while also revitalizing core skills required to maintain a truly multi-capa- 
ble force able to prosecute actions across the range of military operations. 

Future conflicts will likely consist of a hybrid of conventional war, irregular chal- 
lenges, terrorism and criminal activities, involving states, proxy forces, and armed 
groups. Preparing the Marine Corps for hybrid challenges in complex environments 
requires proficiency across six core competencies as outlined in the Marine Corps Vi- 
sion and Strategy 2025. 

To meet these challenges, the Marine Corps Training and Education Command 
(TECOM) will provide a training environment that is responsive and relevant, prepar- 
ing individual Marines and Marine Corps units via targeted, progressive training and 
continuous assessment. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 237 



INDIVIDUAL AND MAGTF TRAINING 



Our individual training begins at 
our recruit depots where young men 
and women are transformed into United 
States Marines through a thorough in- 
doctrination to our history, customs and 
traditions, thereby imbuing them with 
the mental, moral and physical founda- 
tion necessary for successful service to 
Corps and Country. Our training devel- 
ops physically fit, tactically and technical- 
ly proficient warriors of high moral char- 
acter with a bias for action, possessing 
the courage to make ethically sound deci- 
sions, and capable of properly preparing 
and leading Marines to successfully ac- 
complish their unit's mission in combat. 
As Marines progress through the ranks, 
they develop skills within and beyond 
their military occupational specialty that 
will allow them to perform challenging 
missions across a wide range of military 
operations. As we look towards an uncer- 
tain future, a primary individual training 
focus area for the Marine Corps is the 
improvement of our small unit leaders' 
intuitive ability to assess, decide, and act 
while operating in a more decentralized 
manner. 

Values Based Training (VBT): The 
purpose of VBT is to establish a common 
set of values that every Marine can under- 
stand and uphold. These common values 
establish teamwork and discipline, and ul- 
timately build trust and confidence in fel- 
low Marines, in our leaders, and with the 
American people. VBT starts at recruit 
training, the stress (Physical, Mental, and 
Moral) on the recruit increases over the 
course of the crucible's 54 hours. During 

238 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



each rotation the recruits participate in a 
Core Values Station: 

• Station 1 Commitment: This station 
focuses the recruits on teamwork and 
commitment, and comes at a time dur- 
ing the crucible when the level of stress 
is relatively low. 

• Station 2 Courage: This station focuses 
the recruits on the need to reach within 
and to continue to face, with courage, 
the challenges that still lie before them 
and why it is important that they suc- 
ceed, and comes at a time during the 
crucible when the level of stress is start- 
ing to grow, and may come on day two 
when it is high. 

• Station 3 Honor: This station - Law of 
War discussion and scenarios station. 
It comes at a time during the crucible 
when the level of stress is near peak, 
places the capstone on Core Values and 
focuses the recruits on winning battles 
with honor on the battlefield, even 
when they are under stress. 

Enhanced Combat Hunter Leaders 
Course (ECHLC): Combat Hunter is the 
creation of a mindset through integra- 
tion of enhanced observation, combat 
profiling and combat tracking in order 
to produce a more ethically minded, tac- 
tically cunning and lethal Marine better 
prepared to succeed across the range of 
military operations. He proactively as- 
sesses the environment in order to gain 
a tactical advantage over the enemy. As 
a persistent collector he systematically 
observes and profiles his surroundings, 
collecting more relevant information 
from the human, social, and physical ter- 



I 



rains and reports information of greater 
relevance and potential intelligence val- 
ue. In regards to the intelligence cycle, 
a combat hunter trained Marine enables 
more efficient analysis and prioritization 
of collected information, thus increasing 
the tactical tempo. The purpose of the 
ECHLC is to develop leaders who will be 
able to train, lead, and employ Combat 
Profiling, Tactical Questioning, Tactical 
Site Exploitation, Combat Tracking, En- 
hanced Observation, Human Psychology, 
Decision Making, Tactical Debriefing and 
Policing in Combat to support both indi- 
vidual Marine and Company Operations. 

Tactical MAGTF Integration Course 
(TMIC): Taught by the Marine Corps 
Tactics and Operations Group (MC- 
TOG) in Twentynine Palms, TMIC will 
train Gunnery Sergeant through Master 
Gunnery Sergeant, Infantry Weapons 
Officer (Gunner), and Captain through 
Major from the ground combat MOS's 
to become proficient battalion operations 
chiefs and officers. The course includes 
341 academic hours that is taught over 
34 training days. The course is conducted 
over a period of six weeks and is divided 
into three blocks of instruction: 

Block 1 is Academics and Applica- 
tions, 

Block 2 is Ground Combat Element 
Integration and, 

Block 3 is Final Exercise 

During the Academics and Applica- 
tions block of the course, students will re- 
ceive instruction and participate in events 
focused on enhancing their knowledge in 
seven primary subjects: Plan, Operate, 



Joint and Interagency, Intel driven opera- 
tions, Fires, Information operations and 
training. They will be evaluated through 
performance evaluations for learning ob- 
jectives from the train duty area. 

Amphibious Core Training: The 
Marine Corps is developing and refining 
key training programs to reinvigorate our 
amphibious capability. The Training and 
Education Command (TECOM) is pre- 
paring individual Marines through train- 
ing and education at the Marine Corps 
Expeditionary Warfare School, the Ma- 
rine Corps Command and Staff College, 
and various courses at the Expeditionary 
Warfare Training Groups Atlantic and Pa- 
cific, such as the Type Commander Am- 
phibious Training. We will prepare Ma- 
rine Air Ground Task Forces (MAGTFs) 
by training alongside the Navy through 
such exercises as amphibious landing ex- 
ercises and Marine Expeditionary Brigade 
(MEB) exercises. 

MAGTF Training Program: TECOM 
is developing the next generation for how 
Marines in the operating forces will pre- 
pare for future fights and operating en- 
vironments. The MAGTF Training Pro- 
gram will establish, define, and integrate 
the requirements for training programs 
and resources which will facilitate the de- 
velopment of warfighting capabilities in 
those operational forces which comprise 
a MAGTF. 

Battle Staff Training Program 
(BSTP): The BSTP is designed to provide 
training to battle staffs across all the el- 
ements of the MAGTF, at echelons from 
a company to MEF level. Most impor- 

CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 239 



tantly, the BSTP integrates individual and 
collective training, provided by multiple 
organizations from across TECOM, into 
a single training continuum beginning 
with training of Command and Control 
Systems Operators, and concludes with 
a Command Post Exercise that tests the 
abilities of the entire staff. The BSTP 
provides an invaluable tool for the com- 
mander to assist in the training of his 
staff, and provides the commander with 
a detailed understanding of the full staff 
training continuum. 

MAGTF Integrated Training Exer- 
cise (ITX): The MAGTF ITX provides 
a battalion or squadron level collective 
training event supporting training in 
skills required to accomplish assigned 
core mission essential tasks (METs), and 
serves as the Service level assessment of a 
unit. This program will be similar in scale 
to the type of combined arms training that 
was conducted prior to Operations Iraqi 
Freedom and Enduring Freedom and 
the Mojave Viper pre-deployment train- 
ing program. It will include all elements 
of the MAGTF including command ele- 
ments, ground combat elements, logistics 



combat elements and aviation combat el- 
ements. ITX will provide training on the 
techniques of MAGTF integration at the 
tactical level and the technical skills al- 
lowing subordinate units of the MAGTF 
to work together. 

MAGTF Large-Scale Exercise (LSE): 
The MAGTF LSE is a Marine Expedition- 
ary Brigade and Marine Expeditionary 
Force-level exercise program that will 
use a Live-Virtual-Constructive (L-V-C) 
training linked through a supporting net- 
work across the United States and with 
amphibious forces afloat to focus on the 
integration of headquarter organizations 
and their ability to conduct integrated 
MAGTF operations. It can be used as the 
final pre-deployment training event for 
a MAGTF which as has been designated 
to deploy, or it will serve as an exercise 
to validate the ability of the MAGTF to 
execute designated core mission essen- 
tial tasks (METs), depending on require- 
ments of the MEF commander. MAGTF 
LSE will increase joint and amphibious 
capabilities as the Marine Corps reconsti- 
tutes its full amphibious capability. 



240 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 






JOINT, INTERAGENCY, AND MULTINATIONAL (JIM) TRAINING 



I 



Leveraging several joint initiatives 
from the Office of the Secretary of De- 
fense (OSD), the Chairman Joint Chiefs 
of Staff, and the U.S. Joint Forces Com- 
mand, TECOM incorporates joint, in- 
teragency, and multinational training 
context into dynamic, capabilities-based 
training in support of national security 
requirements. 

Joint Training: Through the OSD 
sponsored Joint National Training Ca- 
pability (JNTC), TECOM has integrated 
specific joint context solutions to identi- 
fied joint training shortfalls at U.S. Marine 
Corps Joint National Training Capability 
accredited programs: Marine Air Ground 
Task Force Training Command, 29 Palms, 
CA; Marine Aviation Weapons and Tac- 
tics Squadron- 1 (MAWTS-1), Yuma, 
AZ; Marine Air Ground Task Force Staff 
Training Program, Quantico, VA; Moun- 
tain Warfare Training Center, Bridgeport, 
CA; and Marine Corps Tactics and Op- 
erations Group (MCTOG), 29 Palms, CA. 
The JNTC also provides several tools that 
support the incorporation of joint train- 
ing into service Title X responsibilities. 
One of these tools is the Joint Training 
Enterprise Network (JTEN) that is the 
communications network for JNTC. The 
JTEN is a high-capacity, rapidly reconfig- 
urable network that supports joint train- 
ing exercises, experimentation, and the 
evaluation of new warfighting concepts. 
Additionally, it allows for inter- and intra- 
service forces to link simulation networks 
in order to train in a live, virtual and con- 
structive environment that blends live 
tactical forces with manned simulators 
and sophisticated computer models. 



Interagency Cooperation and 
Training: In order to increase realism and 
meet mission training standards at pre- 
deployment training programs, TECOM 
leverages the Department of Defense In- 
teragency Request Process in identifying 
USMC Interagency participation require- 
ments for our U.S. Government Agency 
partners. Additionally, through efforts 
with the U.S. Agency for International 
Development, the Security Cooperation 
Education and Training Center (SCETC), 
and MCTOG, deploying units have been 
trained in the use of the District Stability 
Framework, which is an assessment tool 
that assists Commanders with identify- 
ing the root causes of instability in their 
location, and target efforts to address 
these problems. TECOM assists the State 
Department's Foreign Service Institute by 
instructing a Military Culture class dur- 
ing the monthly Iraq Provincial Recon- 
struction Team (PRT) Orientation and 
Afghanistan Familiarization Courses. 

Multinational Training: TECOM's 
intent is to build robust training rela- 
tionships with multi-national partners 
through the development of an institu- 
tionally sound strategy to improve in- 
teroperability. One area focuses on opera- 
tional level interaction, primarily through 
coordination and reciprocal participa- 
tion in Mission Rehearsal Exercises with 
partner nations which USMC units are 
frequently adjacent to during current op- 
erations. Additionally, institutional-level 
interoperability is being pursued through 
staff and instructor exchange programs 
in respective training organizations. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 241 



I 



PRE-DEPLOYMENT TRAINING PROGRAM (PTP) 



To prepare Marines and the operat- 
ing forces for the current fights and op- 
erating environments, The Training and 
Education Command (TECOM) devel- 
oped an extensive PTP based on the Pre- 
Deployment Training Continuum. The 
PTP establishes a coherent progression 
of skill level training, conducted by com- 
manders, and evaluated at PTP Mission 
Rehearsal Exercises (MRX). Training is 
conducted in four nested "blocks" in as- 
cending competency levels. Marine Expe- 
ditionary Force commanders determine 
what level of competency is required for 
each deploying unit based on mission es- 
sential task analysis, set unit priority for 
service level training events, and ensure 
units participating in service-level train- 
ing events have appropriate support at- 
tachments during respective blocks of 
training. The PTP Continuum is com- 
prised of: 

Block 1: Block 1A and IB training 
consist of Sustained Core Skills Train- 
ing, Core Plus Skills Training, and Marine 
Corps Common Skills (MCCS) Sustain- 
ment Training. Core Plus Skills are those 
combat-focused skills that are environ- 
ment, mission, rank or billet specific and 
are developed after a Marine is assigned 
to an operational unit. Block 1 training 
also includes formal schools training. 
Career progression training is critical to 
effective building block training and the 
intent is for all incoming leaders to have 
received the appropriate schooling prior 
to beginning the units' collective train- 
ing. For aviation units, Block 1 provides 
resident instructor development, certifi- 

242 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



cation, and sustainment of qualifications/ 
designations of individual aircrew and 
maintainers for annual training require- 
ments. 

Block 2: Block 2 training consists 
of Core Capabilities Training conducted 
within a unit. Core Capabilities are the 
essential collective functions a unit must 
be capable of performing during extend- 
ed combat operations. For battalion sized 
units, Block 2 is company-level and below 
training. For squadrons, Block 2 is Core 
Skills refinement and flight leadership de- 
velopment, normally single ship through 
division flight operations. 

Block 3: Block 3 training is based on 
unit Mission Essential Tasks and consists 
of Advanced Core Capabilities (or Core 
Plus for Aviation) Training conducted 
by a unit and by the unit's higher head- 
quarters. For battalion-sized units, Block 
3 is battalion-level training. For Aviation 
units, Block 3 is squadron level integra- 
tion with adjacent aviation and supported 
ground units utilizing formalized Com- 
mand and Control functions to perform 
assigned METs to their required output 
standards. 

Block 4: Block 4 training is battalion/ 
squadron-level core competency training 
and is also known as the unit's Mission Re- 
hearsal Exercise (MRX). Block 4 training 
is a unit's "graduation" pre-deployment 
training exercise and is individually-tai- 
lored to support and assess a unit's ability 
to perform tasks on its assigned mission 
METL(s). Battalion and higher deploying 
units will typically undergo a TECOM 
supported MRX. Deploying units that 



I 



do not participate in an MRX complete 
an Alternate Mission Rehearsal Exercise 
that is supported by the parent Marine 
Expeditionary Force. The MRX provides 
information for the MEF Commanding 
General's unit certification process. 

ENHANCED MO JAVE VIPER 

Conducted aboard the Marine Corps 
Air-Ground Combat Center (MCAGCC) 
in 29 Palms, CA, Enhanced Mojave Vi- 
per is a 28-day full-spectrum MRX that 
focuses on providing a service-level as- 
sessment of battalions and squadrons in 
preparation for deployment. The exercise 
scenario allows units to combine their 
core Marine Corps competencies with 
Afghanistan-specific capabilities. The ex- 
ercise force composition consists of two 
infantry battalions, a combat logistics bat- 
talion, and three flying squadrons (fixed 
wing, rotary wing, and assault support). 
Throughout the exercise, units undergo 
training and assessment in offensive op- 
erations, defensive operations, Stability 
Operations and Counter Insurgency. Un- 
der various conditions to include desert, 



limited visibility, urban, rural, joint, and 
interagency, units are provided a live- 
fire, combined-arms training venue that 
closely resembles the conditions they will 
operate in once deployed. 

EXERCISE MOUNTAIN WARRIOR 

Mountain Warrior is the Block 3 Ma- 
rine Air Ground Task Force Operations 
Course at the Mountain Warfare Training 
Center (MWTC), near Bridgeport, CA. 
Other local training areas are also used, 
including Hawthorne Army Depot at 
Hawthorne, NV; Naval Air Station Fallon, 
NV; and Lucky Boy Pass (off-road driv- 
ing and counter-Improvised Explosive 
Device training). This course provides 
the opportunity for theater-specific pre- 
deployment training for USMC battal- 
ions and regimental staffs deploying to 
Afghanistan. The course consists of scal- 
able, tailored training packages for units 
ranging in size from the company to bat- 
talion with a regimental headquarters. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 243 



I 



MISSION-CAPABLE TRAINING RANGES 




Marine Corps combat readiness de- 
pends on the continued availability of 
Ranges and Training Areas (RTAs) that 
provide realistic, mission-oriented train- 
ing in complex environments. The Marine 
Corps Training and Education Command 
(TECOM) has identified a comprehensive 
set of Corps-wide range requirements. 
These requirements are articulated in 
a Marine Corps Reference Publication 
(MCRP 3-OC), which defines the uncon- 
strained range capabilities needed for 
accomplishing both urgent, immediate 
and anticipated future training needs. In 
that regard, TECOM has established six 
cornerstone objectives for transforming 
RTAs: 

1. Preserve and enhance the live-fire 
combined arms training capabilities 
of Marine Corps Air Ground Combat 
Center/Marine Air Ground Task Force 
Training Command, 29 Palms, CA and 
Marine Corps Air Station, Yuma Range 
Complex, AZ. 

2. Recapture the Marine Air Ground Train- 
ing Force (MAGTF) and unit training 
capabilities of the nation's two premier 
littoral training areas, Camp Lejeune, 
NC, and Camp Pendleton, CA. 



3. Leverage technology to support every 
level of training with a goal of provid- 
ing timely and objective feedback to 
the training audience. 

4. Honor our commitments to protecting 
the environment, while preserving and 
enhancing our ability to conduct live 
fire and maneuver training. 

5. Ensure that our training complexes are 
available to, and capable of supporting, 
cross-Service training. 

6. Support the emerging Joint National 
Training Capability with the com- 
mon range infrastructure and systems 
architecture to ensure effective joint 
training. 

The Corps has made significant in- 
vestments in range instrumentation, tar- 
gets, and simulation technologies to up- 
grade and modernize training. However, 
there remain areas of significant concern. 
Current range-complex configurations 
are not optimal for today's training re- 
quirements, and they will not be adequate 
for future weapons systems. Our current 
range complexes provide insufficient un- 
constrained maneuver space for MAGTF 
training. Our range-planning initiatives 
aim at addressing these concerns to assure 



244 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 201 



I 




our ability to meet future training require- 
ments. Specific issues include: 

• Marine Expeditionary Brigade-level fire 
and maneuver training area 

• East Coast aviation training range to 
accommodate the increased airspace 
and weapons requirements of precision 
guided munitions and the F-35 Joint 
Strike Fighter 

• Enhanced training opportunities for 
Marine units stationed in the Pacific 

The Marine Corps has made con- 
siderable progress in the past seven years 
on cataloging, assessing, managing, and 



funding critical RTA complexes. There has 
been progress in identifying and quantify- 
ing the impacts of encroachment and in- 
corporating those assessments into a com- 
prehensive range management system. 
Important investments have been made to 
enhance range maintenance and modern- 
ization programs. In early 2011, all major 
Marine Corps installations are undergo- 
ing range modernization. The Mission- 
Capable Ranges initiative is supported by 
the acquisition program for Range Mod- 
ernization/Transformation program. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 245 



MODELING AND SIMULATION (M&S) 



MAGTF Training Simulations Divi- 
sion (MTSD), a directorate of TECOM, 
has established a training modeling and 
simulation community of interest to fa- 
cilitate information exchange and address 
specific focus areas, such as infantry skills 
simulations, staff training environments, 
and simulation system Integration, In- 
teroperability, Interconnectivity, Com- 
patibility and networking. Participants in 
this forum are drawn from throughout 
the Marine Corps and the Science and 
Technology community. With this fo- 
rum's input, MTSD has published a train- 
ing simulation M&S strategy and master 
plan that meets MAGTF training needs. 

Small-unit training is receiving par- 
ticular focus by TECOM to prepare Ma- 
rines for contemporary and future op- 
erating environments. For squad-level 
training needs, TECOM is building upon 
the Infantry Immersion Trainer (IIT) fa- 
cility developed by I Marine Expedition- 
ary Force (MEF) to institutionalize this 
capability for the other MEFs. The IIT 
provides a key bridge to TECOM's fu- 
ture squad training initiative, the Squad 
Immersive Training Environment (SITE) 
program. SITE is envisioned as a multi- 
faceted "toolkit" of integrated live, virtual, 
and constructive training capabilities that 
commanders can leverage to train their 
small units at all points along the training 
continuum. The SITE "toolkit" is predict- 
ed to include IIT, current virtual training 
systems appropriate for small units, and 



future capabilities that leverage emerging 
technologies. TECOM has participated in 
numerous joint initiatives focused on im- 
mersive training at the squad and platoon 
levels. In support of the Enhanced Com- 
pany Operations concept, MTSD is ex- 
amining the networking of selected staff 
training, combined arms, combat convoy, 
combat vehicle, and aviation simulation 
systems to enable better training capa- 
bilities among critical MAGTF building 
blocks. These efforts will be integrated 
within the emerging Small unit Integrated 
Training Environment (SuITE) program 
to provide the domain for ECO. 

The U.S. Joint Forces Command re- 
cently approved and funded TECOM's 
request to integrate the Marine Corps' 
MAGTF Tactical Warfare Simulation 
system into its joint live, virtual, and 
constructive (JLVC) federation. This in- 
corporation will provide higher simula- 
tion fidelity of MAGTF and amphibious 
operations in joint exercises and enable 
the Marine Corps to better leverage the 
many JLVC tools to support Service train- 
ing and Combatant Commander regional 
engagement exercises. TECOM is pursu- 
ing appropriate linkages among existing 
Marine Corps simulations to provide 
more robust capabilities and examining 
simulations that address Political, Mili- 
tary, Economic, Social, Infrastructure, 
and Information issues. 

Finally, MROC approved TECOM's 
Initial Capabilities Document which as- 



246 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



I 



sessed the Marine Corps' live, virtual, and 
constructive training environment capa- 
bilities. This analysis identified gaps in 
the Marine Corps' ability to link different 
current capabilities and delineated inte- 
gration standards for future capabilities. 
TECOM is further examining networking 
requirements to link simulation systems 
with each other and with live domain ca- 
pabilities, and as well as provide access to 



existing Marine Corps, joint, interagency, 
and multinational partner training and 
modeling simulation networks. Such a 
network would support distributed train- 
ing venues between MAGTF elements, 
enable large-scale MAGTF exercises, and 
facilitate Marine Corps participation 
in joint, interagency, and multinational 
exercises. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 247 



I 




COLLECTIVE TRAINING SYSTEMS 

COMBINED ARMS COMMAND AND CONTROL TRAINING UPGRADE 
SYSTEM (CACCTUS) 



cedures and decision-making processes 
prior to any physical engagement. In 
addition, CACCTUS will provide train- 
ing across live, virtual, and constructive 
training networks through interoperabil- 
ity with appropriate Command, Control, 
Communication, Computers, and Intel- 
ligence (C4I) systems in a training envi- 
ronment. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The CACCTUS will provide critical 
combined arms command and control 
integration and fire support coordination 
training to units leading up to and just 
prior to participating in live fire exercises 
and deployment. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

In early FY 2011 CACCTUS version 
5.2 will be fielded to Camp Pendleton, 
CA, Hawaii and Okinawa and in the 2d 
Quarter FY11 version 5.3 will be em- 
ployed to all five sites. 

Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 2012 
Quantity: 3 

Developer/Manufacturer: 

Cole Engineering Services Inc., Orlando, FL 



DESCRIPTION 

CACCTUS is a combined arms staff 
training system that, when fully fielded 
will enable comprehensive Marine Corps 
staff, unit, and team training at home 
station Combined Arms Staff Training 
(CAST) facilities, and through distrib- 
uted training involving CAST facilities 
across the Marine Corps. CACCTUS is 
an upgrade to the USMC's CAST that 
provides fire support training for the Ma- 
rine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) 
elements up to and including the Marine 
Expeditionary Brigade (MEB) level. Us- 
ing the system components and simula- 
tion capabilities, 2D and 3D visuals, in- 
terfaced C4I, synthetic terrain, and an 
After Action Review (AAR), the CAC- 
CTUS system immerses trainees in a real- 
istic, scenario-driven environment. The 
simulated scenarios enable commanders 
and their battle staffs to train or rehearse 
combined arms tactics, techniques, pro- 



248 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



COMBAT VEHICLE TRAINING SYSTEM (CVTS) 



I 




DESCRIPTION 

The Combat Vehicle Training Sys- 
tem (CVTS) - M1A1/LAV/AAV (CVTS- 
M1A1/LAV/AAV) provides gunnery and 
tactical training for the M1A1 Main Bat- 
tle Tank, Light Armored Vehicle-25 (LAV- 
25), and the Assault Amphibious Vehicle 
(AAV). The M1A1 and LAV-25 require- 
ments are satisfied by the Advanced Gun- 
nery Training System (AGTS). The AAV 
requirements are satisfied by the AAV- 
Turret Trainer (AAV-TT). The AGTS 
and AAV-TT provide the ability to train 
M1A1, LAV-25, and AAV crew members 
to approved standards of combat skills 
and readiness. The end state systems 
are institutional, deployable, and table 
top (M1A1/LAV-25) systems support- 
ing individual, collective (crew, section, 
and platoon), combined arms, and joint 
training scenarios 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The CVTS is one element of a train- 
ing system made up of the academic, sim- 
ulations and live-fire/range training. The 
CVTS family of trainers is used by Marine 
Forces Reserves (MARFORRES), Marine 
Forces Pacific (MARFORPAC), Marine 
Forces Atlantic (MARFORLANT), and 
formal schools to train perishable gun- 
nery, crew communication and coor- 
dination, and mission tactic skills up to 
the platoon level. CVTS provides famil- 
iarization, proficiency, sustainment, and 
cross-training at each crew position and 
as a crew. AGTS has the capability to be a 
land-based and shipboard training appli- 
cation. The AAV Turret Trainer is a land- 
based training system and trains gunnery 
skills to the section level. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

In early FY 2011, 32M1A1 and 40 LAV 
Tabletop AGTS devices will be fielded. 

Procurement Profile: FY 201 1 FY 201 2 
M1A1 Tabletops 32 

LAV Tabletops 40 

Developer/Manufacturer: 
Lockheed Martin, Orlando, FL 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 249 



I 



SKIP ON LAND (SOL) 




DESCRIPTION 

Ship on Land (SOL) is designed to 
replicate a Landing Helicopter Dock 
(LHD) super structure that provides a 
live fire joint training platform. The in- 
tent of this structure is to create multiple 
real world maritime training scenarios 
based off of current events to prevent loss 
of life and provide immediate assistance 
to those in need on the high seas. 

The structure will consist of all at- 
mospherics typically found on an LHD 
within the fleet to include: Command/ 
Control Bridge, Primary Flight Control, 
Communications Room, Navigation 



Room, and Captain's Quarters. Addition- 
ally, platforms will be installed to permit 
vertical insertions. Initially, this structure 
will augment the existing LHD Deck on 
MCB Camp Lejeune, NC. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

Ship on Land provides training in a 
realistic environment that allows forces 
to prepare to combat the emerging and 
increasing threat of piracy. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

Late in FY1 1, Ship on Land is planned 
to be in place at MCB Camp Lejeune, NC 
and will simulate a realistic LHD training 
environment with live-fire capabilities. 

Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 2012 
Quantity: 1 2 

Developer/Manufacturer: 
Bristol 



250 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



RANGE TRAINING SYSTEMS 

RANGE MODERNIZATION/TRANSFORMATION (RM/T) 



I 



DESCRIPTION 

The RM/T program modernizes 
major Marine Corps live training ranges 
with a dynamic training system capable 
of real-time and post-mission battle 
tracking, data collection and the deliver- 
ance of value-added After Action Review. 
Interface with installation Command 
and Control training centers (e.g., Battle 
Staff Training Facility, Combined Arms 
Staff Trainer, and Battle Staff Simulation 
Center) is paramount to producing mul- 
tiple scenario events that deliver relevant 
and realistic training. Integrating live 
and simulated training technologies, the 
fielded capabilities actively enhance live- 
fire, force-on-target, and force-on-force 
training through extensive after- action 
review with ground truth feedback (ob- 
jective versus subjective), realistic repre- 
sentation of opposing forces (OPFOR), 
and enhanced range and exercise control 
capabilities. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

RM/T links Marine Corps live train- 
ing to the tenets of Training Transforma- 
tion-Joint National Training Capability 
and Joint Assessment and Evaluation Ca- 
pability. Instrumentation allows Service 
and joint virtual and constructive forces 
to interact with Marine Corps live train- 
ing forces from distributed locations. 
Eventually expanded to incorporate co- 
alition forces, Marine Air Ground Task 
Force live training in open and urban ter- 
rain is enhanced by providing capabili- 
ties to conduct realistic training. This will 
exercise all battlefield operating systems, 



and allow continuous assessment of per- 
formance, interoperability and identifica- 
tion of emerging requirements. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

Sponsored by the Range and Train- 
ing Area Management Division, TECOM 
and managed by Program Manager Train- 
ing Systems (PM TRASYS), Marine Corps 
Systems Command, RM/T is the capabil- 
ity end state for the integrated design of 
live training programs of record that up- 
grade Marine Corps training capabilities 
in an incremental manner. Development 
and production efforts are under way for 
urban training environments, ground 
position location systems, instrumented 
tactical engagement simulation systems, 
OPFOR threat systems (including tar- 
gets), and data collection systems in order 
to instrument the live training environ- 
ment at multiple Marine Corps Bases and 
Stations. A parallel effort is enhancing the 
RM/T Data Collection System (Marine 
Corps-Instrumented Training System) to 
provide interface of Improvised Explosive 
Device (IED) and Joint Counter Radio 
controlled Improvised Explosive Device 
Electronic Warfare System (J-CREW) sur- 
rogate devices with live training audiences 
and to extend the R/MT Data Collection 
System functions from exercise design 
through playback and after-action review. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 251 



I 



GROUND RANGE SUSTAINMENT PROGRAM (GRSP) 




DESCRIPTION 

The Range and Training Area Man- 
agement Division, TECOM has partnered 
with PM TRASYS to establish the Ground 
Range Sustainment Program (GRSP). Its 
purpose is to sustain the continuity of 
Marine Corps training on Live Fire and 
Non-Live Fire Ranges through improve- 
ments or replacement of existing training 
devices such as, target lifters, worn targets 
and replacement control computers that 
cannot be accomplished within exist- 
ing operating and maintenance (O&M) 
budgets. The maintenance of "state of the 
art" range control systems also supports 
current training requirements. This is 
the area where GRSP will be most used. 
The cost of materials and installation for 
GRSP projects will not normally exceed 
$250,000. CG, TECOM is the waiver 
authority for projects exceeding this 
amount. GRSP projects include: 

• Targetry 

• Ballistic Protection 

• Range Communications 

• Bullet Traps 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The GRSP is the only program of 
its kind that was developed for the sole 
purpose of sustaining, upgrading and 
maintaining all Marine Corps Live Fire 
and Non-Live Fire Ranges. The GRSP 



Program supports current, emerging 
and future terminal learning objectives 
(TLOs) and enabling learning objectives 
(ELOs) that allow Marines the ability to 
achieve and maintain the required level of 
Combat Readiness. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

In 2010, 27 ranges were upgraded. 
Projects that were submitted under the 
FY 10 program were to be considered as 
emergent projects using a rather liberal 
interpretation of the term "emergent". 
Generally, any project that improves safety 
or operability was labeled favorably. Proj- 
ects not selected as emergent shifted to the 
FY11 program. FY11 projects are very di- 
verse in both type and location and serve 
to bring simplified targets upgrades to a 
variety of ranges. 

Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 201 2 
Quantity: 39 

Developer/Manufacturer: 

RTS IDIQ Contractor, SAAB Training 

Systems, Orlando, FL 

Lockheed Martin Training Systems, 
Orlando, FL 

Meggitt Training Systems, Suwanee, GA 

Action Target, Provo, UT, 

Patriot Prod. Franklin, IN 



252 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



TARGET SYSTEMS 



I 




DESCRIPTION 

Automated Targets is a subset under 
the overarching Range and Moderniza- 
tion/Transformation (RM/T) Program of 
Record (POR) which is upgrading Marine 
Corps live fire training capabilities. Tar- 
getry has evolved to include stationary, 
moving pop-up infantry, vehicle targets, 
as well as reactionary Friend/Foe targets 
and Hit/Miss Detection systems within 
Remote Target System Ranges (RETS), 
MOUT Facilities, and non-traditional 
ranges. Automated Targets and accompa- 
nying Range Control Systems are fielded 
across all Marine Corps Bases and Sta- 
tions. Target Systems to include: 

• Stationary Infantry Targets (SITs) 

• Stationary Armored Targets (SATs) 
including various types of vehicle 
silhouettes 

• Moving Infantry Targets (MITs) 

• Moving Armored Targets (MATs) 

• Target Enclosures to include Electrical 
and Data Cabling installation 

• Range Control Systems 

• Location of Miss and Hit (LOMAH) 
systems 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

Marine Corps live fire, automated 
target systems has evolved to include 
stationary pop-up and moving infantry 
and vehicle targets, as well as reaction- 
ary Friend/Foe targets, and Hit/Miss 
Detection systems within Remote Target 
System Ranges (RETS), MOUT Facili- 
ties, and various nontraditional training 
ranges. 

Target Systems continues developing 
and fielding new capabilities that create a 
realistic Live-Fire Training Environment 
to specifically enhance initial and sustain- 
ment live fire training and Marine com- 
bat training at all of our Marine Corps 
training bases. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

In 2010, 13 ranges were upgraded 
with new automated targetry and range 
control systems markedly enhancing Ma- 
rine Corps marksmanship and combat 
training at these sites. Eleven are planned 
inFYll. 

Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 2012 
Quantity: 1 1 

Developer/Manufacturer: 

Saab Training Systems, Orlando, FL 

Lockheed Martin Training Systems, 

Orlando, FL 

Meggitt Training Systems, Suwanee, GA 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 253 



I 



COMBINED ARMS MILITARY OPERATIONS IN URBAN TERRAIN 
(CAMOUT) TRAINING SYSTEM 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

Within CAMOUT, Marines are con- 
fronted with a full range of tactical chal- 
lenges from humanitarian relief efforts, 
peacekeeping and law enforcement to di- 
rect combat that can be encountered in a 
complex urban setting within a relatively 
brief timeframe or small physical area, 
known as the "three block war." This al- 
lows for today's warfighters to practice 
their close combat skills without the risks 
associated with urban warfare. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

CAMOUT is fielded and operational 
with eight systems being utilized by Ma- 
rines during combat training exercises at 
MCAGCC 29 Palms, CA and MCB Camp 
Pendleton, CA. There are another seven 
training systems remaining on contract 
with deliveries expected to take place early 
inFYll. 

Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 2012 
CAMOUT 

Developer/Manufacturer: 
N/A 




DESCRIPTION 

CAMOUT provides a realistic en- 
vironment to support a variety of train- 
ing tasks related to the deployment and 
maneuvers in an urban setting for the 
Marine Expeditionary Brigade (MEB) 
and its constituent elements. CAMOUT 
enables MEBs to conduct training in an 
environment that resembles "real world" 
urban conditions. CAMOUT provides a 
challenging and complex urban training 
environment that replicates the difficul- 
ties units face as they communicate, co- 
ordinate, maintain situational awareness, 
navigate, and track urban operations. 



254 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



HOME STATION MOUT (HSMOUT) TRAINING SYSTEM 



I 




DESCRIPTION 

The current contingency operations 
have established the need for Marines to 
conduct military operations in urban en- 
vironments. The Home Station MOUT 
Training System has been established to 
meet this requirement. 



PROGRAM STATUS 

With projects currently under way, 
HSMOUT will start turning over train- 
ing systems beginning early in FY 11 to 
MCAGCC 29 Palms, CA and Camp Pend- 
leton, CA, Hawaii, Quantico, VA, and Oki- 



nawa. 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

Like the characteristics found within 
CAMOUT, HS MOUT incorporates "real 
world" conditions, which replicate close 
quarter urban environments commonly 
encountered within the theater of opera- 
tion. These training systems include a va- 
riety of technologies and configurations 
to target various training scenarios and 
objectives. 



Procurement Profile: FY 201 1 FY 201 2 
Quantity: 8 

Developer/Manufacturer: 

Parsons Corporation, Pasadena, CA 



CHAPTER 3: PR0GR-' I 255 



I 



HOME STATION TRAINING LANES (HSTL) 




DESCRIPTION 

HSTL are designed to provide coun- 
ter- Improvised Explosive Device (IED) 
training environments, which provide 
"real world" training challenges. These 
environments are constructed to include 
pedestrian and vehicle lanes for train- 
ing on individual and unit (mounted/ 
dismounted) IED awareness and reac- 
tion, route clearing operations and search 
techniques and procedures. In addi- 
tion to the pedestrian and vehicle lanes, 
these training environments incorporate 
structures used to replicate urban en- 
vironments experienced during route 
clearance and IED defeat missions. The 
structures replicate mosques, industrial 
buildings, schools, hospitals, government 
buildings and market places in an effort 
to provide an accurate representation of 
scenarios experienced within the theater 
of operation. 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

Home Station Training Lanes provide 
realistic close quarter IED scenarios that 
allow Marines the ability to hone skills in 
IED recongition and defeat. These train- 
ing lanes are designed with "real world" 
lessons learned and are a critical training 
tool for preparing the warfighter in cur- 
rent IED methods. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

IED Training Lanes are currently 
fielded and operational at MCB Camp 
Pendleton, CA and MCAGCC 29 Palms, 
CA. These facilities incorporate multiple 
lanes for both foot and vehicle traffic and 
have MOUT training facilities installed to 
simulate market places, villages, mosques 
and other structures found within the 
theater of operation. NWS Yorktown has 
a training system on order with turnover 
expected early in FY1 1 . 

Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 201 2 
Quantity: 

Developer/Manufacturer: 
N/A 



256 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



ATMOSPHERICS 



I 



DESCRIPTION 

Atmospherics is designed to simu- 
late the senses of Marines, Tenants, and 
Joint Services (Trainees) by enhancing 
and upgrading existing and future USMC 
Military Operations on Urbanized Ter- 
rain (MOUT) and Home Station Train- 
ing (HST) areas with "prop" like cultural 
items (furniture, billboards, vehicles, fake 
foodstuffs, ersatz crops, colors, smells and 
sights such as building facades etc.) to 
immerse the trainee with current opera- 
tional environments needed for vital and 
realistic mission rehearsals. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The Marine Corps has an immedi- 
ate requirement to enhance and upgrade 
existing and future Military Operations 
on Urbanized Terrain (MOUT); Home 
Station Training (HST) areas and rang- 
es. Currently, the existing MOUT and 
planned HST area facilities and sur- 
rounding range areas are void of detailed 
cultural realism such as "prop" like items 
(furniture, billboards, faux foodstuffs, er- 
satz crops, colors and mud brick facades 
etc.) utilized during training scenarios. 



This project is designed to simulate fu- 
ture or current urban environments and 
support the warfighting skills and im- 
prove training opportunities for Marines, 
Tenants, and Joint Service units aboard 
Marine Corps ranges. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

Atmospherics are currently being 
installed at the MCB Pendleton, CA Im- 
mersive Infantry Trainer (IIT). There are 
delivery orders in process for the Urban 
Training Complex, MOUT Town and Go- 
etche Demolition Range at MCB Quan- 
tico, VA; the IIT and JIEDDO Course at 
MCB Camp Lejeune, NC; and the IIT at 
MCB Hawaii. 

Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 2012 
Quantity: 4 TBD 

Developer/Manufacturer: 
Strategic Operations, San Diego, CA 



CHAPTER 3: PROGR I 257 



I 



INSTRUMENTED - TACTICAL ENGAGEMENT 
SIMULATION SYSTEM (l-TESS) 




DESCRIPTION 

The Instrumented-Tactical Engage- 
ment Simulation System (I-TESS) is used 
to support direct force-on-force tactical 
engagement training. This system con- 
sists of the following type components: 
Small Arms Transmitter (SAT), Man- 
worn Detection System (MDS), Com- 
mand and Control (C2 - mobile & por- 
table versions), and Military Operations 
on Urbanized Terrain (MOUT) Building 
Instrumentation, and Simulated Battle- 
field Weapons. 

The SAT will be used on the M9 pis- 
tol, M4/ Ml 6, AK-47 & M40 rifles, M249, 
M240 & M2 machine guns. The MDS and 
range equipment will be used to instru- 
ment the individual Marine for direct 
force-on-force engagement adjudication 
and to include the ability to support in- 
strumentation functions such as Position 
Location Information (PLI) reporting. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The I-TESS system will be used in 
MOUT Facilities and Non-Live Fire Ma- 
neuver Ranges located at various Marine 



Corp bases and installations, providing 
the setting for the USMC Pre-deployment 
Training Program (PTP) and other type 
individual and company level training 
support. The Marine Corps has expressed 
a need to acquire and deliver training 
systems that provide real-time situation 
awareness, exercise control capabilities, 
and adjudicate indirect fire engagements 
so as to help facilitate the training exer- 
cise objectives. There is a need to collect 
the training actions/interactions of the 
Marines during the training exercise with 
the ability to provide immediate access 
of collected data for After Action Review 
(AAR) purposes. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

2400 units will be delivered to MCB 
Quantico, VA, Camp Lejeune, NC, Camp 
Pendleton, Hawaii, and 29 Palms, CA. 

I-TESS Increment I will be fully field- 
ed in FY11. I-TESS Increment II will be 
fielded from FY11 through FY16. I-TESS 
Increment III is anticipated to be awarded 
inFY13. 

Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 2012 
Quantity: 1 ,200 1 ,200 

Developer/Manufacturer: 

TESS Increment I: Saab Training USA, 

Orlando, FL 

I-TESS Increment II: TBD 



258 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



INTEGRATED RANGE STATUS SYSTEM (IRSS) 



I 




DESCRIPTION 

Integrated Range Status System 
(IRSS) provides an integrated situational 
awareness system comprised of a range 
management component, an air position 
location component, including radar, for 
commercial and military aircraft, and a 
ground position location component, 
all of which are used in combination to 
control range assets. This system is a con- 



sole in the Range Control room, generally 
with an air, ground and supervisor seat 
with large flat panel screens on the wall 
which show any of the screens the opera- 
tor wishes to view there. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

This system provides the Range Op- 
erations Center with real time positional 
data of ground and air entities. This al- 
lows for safer training by closely monitor- 
ing and controlling potential danger areas 
of live fire. 

Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 2012 
Quantity: 2 

Developer/Manufacturer: 
NAWCAD, Patuxent River, MD 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 259 



I 



INFANTRY IMMERSIVE TRAINER (NT) 




DESCRIPTION 

IITs are small-unit training ranges 
consisting of urban structures finished 
and decorated to replicate geo-specific 
locations. Unique from first generation 
MOUT training facilities, individual 
feedback is enhanced by the ranges' inte- 
gration and pairing with direct fire train- 
ing systems, virtual simulation screens 
and windows, and video instrumentation 
for after action review to create a small 
unit training range on par with modern 
crew simulators. Integration of addition- 
al live training instrumentation systems, 
and live role players is accomplished by 
exercise design. The indoor and outdoor 
training environments highly replicate 
current operational theaters by stimulat- 
ing all senses to stress small-unit actions 
and the small-unit leader's tactical, mor- 
al, and ethical decision making within the 
context of operational culture. 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

IITs provide a small-unit decision 
and rehearsal training range for Squad 
and Fire Team capstone training and 
evaluation in support of Pre-deployment 
Training Program (PTP) Phase III. Train- 
ing lessons learned are also collected to 
form requirements basis for the Marine 
Corps' future Squad Immersive Training 
Environment. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The Camp Pendleton, CA Phase I 
Prototype has been operational since 
2008. Phase II Expanded Outdoor Ca- 
pability became operational in October 
2010. Camp Lejeune, NC operations are 
scheduled to begin during Jan 201 1. MCB 
Hawaii Next Generation MOUT with IIT 
capability will be operational 3d Quarter 
FY11. 

Procurement Profile: FY 201 1 FY 201 2 
Quantity: 

Developer/Manufacturer: 
N/A 



260 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



SQUAD IMMERSIVE TRAINING ENVIRONMENTS (SITE) 



I 



Squad ImmersiveTrainingEnvironment 




Infantry Squad Training Continuum 



DESCRIPTION 

Squad Immersive Training Environ- 
ments (SITE) is an integrating training 
construct focused on preparing squads 
for missions in the contemporary operat- 
ing environment. This environment pro- 
vides the commander a training venue 
to better prepare infantry squads, while 
enhancing existing training systems that 
meet the essential training capabilities 
for small unit and squad leader devel- 
opment. SITE also provides centralized 
management and oversight for the small 
unit and squad training capabilities, with 
decentralized execution for development 
and fielding of individual increments. 
The program leverages efforts across the 
Science ^Technology (S&T) community 
and provides means to aid the transition 
of most technologically advanced capa- 
bilities into Programs of Record (POR). 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

Address the following Training Ca- 
pability gaps: 

• Enable proper employment of Opera- 
tional Weapons & Realistic Casualty 
Determination 

• Provide realistic Battlefield Effects to 
set the conditions for maneuver 

• Enable proper employment of 
operational equipment 

• Support Infantry Squad Core 
Competencies 

• Provide realistic environmental condi- 
tions for required geographic regions 

• Provide realistic characteristics of a 
"Thinking" Opposing Force 

• Provide realistic indigenous population 

• Provide the ability to conduct Mission 
Planning and Rehearsal 

• Provide realistic contemporary operat- 
ing environment entities 

• Provide stimulation of senses to en- 
hance realism of training and support 
decision making 

• Provide high fidelity After Action 
Reviews (AAR) 

PROGRAM STATUS 

An Analysis of Alternatives is current- 
ly being completed. RDT&E funds are be- 
ing programmed in FY12. 

Procurement Profile: FY 201 1 FY 201 2 
Quantity: 



Developer/Manufacturer: 
TBD 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 261 



I 



MARINE CORP INSTRUMENTATION TRAINING SYSTEM (MC-ITS) 



Home Station 



Ground Track 

Source 

(DiTS PLI) 



Live 
Interactions 



•DITS 

■I-HITS 

•JTRS 

•MESS 

• IGRS 

■ 



MC-lnstrumentation Training System 
(Mobile) 



Ground Track 



(IGRS PLI) 



Common 

Player 

Gateway 



° 



Processing 
Resources 



^Digitization of Live Players 
^Tactical Radio 2 Channels 
^Simulation Gateway 
'Data Recording & Storage 
^Daia Fusion & Synchronization 
'After Action Review Playback 
* Take Home Packages 



T-CR EW2 



MM, MC-T.ED ^W^i^J 



DESCRIPTION 

Marine Corps-Instrumentation 
Training System (MC-ITS ) is an instru- 
mentation system capable of monitoring 
real time live, constructive and virtual 
simulation exercises for the purposes of 
data collection, analysis, and review. Data 
is collected while monitoring, control- 
ling, and recording the force-on-force 
or force-on-target engagements that oc- 
cur in the battlefield environment. The 
instrumentation is capable of supporting 
live and virtual exercises. The purpose 
of this training system is to significantly 
enhance the training capability, opera- 
tional readiness, and tactical proficiency 
of Marines in tactics, techniques, and 
procedures in support of both collective 
task training and exercise events. MC- 
ITS provides the capability to simultane- 
ously support multiple training exercises. 
It provides objective data collection and 
analysis of unit performance in force-on- 




force (FOF), force- on- target (FOT), Live 
Fire (LF), and associated Command Post 
Exercises (CPX). MC-ITS integrates live 
training with other simulation environ- 
ments to provide the doctrinally correct 
battle space and combat forces needed 
to provide tactical realism and battle-fo- 
cused training across battlefield functions. 
The system collates training feedback 
materials from varied training support 
and simulation systems to provide a 
comprehensive AAR package for associ- 
ated training elements. MC-ITS training 
capabilities significantly enhances the 
procedures in the employment of the 
Operational T-CREW2 devices and sub- 
sequent Counter- Improvised Explosive 
Device (C-IED). Integration of the Train- 
ing - Counter Radio Electronic Warfare 2 
(T-CREW2) devices and the MC-ITS will 
extend real-time visualization, Situational 
Awareness (SA), and After Action Review 
(AAR) capabilities thus significantly en- 



262 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



I 



hancing Counter-IED training. MC-ITS 
consists of the hardware and software 
that records, stores, displays, and replays 
exercise data to support T-CREW2 and 
Marine Corps - Training Improvised 
Explosive Device (MC-TIED) device 
training. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

This system will be used for tracking 
both Ground and Air Position Location 
Information (G/A-PLI) systems Integrat- 
ed GPS Radio Systems, Instrumented- 
Tactical Engagement Simulation System 
(IGRS-ITESS), receiving live video in- 
puts from Tactical Video Capture Sys- 
tem (TVCS), controlling Marine Corps 
-Training Improvised Explosive Device/ 
Training- Counter Radio Control Impro- 
vised Explosive Device (IED) Electronic 



Warfare (MC-TIED/T-CREW2 training 
events and providing an After Action Re- 
view (AAR) for Battalion sized elements 
and below. The system will be fielded as 
a Fixed Battalion set, capable of 3,000+ 
entities, a Company set, Portable capable 
of 700 entities and a Platoon set for 70 
players or less. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

Program will be ready for production 
in FY 12 with one unit being delivered in 
FYlland40inFY12. 

Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 2012 
Quantity: 1 40 

Developer/Manufacturer: 
Lockheed Martin, STS, Orlando, FL 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 263 



I 



TACTICAL VIDEO CAPTURE SYSTEM (TVCS) 




DESCRIPTION 

The TVCS provides video-based Real- 
Time Visualization, Situation Awareness, 
and After Action Review (AAR) capabili- 
ties. The TVCS will support these capa- 
bilities by using a video-stitching process 
that combines raw/captured video from 
multiple cameras into a single wide-pan- 
oramic view. The panoramic view is used 
in real-time to observe Marine's Urban 
Warfare tactics and for later use during 
group and individual AAR evaluation 
sessions. The TVCS AAR will also allow 
for insertion of text, graphics, 3D views, 
and audio. 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

TVCS synchronized video play back 
of urban maneuver allows identification 
of training friction points supporting af- 
ter action reviews at various USMC Mili- 
tary Operations in Urban Terrain train- 
ing venues. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

Installations were competed at Camp 
Pendleton, CA and Camp Hansen, Oki- 
nawa in FY 10. TVCS has been identified 
to support the Marine Corps Immersive 
Infantry Trainer's (IIT) at three locations 
as well as continuing to support the Joint 
Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Or- 
ganization (JIEDDO) by procuring eight 
TVCS systems for Home Station Train- 
ing Lanes at three Marine Corps and five 
Navy sites. 

Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 2012 
Quantity: 7 1 1 

Developer/Manufacturer: 
Global Security and Engineering 
Solutions/L-3 Corporation, Chantilly, VA 



264 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



INDIVIDUAL TRAINING SYSTEMS 

UNDERWATER EGRESS TRAINING (UET) 



I 




DESCRIPTION 

The Modular Amphibious Egress 
Trainer MAET is a UET with a generic 
fuselage section representing specific 
aircraft, amphibious, cockpits and cab- 
in emergency escape exits. The MAET 
dunker functions closely to the general 
characteristics of a "ditched" aircraft. The 
MAET is capable of being lowered into a 
pool, and turned to 180 degree rotation 
on its longitudinal axis. Its lifting systems 
(hoists, gantries) provide at a minimum 
a two-speed rate of descent and retract. 
The students are able to practice UET 
from the MAET as it is in an upright posi- 
tion, an inverted position, or in any posi- 
tion between zero and 180 degrees. Cur- 
rent systems are able to simulate CH-46, 
CH-53 and MV-22 configurations and 
are adaptable to future platforms. 

The Submerged Vehicle Egress Train- 
er (SVET) is a UET that has the same 
modular core and rotational capabilities 
as the MAET, but dedicated for ground 
vehicle simulation. It is equipped with 
modules for the HMMWV and a generic 
amphibious track platform. 



The Shallow Water Egress Train- 
ing (SWET) is an individual seat-type 
device used prior to and in conjunction 
with MAET and SVET to introduce water 
submersion and the proper use of cur- 
rent Supplemental Emergency Breathing 
Devices (SEBD) such as the Intermediate 
Passenger Helicopter Aircrew Breathing 
Device (IPHABD) and Survival Egress 
Air (SEA). 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

There is a requirement to teach un- 
derwater egress from aircraft, amphibious, 
and ground vehicles (SWET and SVET). 
Statement of Need (SON) for the SVET 
signed 27 June 2007 and the Urgent SON 
signed 3 April 2008 states that all MAET 
training systems shall at a minimum pro- 
vide simulated training environment for 
drivers, crew, and passengers of the HM- 
MWV operating in proximity to aquatic 
hazards. New UUNS were released in Au- 
gust 2010 requiring UET from the MRAP 
All Terrain Vehicles (MATV) as well. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

Total procurement is for 16 systems: 
four MAET, four SVET, and eight SWET 
spread across Camp Hansen, Okinawa, 
MCB Kaneohe Bay, HI, Camp Pendleton, 
CA, and Camp Lejeune, NC. 

Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 2012 
Quantity: SVET 4 

Developer/Manufacturer: 
Survival Systems Inc., Groton, CT 

CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 265 



I 



SUPPORTING ARMS VIRTUAL TRAINERS (SAVT) 




DESCRIPTION 

The Supporting Arms Virtual Trainer 
(SAVT) will advance the training capabil- 
ity, operational readiness, and tactical 
proficiency of USMC Joint Terminal At- 
tack Controllers (JTAC), Forward Ob- 
servers (FO), and Forward Air Controllers 
(FAC). This virtual simulator provides 
personnel with training scenarios that re- 
quire the placement of tactical ordnance 
on selected targets using Joint Close Air 
Support (JCAS) procedures and observed 
fire procedures. These scenarios will allow 
for practical application of Naval Surface 
Fire Support (NSFS), artillery and mortar 
fire, neutralization, suppression, illumi- 
nation, interdiction, and harassment fire 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

With recent USMC doctrine chang- 
es, Joint JTAC memorandum agreement 
and certification by Joint Forces Com- 
mand (JFCOM) of the Navy's MSAI7 
SAVT simulation events can replace 33% 
of USMC live fire Training and Readiness 
(T&R) and Joint Service currency train- 
ing requirements. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

Four systems have been installed, one 
each at: Camp Lejeune, NC; 29 Palms, CA; 
Camp Pendleton, CA; and Marine Corps 
Base, HI. Two remaining systems will 
be installed in FY 11 at Marine Corps Air 
Station, Yuma, AZ and Camp Hansen, 
Okinawa. 



Procurement Profile: FY 201 1 
Quantity: 2 

Developer/Manufacturer: 
TJ Inc., Christmas, FL 



FY 201 2 




missions. 



266 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



MARINE CORPS DISTANCE LEARNING (MCDL) 



I 



DESCRIPTION 

MCDL, also known as "MarineNet," 
is the Marine Corps' learning manage- 
ment system and infrastructure that 
enables Marines to receive training and 
education via the appropriate interactive 
media, when and where the learning is 
needed. Managed by the College of Dis- 
tance Education and Training (CDET), 
MCDL provides the operational forces 
access to the distance learning resources 
and performance support tools that in- 
creases the effectiveness of training and 
education through use of technology. 
MarineNet courseware facilitates career 
progression and expedites the training 
process by granting rapid online course 
enrollments and online test completion. 
Test scores are available immediately and 
students are able to print courseware 
completion certificates online. Student 
activity is electronically entered into the 
Marine Corps Total Force System via 
the Marine Corps Training Information 
Management System database providing 
promotion points, self education bonus 
points and Reserve retirement credits. To 
meet the access requirements of the oper- 
ational forces, CDET has fielded various 
distance learning suites to the major Ma- 
rine Corps bases and stations. The key in- 
frastructure components of MCDL are: 

• Content Delivery Engines (Network 
Appliances that host content) 

• Centralized Learning Management 
System for Student Administration 

• Learning Resource Centers (LRC) 

• Video Tele-training Training Centers 

• Deployable Learning Resource Centers 
(DLRC) 



Available electronic courseware prod- 
ucts include: 

• Required Pre-Deployment Training 
and 

• Required Annual Training 

• Military Occupational Specialty and 
Common Skills Training 

• Cultural and Language Courses 

• Professional Military Education Courses 

• Business Skills and Information 
Technology Courses 

• Online Reference Material and 
Job Aids 

• Online Testing 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

MCDL contributes to operational 
readiness by providing all Marines with 
access to required pre-deployment train- 
ing, military occupational specialty com- 
mon skills training opportunities, and 
Professional Military Education. Distance 
learning capabilities fill critical gaps in the 
training and education continuum and 
can reduce the amount of time Marines 
are required to be away from their home 
duty station attending formal training. 
MCDL gives the commander a better- 
trained Marine while increasing person- 
nel availability. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

Throughout the Marine Corps, 42 
LRCs have been fielded and are currently 
operational and 54 DLRCs are fielded and 
available for units to check out. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 267 



I 



MARINE CORPS UNIVERSITY (MCU) AND PROFESSIONAL 
MILITARY EDUCATION (PME) 



The MCU, also known as Education 
Command, oversees a progressive series 
of schools that Marines attend through- 
out their careers, regardless of military 
occupations. Incorporating pedagogical 
approaches common to any higher edu- 
cation institution, the combined doctor- 
al- level and military faculty strives to fos- 
ter critical thinking and decision making 
skills through a balance of directed read- 
ings and writings, guest lectures, histori- 
cal case studies, small-group discussions, 
military planning exercises, and shared 
experiences. MCU is accredited by the 
Commission of Colleges of the Southern 
Association of Colleges and Schools. 

MCU is the PME advocate for the 
Marine Corps and is charged with de- 
veloping, implementing and monitoring 
PME policies/programs and educating 
the force. The progressive PME learning 
system is designed to educate Marines 
by grade throughout their careers. PME 
programs consist of resident and nonres- 
ident instruction, professional self-study, 
and professional reading program. Resi- 
dent programs present a unique learning 
opportunity in that they allow sister ser- 
vice, interagency, and foreign service stu- 
dents to participate in the education and 
exchange of ideas with Marine students. 
Nonresident programs are also critical to 
the education of the force, as a majority 
of the population must pursue education 
via distance education rather than resi- 
dent instruction. 

The main campus of MCU is located 
at Quantico, VA, and consists of the fol- 
lowing officer PME schools and colleges: 

268 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



the Expeditionary Warfare School for 
captains, the Command and Staff College 
for majors, the School of Advanced Warf- 
ighting, (second year majors), and the 
Marine Corps War College for lieutenant 
colonels. During the fall of 2010 a pilot 
Senior Planner Course was introduced 
for colonels. Enlisted resident education 
is conducted at the six regional Staff Non- 
commissioned Officer Academies world- 
wide which offer the Sergeants, Career 
and Advanced Courses. The Senior En- 
listed PME Course which was first intro- 
duced in 2008 is offered for master/first 
sergeants and master gunnery sergeants 
and sergeants major. The University, spe- 
cifically The Lejeune Leadership Institute 
(LLI) also recently assumed the mission 
of leadership development for civilian 
Marines. The Civilian Leadership Devel- 
opment program (CDLP) will consist of 
a regionally delivered blended seminar 
learning program. 

The curricula of both the resident 
and nonresident education programs will 
continue to address MAGTF proficiency 
in the core warfighting functions of com- 
bined arms, amphibious operations, and 
maritime pre-positioning operations, in 
addition to developing and expanding 
the Corps' irregular warfare and coun- 
terinsurgency capabilities. The Univer- 
sity intends to promote and develop the 
Marine Corps War College into a robust 
institution by expanding the student 
population to more fully support the 
Corp's requirements. The enlisted PME 
programs are being revised to ensure resi- 
dent and nonresident programs are coor- 



I 



dinated, relevant, and meet the needs of 
the operating forces. Recently, the Marine 
Corps College of Distance Education and 
Training (CDET) has been given the task 
to develop a new series of distance learn- 
ing products for delivery to all enlisted 
Marines needing PME. The CDET has 
successfully established Blended Seminar 
PME distance education programs for the 
Expeditionary Warfare School and the 
Command and Staff College. This inno- 
vative hybrid combines distance learning 
with short-duration residency periods in 
Quantico, VA to expand course capac- 
ity beyond historical levels, making these 
courses more available to USMC, joint, 
interagency, and partner nation officers. 
Students in these programs interact with 
a truly diverse, international blend of 
peers and all participate in the resident 
schools' graduation ceremonies. 

The Center for Middle East Stud- 
ies has grown into a Center for Strate- 
gic Studies which focuses on multiple 
regional areas of significance to the Ma- 
rine Corps and the nation. The Center 
will continue to expand its capacity to 
research and publish on issues associated 
with strategic assessments, regional secu- 
rity, diplomacy, alliance relations, tech- 
nological and military developments, and 
U.S. foreign policy. A major component 
of the Center will be outreach to other 
PME institutions, civilian academic pro- 



grams, and research institutes. 

MCU leadership is exploring a con- 
cept of establishing regional campuses in 
order to give the university the capacity to 
expand and engage the student popula- 
tion in a meaningful and global way. The 
intent is to provide outreach and resourc- 
es to the significant percentage of Marine 
Corps students completing their PME 
and CDLP from a distance by providing: 
comprehensive and immediate access to 
MCU research and academic resources; 
central access for students and faculty 
to assemble and participate in a learning 
environment; decentralized delivery of 
MCU CDET developed courses that en- 
sures common content and uniformity; 
and use of technologies that link home 
campus with regional campuses and 
individual students to a greater extent 
than today. Regional campuses, nonresi- 
dent courses, and blended seminars will 
permit a global education presence and 
centralized management of training and 
education resources. Through its com- 
bined emphasis on courses, symposia, 
and publications, MCU will continue to 
develop Marines, sister service members, 
interagency personnel, and multinational 
partners. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 269 



MARINE CORPS HISTORY DIVISION 



The History Division's mission is to 
provide knowledge of the Marine Corps' 
past to ensure an understanding of its 
present and future for the Marine Corps 
and the American people by making its 
hard-earned experience and official his- 
tory available for practical study and use; 
preserving a written, spoken and visual 
record of its activities and traditions by 
collecting papers, articles, images and in- 
terviews of lasting historical interest; and 
assisting in the Marine Corps' use of mili- 
tary history to aid in professional mili- 
tary education, training and to provide 
background and precedents for decision 
making. To do this, Division historians, 
working in close coordination with the 
National Museum of the Marine Corps, 
collect, research, write, publish and dis- 
tribute accounts that are professional pre- 
sentations of permanent historical value 
to the Marine Corps and materially con- 
tribute to the military, political and social 
history of the United States and its' armed 
forces. During 2009, the History Division 
moved into facilities at 3078 Upshur Av- 
enue, Quantico, VA 22134 on the campus 
of Marine Corps University (MCU). 

History Division has four Branches, 
History, Reference, Editing and Design 
and Headquarters. Each Branch con- 
tributes to the research, writing and edit- 
ing of the official histories of the Marine 
Corps. Reference Branch fulfills several 
specific functions and to perform these 
functions maintains topical working 
files that cover five areas: specific history 
subjects; biographical files on prominent 
Marines; unit files; photo files and geo- 



graphic area files. As part of its mission, 
the Division conducts research, writes 
battle studies, deploys combat historians 
with operational units to collect and pre- 
serve primary source materials; conducts 
interviews with a wide variety of current 
and former Marines in support of the Di- 
vision's research and writing efforts; edits, 
designs, produces, prints, warehouses and 
distributes products; compiles, edits and 
publishes Fortitudine, the quarterly bul- 
letin of the Marine Corps Historical Pro- 
gram; and carries out all functions of the 
Marine Corps University Press. Founded 
in 2008, the Marine Corps University 
Press seeks to further the vision, educa- 
tional objectives and curriculum of MCU 
through scholarly dialogue not offered in 
other forums. The Marine Corps Univer- 
sity Press published the first issue of the 
Marine Corps University Journal in 2010 
and plans to produce two issues in 2011. 
The journal features articles, interviews 
and reviews on issues of strategy and in- 
ternational security. 

In addition to the writing and pub- 
lishing projects noted above, during 2010, 
History Division expanded the operations 
of MCU Press and Marine Corps Univer- 
sity Journal. It will also maintain progress 
on a multi-year effort to scan and process 
key Reference Branch materials to make 
them available in a digital format. The 
History Division's website (www.history. 
usmc.mil) is continually being improved 
and expanded, as is the Marine Corps 
University Press website (www.tecom. 
usmc.mil/mcu/mcupress/) . 



270 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



NATIONAL MUSEUM OF THE MARINE CORPS (NMMC) 



I 



The President of the United States 
dedicated the National Museum of the 
Marine Corps (NMMC) on 10 November 
2006. Located in Quantico, VA and with 
an average annual visitor attendance of 
more than 500,000 during each of its first 
four years, the NMMC is one of the most 
popular cultural attractions in Virginia. 
Its exhibitions recreate environments and 
immerse visitors into Marine Corps ac- 
tion. The Marine Corps Museum's mis- 
sion includes: 

• Collecting and preserving objects that 
reflect the history of the Corps; • Inter- 
preting Marine Corps history; 

• Educating students and families; 

• Conducting collections-based research; 
and 

• Supporting the recruitment, education, 
and retention of Marines. 

The National Museum is being con- 
structed in phases, the first of which in- 
cludes approximately 120,000 square feet. 
It opened with permanent galleries dedi- 
cated to "Making Marines," World War II, 
the Korean War, and the Vietnam War. In 
2010, three additional galleries opened to 
tell the story of the Marine Corps from 
1775 through World War I. In immersive 
exhibits, visitors take their places along- 
side Marines in battle. Aircraft, tanks, and 
other vehicles are prominently displayed, 
and period uniforms, weapons, med- 
als, flags, and other artifacts help visitors 
trace the history of the Corps. Future 
phases will add a giant-screen theater, 
classrooms, an art gallery, visible storage, 
and more exhibition space to the flagship 



building. A chapel that overlooks the Mu- 
seum and Semper Fidelis Memorial Park 
opened in October 2009. Also planned as 
part of the 135-acre "Marine Corps Heri- 
tage Center" are a hotel/conference center, 
artifact storage and restoration building, 
hiking trails, and additions to Semper Fi- 
delis Memorial Park. 

The NMMC reports to Marine Corps 
University and is federally funded and 
staffed by Marine Corps civilian employ- 
ees and uniformed Marines. However, its 
construction and expansion would not 
be possible without the assistance of the 
Marine Corps Heritage Foundation. This 
strong public-private partnership, ap- 
proved by Congress in 2001, allowed for 
the construction of an iconic building 
and the delivery of the highest-quality 
programs. 

The strength of any history museum 
rests with its collections. NMMC's key- 
stone objects that represent how Marines 
have waged war since 1775 — weapons, 
tanks, vehicles, aircraft — were trans- 
ferred to the museum by the Marine 
Corps. But pride in being a Marine has 
prompted many generations of leather- 
necks to donate their personal items to 
the permanent collection. Because the 
museum is charged with caring for its 
collections — some 30,000 objects — in 
perpetuity, curators add to the collection 
very selectively, consulting a formal col- 
lections rationale for guidance. Steward- 
ship responsibilities are divided among 
five broad categories: ordnance; uniforms 
and heraldry; aviation; art; and general 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 271 



I 



collections. Curators and collections 
managers work together to fully account 
for the collection. 

As is often the case with museums, 
less than ten percent of NMMC's objects 
are on exhibition at any one time. Most of 
them are in storage at Marine Corps Base 
Quantico, while some objects are on loan 
to other museums around the country. A 
team dedicated to the preservation of air- 
craft, vehicles, artillery pieces, and other 
large artifacts completes the detailed res- 
toration of several artifacts each year. 

An in-house exhibitions team, work- 
ing with curators and historians, designs 
and oversees permanent and temporary 
installations, including the Comman- 
dant's Corridor at the Pentagon. Muse- 
um educators use these exhibits to craft 
formal education programs that meet 
the needs of classroom teachers and are 
linked to specific standards of learning. 

Education at the museum can defi- 
nitely be fun, especially for ("Little Ma- 
rines"), with puppet shows, hands-on 
activities, story-telling, trains, and gallery 
hunts. During the museum's second year 
of operation, it served more than 35,000 
students in formal programs. Popular 
family day programs are offered on the 
second Saturday of each month. Marines 
attending formal schools also make good 
use of the museum as part of their pro- 
fessional military education. Since World 
War II, the Corps has been instructing a 
small number of Marines to "go to war 
and do art!" Continuing in that tradition, 
in 2010 the Museum deployed one artist 
to Haiti, and training sites in the United 



States to capture what today's warriors are 
accomplishing. More than 60 works from 
the combat art collection were featured in 
an exhibit at the USS Constitution Mu- 
seum during Marine Week in Boston. 

In 2009, the museum received the 
Themed Entertainment Association's 
award for Best New Museum, and the 
Secretary of the Navy recognized the mu- 
seum with the Award of Merit for Group 
Achievement. The museum stands as a 
proud acknowledgement of the courage 
and commitment to duty delivered by 
all Marines, in support of today's Marine 
Corps families, and as an inspiration to 
the next generation of Americans. 

In addition to the NMMC, com- 
mand specific museums are located at 
Camp Pendleton, CA; Recruit Depots San 
Diego, CA and Parris Island, SC; and at 
Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, CA. 
These museums reflect the unique inter- 
ests and objectives of those facilities. For 
additional information, see www.usmc- 
museum.org. 



272 1 USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



I 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 273 



I 



INTRODUCTION 

Marine Corps installations are part of the Supporting Establishment. They com- 
prise primarily 15 major bases and stations in the United States, Japan and Korea — 
often referred to as the "fifth element" of the MAGTF — and the personnel, equipment 
and facilities required to operate them. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 275 



INSTALLATIONS AND MILITARY CONSTRUCTION 







Marine Corps bases and stations rep- 
resent an irreplaceable national asset to- 
day and as far into the future as we can 
project. They are fundamental to combat 
readiness, particularly the pre-deploy- 
ment training, launching, sustaining, and 
reconstituting of Marine operating forces. 
In 2025, Marine Corps installations will 
provide an even higher quality training 
environment directly supporting the To- 
tal Force in Readiness. Additionally, those 
bases and stations are and will continue 
to be integral to the quality of life of Ma- 
rines, Sailors, and their families. 

The operation and maintenance of 
these installations as well as their future 
development and use require planning, 
wise investment, and sound execution. Nu- 



merous Corps-wide efforts are underway 
to ensure Marine Corps installations are 
ready, responsive, and capable of meeting 
current and future support requirements 
of a 202,100-strong Marine Corps. 

The Marine Corps has more than S58 
billion worth of facilities that are used to 
train, house, and provide excellent qual- 
ity of life for Marines and their families. 
Examples of these facilities are barracks, 
runways, sewage treatment plants, roads, 
and electrical lines. These facilities are 
used to perform mission-essential tasks, 
and they must be appropriately main- 
tained. Adequately sustaining required 
facilities is the highest facilities manage- 
ment priority. 

MILITARY CONSTRUCTION 

The Marine Corps has a multi-fac- 
eted Military Construction program that 
is addressing baseline infrastructure im- 
provements, including operational and 
quality of life projects, at installations and 
supporting the Defense Posture Review 
Initiative to move Marines to Guam. The 
FY2012 proposal of SI. 4 billion is criti- 
cal to maintaining and improving instal- 
lations and providing adequate facilities 
both in the continental United States and 
overseas. 



276 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



ENVIRONMENTAL, NATURAL, AND CULTURAL 
RESOURCES STEWARDSHIP 



I 




The Marine Corps serves as custo- 
dian and environmental steward of ap- 
proximately 2.3 million acres of some of 
the most ecologically sensitive and diverse 
areas of the country and the world, in- 
cluding portions of the Sonoran Desert, 
some of the last remaining sub-tropical 
rain forest in Asia, and numerous fresh 
and saltwater waters and wetlands. These 
areas provide habitat for an abundance of 
wildlife species, including 59 federally list- 
ed threatened and endangered plant and 
animal species. These same lands contain 
a diversity of cultural resources, includ- 
ing archaeological sites and collections, 
historic buildings, structures, and objects, 
cultural landscapes, and resources of tra- 
ditional, religious, or cultural significance 
to Native American tribes or Native Ha- 
waiian organizations. These resources re- 
flect thousands of years of human activ- 
ity, including important developments in 
our Nation's history and the role of the 
military in that history, and embody our 
shared historical experiences. 

Unless properly managed, Marine 
Corps lands can become damaged to the 
point where realistic training can no lon- 
ger take place. Land is a finite, valuable 
commodity. Marine Corps use of land 
must be sustainable so the Marine Corps 
may use its lands frequently and repeat- 
edly. In addition, the American people 
have placed intrinsic values on certain 
natural and cultural resources. These 
values have been translated into laws re- 
quiring the Marine Corps to protect and 



preserve natural and cultural resources. 
Failure to comply with these laws can lead 
to judicial, legislative, and executive deci- 
sions denying the Marine Corps access to 
land for training. 

The natural and cultural resources 
on Marine Corps lands are managed 
through the implementation of Inte- 
grated Natural Resources Management 
Plans (INRMP) and Integrated Cultural 
Resources Management Plans (ICRMPs), 
respectively. These plans outline goals, 
objectives, and projects for the natural 
and cultural resource programs while 
supporting the installation's military 
mission. Management actions include 
implementing proven best management 
practices for wildlife management, forest 
and range management, erosion control, 
invasive species control, historic preser- 
vation, Native American/Native Hawai- 
ian consultation, artifact curation, moni- 
toring, and other resource management 
measures. The Marine Corps also ensures 
protection of these resources and enforce- 
ment of conservation laws by providing 
an effective and well-trained Conserva- 
tion Law Enforcement element at most 
installations. 

Stewardship of these various re- 
sources is done in coordination and part- 
nership with numerous outside agencies 
and organizations including the U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, State fish and wild- 
life management agencies, State Historic 
Preservation Offices, Native American 
tribes and Native Hawaiian organiza- 
tions, and numerous other governmental 
and non-governmental organizations. By 
engaging in cooperative ecosystem and 
adaptive management approaches for 
sustained use of these resources, the Ma- 
rine Corps preserves the land, water, and 
airspace needed to sustain military readi- 
ness while maximizing environmental 
protection. 

CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 277 



I 



HOUSING 

BACHELOR ENLISTED 
QUARTERS (BEQ) 

Bachelor housing is one of the Com- 
mandant's top Military Construction pri- 
orities. The Commandant's BEQ Initia- 
tive, initiated in 2006 as part of Program 
Objective Memorandum 2008, provided 
more than $1.7 billion in construction 
funds to correct barracks space short- 
falls, implement renovations, and pro- 
vide collateral equipment. Subsequently, 
the Commandant approved an additional 
$1.2 billion in new construction during 
FY09-13 period to add barracks spaces 
associated with the "Grow-the-Force" 
initiative. These initiatives will eliminate 
existing BEQ space deficiencies and inad- 
equate barracks and achieve the Marine 
Corps desired "2+0" assignment standard 
byFY2014. 

The new BEQs will be highly modern 
living facilities for Marines and Sailors 
and will include rooms with improved 
aesthetics and bathroom configurations, 
enhanced recreation and laundry areas 
and will be designed to optimize climate 
control and energy efficiency. For exist- 
ing BEQs, we are continuing the "Whole 
Room Concept" replacement furniture 
program to replace entire room furnish- 
ings on a cyclical basis. 

FAMILY HOUSING 

By September 2007, the Marine 
Corps had privatized all family housing 
units where it was economically advan- 
tageous and authorized; for example, 
military housing legislative authorities 
prohibit housing privatization at overseas 
locations. In early 2011, there are more 
than 22,000 units of housing privatized 
and less than 1,000 Marine Corps-owned 

278 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 




and -managed units remaining. 

The Marine Corps has leveraged pri- 
vate financing to government investment 
at a ratio of approximately 4 to 1 . This has 
enabled the Marine Corps to quickly and 
significantly upgrade family housing in- 
frastructure and improve housing man- 
agement. As a defining metric, the family 
housing occupant satisfaction levels con- 
tinue to be much higher than when the 
housing units were owned by the Service. 
Housing referral, the process of assisting 
military families to find housing, is still 
retained by the government. 

Constructing deficit housing, mainly 
attributable to new housing requirements 
associated with the Grow-the-Force build 
up, will continue through 2014, princi- 
pally at Camp Pendleton, CA, Camp Leje- 
une, NC and Marine Corps Air Ground 
Combat Center, 29 Palms, CA. New 
units constructed at these facilities will 
be modern and energy efficient, and will 
continue to improve the quality of life of 
Marines, Sailors, and their families. 



CONTINUOUS PROCESS IMPROVEMENT (CPI) 



I 



The Marine Corps is using CPI to 
enhance readiness and warfighting ca- 
pability. CPI does this by improving the 
understanding of warfighting support 
requirements and applying proven CPI 
tools to improve the speed, quality, and 
affordability of supporting processes to 
meet those requirements. CPI is used 
globally to enhance capability in a wide 
range of production, service, and admin- 
istrative functions. 

By applying CPI in a standardized 
and disciplined way, Marines have been 
increasing mission capability without in- 
creasing costs. Although the main focus 
is to improve readiness and warfighting 
capabilities, CPI also reduces costs by re- 
moving waste and non-value added work. 
This frees work resources, such as person- 
nel or dollars, which can then be realigned 
to meet unfunded or new requirements 
in other parts of the organization. 

Since CPI directly supports Marine 
Corps readiness, it is a strategic asset that 
has been established as a core mission ca- 
pability. The Marine Corps CPI Program 
Office has regional CPI Support Teams of 
CPI experts who provide standard tools, 
training, and implementation support 
to Marine Corps organizations around 
the world as they develop organic CPI 
capability. The team members have ex- 
tensive experience in leading high-impact 
CPI projects, assisting organizations in 
deploying CPI, and establishing internal 
CPI capability. 



The use of CPI is continuing to grow 
in the Marine Corps and currently is de- 
ployed in 80 Marine Corps organizations 
with hundreds of projects completed and 
underway. Significant results are being 
achieved in numerous areas including: 
increasing aircraft mission ready rates; 
reducing the cycle time to rebuild and re- 
pair weapons systems; cutting the time to 
discharge Marines not completing Boot 
Camp, which reduced annual personnel 
holding costs; improving the repair pro- 
cess for an aircraft wing stabilizer that 
increased part life and reduced annual 
repair costs; streamlining data entry by 
drill instructors that decreased entry time 
per recruit, saving hours per day during 
recruit training cycle; and improving the 
performance and affordability of a wide 
range of installation support functions. 
Also, the Continuous Process Improve- 
ment Management System (CPIMS), an 
enterprise-wide software tool, documents 
CPI improvement projects and sup- 
ports their replication across the Marine 
Corps. 

CPI is the perfect tool for today's en- 
vironment. Marine Corps commanders 
are using CPI to improve operational ca- 
pability, reduce budget pressures, and im- 
prove quality of life for Marines and their 
families. The bottom line is CPI helps the 
Marine Corps meet mission requirements 
and at the same time be a good steward of 
taxpayer dollars. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 279 



I 



INTRODUCTION 

Force Protection covers a wide range of programs to include: Integrated Air and 
Missile Defense (IAMD) programs, Explosive Hazards (X-HAZ), Explosive Ordnance 
Disposal (EOD)> chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) defense 
equipment, and the Ground-Based Operational Surveillance System (Expeditionary) 
(G-BOSS(E)). IAMD programs comprise of the battlefield radar sensors and ground- 
based air defense capabilities to detect threats and neutralize enemy airborne systems. 
CBRN equipment provides the Marine with the necessary capability to operate in a 
contaminated environment and still accomplish the mission. Explosive hazards pro- 
grams include counter-improvised explosive devices (IED) operations and neutraliza- 
tion of explosive hazards, generally. G-BOSS(E) provides Marine Corps forces with 
24-hour persistent ground surveillance to display and track items of interest through 
the use of unique, high-resolution, day and night cameras and sensors. These types of 
enabling capabilities are important to achieve defense in depth and protection for the 
Marine and the operating forces. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGR- MS I 281 



MAGTF CBRN ASSESSMENT AND CONSEQUENCE MANAGEMENT SET 
(MAGTF CBRN ACM SET) 




DESCRIPTION 

The MAGTF CBRN ACM Set is a 
suite of specialized detection/identifi- 
cation and protective equipment that 
enhances traditional passive defense op- 
erations and allows chemical, biological, 
radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) recon- 
naissance elements to confirm or deny 
the presence of a broad range of CBRN 
hazards and provide protection to oper- 
ate in the most hazardous of environ- 
ments. CBRN defense personnel at the 
major subordinate command and Marine 
Expeditionary Unit (MEU) levels, in the 
active and reserve forces, use the MAGTF 
CBRN ACM set. 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The MAGTF CBRN ACM Set will 
provide a more efficient and effective de- 
tection and identification capability to 
the MAGTF commander. The MAGTF 
CBRN ACM Set will support the charac- 
terization of hazardous material attacks, 
events or accidents across the range of 
military operations and combating weap- 
ons of mass destruction (WMD) opera- 
tions. This capability will enhance the 
commander's risk-based decision-mak- 
ing ability as it pertains to contamina- 
tion avoidance, personal protection, and 
CBRN reconnaissance. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

Fielding of the MAGTF CBRN ACM 
Sets began in the Second Quarter FY2009. 
The Approved Acquisition Objective is 27 
sets (two per MSC, one per MEU, and two 
at Marine Forces Reserve). All 27 sets have 
been procured and fielding is anticipated 
to be completed by the Third Quarter 
FY2011. 



282 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



GROUND-BASED AIR DEFENSE TRANSFORMATION (GBAD-T) 



I 



DESCRIPTION 

Ground-Based Air Defense - Trans- 
formation (GBAD-T) is the Marine 
Corps' air defense capability, using the 
High-Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled 
Vehicle-based Advanced Man-Portable 
Air Defense System (A-MANPADS) and 
the Stinger missile to defeat fixed- and ro- 
tary-wing threats. This system is the Ma- 
rine Corps' only organic GBAD system. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

Using A-MANPADS and the Stinger 
missile, the Low-Altitude Air Defense 
(LAAD) battalions provide the MAGTF 
a low-altitude air defense against enemy 
air threats. LAAD units deploy with Ma- 
rine Expeditionary Units as part of the 
Marine Air Control Group detachment. 
As a future capability, the A-MANPADS 
Increment I program enhances the sys- 
tems' command, control, communica- 
tions, and computer suite. The hardware 
and software upgrade provides an en- 
hanced fire-control and air/ground situ- 
ational awareness capability to the LAAD 
Battalions. Increment I uses Joint Range 
Extension Application Protocol, a joint 
certified data link, ensuring compatibility 
with legacy and future C2 architectures. 
Increment I radios are satellite communi- 
cations capable. 



PROGRAM STATUS 

In May 2009, the Marine Require- 
ments Oversight Council approved the 
GBAD Initial Capabilities Document 
(ICD) that validates existing capability 
gaps against Low-Observable/Low-Radar 
Cross Section (LO/LRCS) threats. The 
GBAD analysis of alternatives identified 
candidate material solutions for the Sting- 
er missile replacement that fills the gaps 
identified in the GBAD ICD. The Marine 
Corps will execute a service life extension 
program of the Stinger missile to maintain 
a GBAD capability as a bridge to a to-be- 
determined weapons system forecasted 
to be programmed for POM2014/2016. 
The future weapon system is envisioned 
to provide continuous, on-the-move, low 
altitude air defense for the MAGTF. The 
Program will examine future capabilities 
such as an integrated multi-mission turret 
with a gun, missiles, and directed energy 
that support future material/technology 
solutions and the joint engagement se- 
quence on-the-move. 



Procurement Profil 


e: FY 2011 


FY 


Section Leader 






Vehicle 


4 


16 


Fire Units 


15 


60 



Developer/Manufacturer: 

Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane 

Division, Crane, IN 



CHAPTER 3: PROGR \ I 283 



AN/TPS-59(V)3 RADAR SYSTEM 



DESCRIPTION 

The AN/TPS-59(V)3 radar system 
is the Marine Corps' only long-range, 
3D, air-surveillance, theater ballistic mis- 
sile (TBM)-capable radar. The AN/TPS- 
59(V)3 is a transportable, solid-state L- 
band radar that serves as the MAGTF's 
principal air surveillance radar and is in- 
tegrated into the AN/TYQ-23( V)4 Tacti- 
cal Air Operations Module, AN/TSQ-269 
Mobile Tactical Air Operations Module 
(MTAOM), AN/MSQ-124 Air Defense 
Communication Platform (ADCP), and 
the AN/TYQ-87 Sector Anti-Air Warfare 
Facility (SAAWF). 

When configured for TBM opera- 
tions, the radar provides TBM track data 
to the Joint Tactical Information Distri- 
bution System via the Tactical Digital In- 
formation Link- Joint Service (TADIL-J) 
Link- 16 network. The radar is a compo- 
nent of the Navy's Cooperative Engage- 
ment Capability in the littoral environ- 
ment and is the Marine Corps' lead sensor 
in the development of the Composite 
Tracking Network. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The AN/TPS-59(V)3 radar system 
is optimized to detect and track air- 
breathing aircraft targets and TBMs that 
constitute serious threats to MAGTF op- 
erations. The radar is employed by the 



Marine Air Control Squadron (MACS) 
during sustained operations ashore and is 
part of the joint theater air and missile de- 
fense architecture. The radar supports the 
MAGTF commander in anti-air warfare 
operations and en-route traffic control to 
a distance of 300 nautical miles and TBM 
surveillance to 400 nautical miles. The ra- 
dar system is currently deployed in direct 
support of MAGTF operations. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The AN/TPS-59(V)3 radar system is 
in the operations and support phase. In 
order to maintain the radar to 2025, an 
incremental sustainment strategy of en- 
gineering change proposals and technical 
refresh efforts will address diminishing 
manufacturing sources, material shortag- 
es, and obsolescence issues. The Approved 
Acquisition Objective is 13 radar systems. 

Procurement Profile: FY 2011 FY 201 2 
Quantity: 

Developer/Manufacturer: 

Lockheed Martin Mission Systems and 

Sensors (MS2), Syracuse, NY 



284 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



. 



IDENTITY DOMINANCE SYSTEM (IDS) 



I 




DESCRIPTION 

The requirement for an enduring 
Marine Corps biometric capability origi- 
nated from urgent warfighter requests to 
support counter-insurgency operations 
in Iraq and Afghanistan. The Biometric 
Automated Toolset (BAT) is the fielded 
system that is a commercial-off-the-shelf 
(COTS) item that fulfilled an immediate 
need. The Identity Dominance System 
will replace BAT with improvements, 
such as increased data storage and longer 
battery life. The IDS will be a multimodal 
biometric collection system that collects 
and compares unique, individual biomet- 
ric characteristics to enroll, identify, and 
track persons of interest and build digital 
dossiers on the individuals for purposes 
that include anti-terrorism/ force protec- 
tion, local employee screening, detention 
management, civil affairs, base access, 
humanitarian assistance, population con- 
trol, counter intelligence, and high-value 



target identification. The IDS is anticipat- 
ed to be a three-tiered system with hard- 
ware and software including a server suite 
capability, a client suite capability, and a 
family of hand-held capabilities. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The primary mission of the IDS is 
to provide the Marine Air- Ground Task 
Force (MAGTF) with the means to identi- 
fy persons encountered in the battlespace. 
The capability requires that the MAGTF 
commander be able to collect, match, 
store, and share biometric data. The IDS 
will enable the Marine to collect appro- 
priate biometric, biographical and refer- 
ence information on an individual and 
match this locally developed information 
with pre-existing information available to 
the expeditionary force. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

FIDS is seeking a Milestone C deci- 
sion in FY2015. It is designated as ACAT 
I - Special Interest based on a September 
2008 Acquisition Decision Memorandum 
that assigned all DoD biometrics sys- 
tems to that category. If tied to the Army 
schedule, IOC for IDS is projected to be 
FY2015. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 285 



COUNTER RADIO-CONTROLLED IMPROVISED EXPLOSIVE DEVICE (RCIED) 
ELECTRONIC WARFARE (CREW) 



DESCRIPTION 

The CREW systems are vehicle- 
mounted, fixed-site, and man-portable 
backpack active/reactive electronic coun- 
termeasure systems (ECM) designed to 
counter high- and low-powered radio 
controlled improvised explosive devices 
(IEDs). 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

The Marine Corps CREW program 
provides Marines with an effective elec- 
tronic warfare capability to counter the 
threat posed by RCIEDs and to improve 
force protection. The CREW Vehicle Re- 
ceiver/Jammer (CVRJ) is the primary 
vehicle-mounted jammer. The Thor III 
Dismounted system is the in-service man- 
portable system. It provides coverage and 
protection from RCIEDs when Marines 
are dismounted and operating outside 
the protective envelop of a mounted or 
fixed-site CREW system. Marine Corps 
CREW will sustain 336 Thor III systems. 
The CVRJ system will provide the neces- 
sary force protection required in the cur- 
rent conflicts. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The Marine Corps CREW program 
was designated as an ACAT II program in 



February 2007 and was granted a full rate 
production decision in March 2007. The 
CREW program initially acquired a total 
of 10,089 Chameleon and Hunter sys- 
tems. This initial capability evolved into 
CREW 2.1, the CVRJ. In February 2009, 
the CREW Program Office Acquisition 
Strategy/ Acquisition Plan (AS/AP) was 
approved for acquisition of up to 8,000 
CVRJs. The Joint CREW (JCREW) 3.3 
Capabilities Development Document was 
approved December 2008. JCREW 3.3 is 
the next iteration of CREW systems, and 
its planned Marine Corps Approved Ac- 
quisition Objective is 3,903 systems. The 
JCREW 3.3 Initial Operational Capability 
is scheduled for FY2013 and Full Opera- 
tional Capability is scheduled for FY2015. 
The Joint CREW Program Office is the 
lead acquisition agency for CVRJ and fu- 
ture JCREW 3.3 systems. 

Developer/Manufacturer: 

CVRJ: International Telephone and 

Telegraph (ITT), White Plains, NY 

Chameleon: General Dynamics, Falls 
Church, VA 

Thor III: Sierra Nevada Corporation, 
Sparks, NV 



286 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



IMPROVISED EXPLOSIVE DEVICE DETECTOR DOG (IDD) 



I 



DESCRIPTION 

The IDD is a Military Working Dog 
(MWD) that is trained by a government 
contractor to detect improvised explosive 
devices (IEDs) off leash. The IDD pro- 
vides select units of the Ground Combat 
Element (GCE) with the capability to 
rapidly and reliably detect IEDs, while 
providing a standoff distance for the 
IDD handler and supported unit. IDDs 
are conditioned to maintain the opera- 
tional tempo of the GCE, live and work 
in austere environments, and function 
effectively despite the sights, sounds, and 
smells of war. Because IDDs must live 
in close proximity with Marines and are 
trained for off leash use, often near civil- 
ians, the nonaggressive Labrador Retriev- 
er breed has been selected as the most 
suitable stock for IDDs. An IDD team 
consists of a contractor trained and cer- 
tified dog with a contractor-trained IDD 
handler from the GCE (not a Military Po- 
lice handler). The IDD handler is select- 
ed from the supported unit, this reduces 
or eliminates the training and integration 
requirements that would be necessary if 
the MWD team was sourced externally. 
The IDD is capable of searching all types 
of urban and rural areas, including build- 
ings (occupied, unoccupied or derelict), 
routes, vehicles, and open areas. 



OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

All GCE units deploying in sup- 
port of overseas contingency operations 
(OCO) are provided IDDs. IDDs can 
sniff out explosives much more effective- 
ly than electronic sensors can detect and 
can clear dangerous areas much more 
quickly. They also have the agility and 
mobility necessary to handle the tough 
terrain and conditions encountered dur- 
ing combat operations. IDDs are capable 
of accompanying their handlers on all 
common modes of transportation, with 
minimal logistics support. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The Marine Corps has expanded its 
IDD pool in response to MARCENT re- 
quirements. The IDD program is largely 
the result of the surge in MWD require- 
ments coming from OEF/OIF. There 
are an additional Military Police (MP) 
MWDs assigned to each Marine Expedi- 
tionary Force (MEF). Infantry, Artillery, 
and Combat Engineer Battalions are the 
GCE units with the bulk of the IDDs. 



CHAPTER 3: PR06R \f £ I 287 



I 



GROUND-BASED OPERATIONAL SURVEILLANCE 
SYSTEM (EXPEDITIONARY) (G-BOSS(E)) 



DESCRIPTION 

The G-BOSS(E) is a ground-based 
surveillance system that provides Ma- 
rine Corps forces with 24-hour persistent 
display and tracking of items of interest 
through the use of 360-degree high-reso- 
lution cameras with enhanced target rec- 
ognition, radars, and unattended ground 
sensors. This capability is required to 
provide the commander situational 
awareness, contribute to the Joint Coun- 
ter-Improvised Explosive Device fight, 
track intra-theater insurgent movement 
and activities, and capture and document 
insurgent cross-border activities from 
forward operating bases (FOBs) and 
temporary tactical locations that rely on 
unimproved roads with limited ground 
vehicle support, limited existing infra- 
structure, and little engineering and sys- 
tems support. The system is expedition- 
ary, mobile, lightweight, self-contained, 
easily transportable (HMMWV, MRAP, 
helicopter) and is capable of networking 
with existing theater systems and interop- 
erable with other surveillance systems. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

This will be a MEF-level asset to be 
employed by the lower-echelon units 
based on the assigned mission. The sys- 



tem allows for operation at permanent 
installations, FOBs, combat outposts 
(COPs), and temporary tactical locations 
to observe the perimeter, avenues of ap- 
proach, and/or areas of interest. The 
Heavy variant will be used at larger long- 
term FOBs and COPs for both long-range 
and close-in surveillance to observe areas 
and avenues of potential enemy approach. 
The Medium (light trailer-transportable) 
variant and Light (man-transportable) 
variants will provide company size ma- 
neuver elements with surveillance and 
detection capabilities at smaller, short- 
term tactical locations. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

The G-BOSS system is operational 
within the Marine Corps based on numer- 
ous Urgent Universal Need Statements 
(UUNS); the program office is procuring 
and delivering G-BOSS Tower, G-BOSS 
Lite, and Cerberus Lite systems to theater 
while continuing to move forward on the 
transition to the G-BOSS(E) Acquisition 
Program that will consist of a mix of the 
Heavy, Medium, and Light variants. G- 
BOSS(E) is seeking a Milestone B decision 
in FY201 1 and anticipating Initial Operat- 
ing Capability (IOC) in FY2015 and Full 
Operational Capability (FOC) in FY2019. 



288 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 201 



MISSION ASSURANCE 



I 



Mission Assurance is the ongoing 
process of achieving a state of Force Pro- 
tection that preserves and conserves the 
force's mission essential functions and 
capabilities. Force Protection is attained 
through many inter-dependent programs 
and activities, facilitated and integrated 
for greater effectiveness through the Mis- 
sion Assurance process. Comprehensive, 
integrated protection of key facilities, 
bases, stations, installations, and support- 
ing infrastructure preserves the capability 
to generate, project, and sustain combat 
power essential to execute the National 
Military Strategy. Successful Mission As- 
surance includes: 

• Facilitating collaboration and integra- 
tion across functional areas and pro- 
tection-related programs by providing 
the policies, tools, and mechanisms to 
drive integration; developing increased 
awareness of the interdependencies be- 
tween programs and activities and their 
net effect on overall system capabili- 
ties; and enabling better informed risk- 
based decision making and resourcing 

• Achieving appropriate staffing and 
training levels, along with managerial 
and programmatic efficiencies for com- 
mon protection functions such as risk 
management, readiness reporting, and 
resource allocation 

• Identifying, preserving, and even in- 
creasing those significant operational 
redundancies that are critical to protec- 
tion but might otherwise be mistaken 
for inefficiency 



• Partnering with external stakeholders 
to identify and reduce the risk to as- 
sets, systems, networks, and functions 
on which the Marine Corps is critically 
dependent, but does not own, operate, 
or control 

The Deputy Commandant for Plans, 
Policies, and Operations (DC PP&O) 
serves as the Force Protection Advocate 
for the Marine Corps. In this capacity, DC 
PP&O is responsible for identifying oper- 
ational risks in protection across the force 
and advising the Commandant on priori- 
ties for mitigation and corresponding re- 
source allocation across various ongoing, 
planned, and new Force Protection pro- 
grams and activities. The DC PP&O co- 
ordinates with the Deputy Commandant, 
Installations and Logistics (DC I&L) and 
Deputy Commandant, Combat Develop- 
ment and Integration (DC CD&I) as pri- 
mary partners in managing protection- 
related requirements and processes. 

The Marine Corps is working dili- 
gently to advance mission-essential Force 
Protection requirements in specific ar- 
eas such as Anti- Terrorism (AT); Marine 
Corps Critical Infrastructure Program 
(MCCIP); Continuity of Operations 
(COOP); Chemical, Biological, Radio- 
logical, Nuclear, and High-Yield Explo- 
sive (CBRNE) Preparedness; Pandemic 
Influenza/Infectious Diseases Response; 
Emergency Management; Law Enforce- 
ment (LE); Combating Terrorism (CbT); 
and Force Protection (FP) and the oper- 
ating forces. The desired end state is to 
provide commanders with disaster resil- 
ience against all-hazards threats. 



I 289 




IMIN- 

II win 



PART 12: MARINES 
AND FAMILIES 



■^g^ 




TAKING CARE OF MARINES AND FAMILIES 



I 




As Marines continue to fight with dis- 
tinction, we are keenly aware that the well 
being of our families is inextricably linked 
to the readiness of our Corps. Family 
members support our warfighters, sustain 
and care for their children, and continue 
to be community advocates who help en- 
courage our most fragile families experi- 
encing deployments for the first time. The 
spouses, children and parents of our Ma- 
rines deserve our unwavering support. 

While we recruit Marines, we retain 
families. With more than 49 percent of 
our Marines married, we believe that in- 
vestment in our families is critical to the 
long-term health of our Corps. For our 
active- duty population, we have more 
than 98,000 spouses, 115,000 children, 
and 500 dependent parents and other de- 
pendents. 

The Marine Corps is a young force, 
with an average age of 25 years. Almost half 
of our enlisted force is between the ranks of 
private and lance corporal (pay grades E-l 
to E-3), and almost 70 percent of Marines 
are on their first enlistment. Our personal 
and family readiness planning carefully 
considers these demographics. 



Family readiness is a combat mul- 
tiplier, equally important as individual, 
equipment, and combat readiness. It is 
the ability of the individual Marine and 
their family to successfully balance life, ca- 
reer, and mission events and is supported 
by the enduring partnership between the 
unit's Family Readiness Command Team 
and Marine Corps Community Services 
(MCCS). The quality and availability 
of these programs is critical to the resil- 
iency and readiness of Marines and their 
families. 

We have initiated the development of 
a systematic standardized family readiness 
support system, through the Unit, Per- 
sonal, and Family Readiness Program. It 
is designed to work across functional lines 
to build and sustain the capacity of mili- 
tary families to care for themselves and 
mutually support one another within the 
Marine Corps community. As part of this 
program, we have established full-time, 
primary- duty civilian Family Readiness 
Officers to support commanders at the 
unit level. We have also developed an in- 
ventory of LifeSkills training courses that 
specifically address the challenges of mili- 
tary, personal and family life. 

The Marine Corps has transformed 
the Exceptional Family Member Program 
to ensure that enrolled family members 
are provided a continuum of care. During 
the past year, the number of exceptional 
family members has increased 43 percent, 
due in large part to our program improve- 
ments, building trust and confidence in the 
program, and reducing the stigma associ- 
ated with seeking assistance. The Marine 

CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 291 



Corps has also established School Liaison 
billets at the headquarters, regions, and 
installations. They form strong partner- 
ships with schools and other supporting 
agencies to improve access and availability 
to quality education. 

Additionally, we leverage multiple 
strategies to address child-care require- 
ments through Child Development Cen- 
ters on installations, on- and off-base 
Family Child Care Homes, and coopera- 
tive agreements/partnerships in the com- 
munity. We are developing a master plan 
to validate requirements and to guide our 
future plans and programming actions 
within this important program. 

In addition to these efforts, the Ma- 
rine Corps provides a profile of programs 
designed to develop resiliency and cop- 
ing skills, as well as prevent, identify, and 
holistically treat stress problems caused 
by combat or other operations. We un- 
derstand that protecting and strengthen- 
ing the health and well being of Marines 
and their families requires an integrated, 
broad-based effort by the entire Marine 
Corps community. When leaders at all 
levels adopt a proactive, public-health 
approach and partner with health care 
professionals, educators, and law-enforce- 
ment agencies, high-risk populations can 
be identified. Focusing prevention efforts 
on those at risk can reduce the potential 
for incidents to occur, better allocate lim- 
ited resources, and improve resiliency in 
Marines and their families. The Marine 
Corps is restructuring behavioral health 
as an integrated program involving Sui- 
cide Prevention, Combat and Operational 



Stress Control (COSC), Sexual Assault 
Prevention and Response, Substance 
Abuse, and Family Advocacy. We have 
also broadened the scope of our Executive 
Force Preservation Board to focus on all 
behavioral health concerns. 

The Marine Corps is creating new, 
dynamic Suicide Prevention training 
programs that are targeted toward non- 
commissioned officers, staff-non-com- 
missioned officers, commissioned officers, 
and family members. We have also estab- 
lished COSC and Operational Stress Con- 
trol and Readiness (OSCAR) training as a 
primary prevention tool to help Marines 



k -^» 




identify and mitigate early signs of stress 
and to encourage them to seek help within 
the unit setting. Senior and junior Marines 
are being trained to function as OSCAR 
Mentors. They actively engage Marines 
who evidence stress reactions, liaison with 
OSCAR Extenders (i.e., existing medical 
providers, corpsmen, chaplains, and reli- 
gious program specialists), and advocate 
for fellow Marines regarding stress prob- 
lems. The Marine Corps is also develop- 
ing a pilot DSTRESS Line with TRICARE 



292 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



I 



to provide Marines, family members, and 
significant others with information, refer- 
ral services and access to behavioral health 
care (pilot program currently available in 
TRICARE region West only). 

To contribute to the readiness, resil- 
iency, and retention goals of the Corps, the 
Semper Fit and Community Support Pro- 
gram is being redesigned and improved. 
We are beginning a multi-year program 
enhancement plan beginning with the 
restructure of the Headquarters Marine 
Corps program office. Enhancements 
include expanding recreation program- 
ming, combat conditioning/functional 
fitness for combat readiness, therapeu- 
tic recreation for wounded warriors and 
Exceptional Family Members, and sports 
programs that contribute to the physical 
training needs of a unit. 

As a further example of the Marine 
Corps' commitment to taking care of our 
Marines and their families, Marine Corps 
leadership has affirmed that we must ag- 
gressively support the professional and 
personal development pursuits of every 
Marine. During the past year we have 
conducted extensive program reviews 
and are taking action to restructure and 



integrate several programs to better serve 
Marines, regardless of their career inten- 
tions. These programs include Voluntary 
Education, Transition Assistance, Family 
Member Employment Assistance, and the 
Personal Financial Management Program. 
This integrated program delivery will pro- 
vide "one-stop shopping" and help Ma- 
rines establish their personal and profes- 
sional roadmaps, not only to be successful 
in the Corps, but also during and after 
their transition to civilian life. 

Marines and their families are the 
Marine Corps' most precious assets, and 
therefore improving quality of life and 
"taking care of our own" will remain 
one of our highest Marine Corps priori- 
ties. We will continue to support efforts 
to identify and resolve gaps in program- 
ming, dissolve overlapping or duplicative 
efforts, and leverage opportunities to de- 
velop partnerships and share resources. 
The Marine Corps remains committed to 
shaping and sustaining these vital qual- 
ity of life services to meet the needs of 
Marines and families, especially during a 
time of war and constrained fiscal envi- 
ronment. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGR I 293 



QUALITY OF LIFE (QOL) 



■»**-« % 

Our Nation is at war — a war that 
demands that the Marine Corps evaluate 
the support systems necessary to mitigate 
the stress on our force and families and to 
improve their quality of life. The Marine 
Corps is committed to providing Marines 
and their families with a comprehen- 
sive and effective quality of life support 
system. 

To ensure the best possible support 
to families, the Marine Corps conducts 



surveys, program assessments, and town- 
hall meetings to identify gaps in the sup- 
port network and develop plans for their 
remediation. Additionally, the Marine 
Corps is working to close critical gaps in 
program delivery by assessing the needs of 
Marines and families — to include those 
serving in remote and independent duty 
assignments — and conducting efficien- 
cy and program prioritization reviews to 
ensure we are optimizing resources. We 
also leverage support from local, state, 
and federal agencies and partner with the 
Office of the Secretary of Defense and our 
Sister Services to improve support capa- 
bilities. This is an important part of our 
planning and ability to deliver adequate 
services, regardless of duty station or as- 
signment. 



294 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



MANPOWER RECRUITING 



I 




FY 2010 was an extremely productive 
year for the Marines of the Marine Corps 
Recruiting Command (MCRC) as they 
transitioned from a posture of growth of 
forces to one of stabilization. The Marine 
Corps reached its end strength, as defined 
by federal law, of 202,100 in FY 2009. 
During FY 2010, MCRC shifted focus of 
the Marine Corps' recruiting missions in 
order to solidify the size of the Marine 
Corps and lay the foundations for the 
future. MCRC has continued its highest- 
quality standards, recruiting an excep- 
tional pool of America's finest for recruit 
training. Our mission was achieved un- 
der the continued challenge of recruiting 
during wartime, testing the ability and 
professionalism of our recruiting force. 
The Marines of Marine Corps Recruiting 



Command once again far surpassed their 
mission requirements and exceeded all 
quality and quantity benchmarks. 

Recruiting remains the lifeblood of 
our Corps. The ability of the Marine 
Corps Recruiting Command not only to 
meet, but exceed the quality standards set 
forth by the Commandant of the Marine 
Corps serves as a testament to the profes- 
sionalism and dedication of our recruit- 
ing force. It is the individual Marine re- 
cruiter who, tasked with ensuring that all 
applicants meet the Nation's expectations 
of its Marines, serves as the gatekeeper to 
our Corps. Thanks to their efforts, our 
Corps has not wavered in accessing only 
the most qualified applicants. In addi- 
tion to recruiting our Nation's best and 
brightest to become Marines, the indi- 
vidual recruiter continues to serve as an 
ambassador in local communities and 
to the American public. Recruiters put 
a familiar face to the nationally recog- 
nized reputation of the Marine Corps and 
stand as examples of all that is best about 
our Nation and its Corps. The individual 
recruiter serves as the most influential 
factor inspiring applicants to take up the 
challenge of serving as United States Ma- 
rines, who once transformed, will be Ma- 
rines for life. 

Selection to recruiting duty is a unique 
and highly discerning process. Those 
considered for assignment as recruiters 
must first undergo extensive screening at 
their home station and are continuously 
evaluated for their suitability during their 
time at Recruiters School. They are repre- 
sentatives of the best non-commissioned 

CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 295 



officers and staff non-commissioned offi- 
cers the Marine Corps has to offer. Inten- 
sive training at Recruiters School ensures 
that recruiters are thoroughly prepared to 
face the multi-faceted challenges that lay 
ahead. Their training is continuously re- 
inforced and built upon throughout their 
recruiting tour, ensuring that the recruit- 
er remains armed with the most current 
and effective tools to facilitate his or her 
success. 

Even before a prospective applicant 
meets with a recruiter in person, it is 
likely that he or she will have been ex- 
posed to the Marine Corps' message of 
making Marines, winning our Nation's 
battles, and developing quality citizens. 
This is not by accident; it is accomplished 
through comprehensive and intensely 
focused marketing and advertising pro- 
grams. These programs serve to reinforce 
the elite warrior image and positive mes- 
sage that is communicated daily by the 
individual recruiter and is supported by 
the recruiter's collateral materials. To ef- 
fectively maintain this message, market- 
ing and advertising programs continue to 
emphasize core competencies of building 
brand awareness, generating quality leads 
for recruiters, and developing recruiter 
support material for use in the recruiting 
process. High-quality advertising efforts 
properly focused on the target markets of 
prospective recruits and their influencers 
create and maintain awareness of Marine 
Corps opportunities among America's 
young men and women and those who 
influence their decisions. 




Paid advertising continues to be the 
most effective means to communicate 
our message and, as a result, remains the 
focus of our advertising efforts. As adver- 
tising costs continue to increase, it is im- 
perative that our advertising budgets re- 
main competitive in order to ensure that 
our recruiting message reaches the right 
audience. This is especially true as we 
move forward into FY 2011 and beyond, 
as the strength of our recruiting force is 
reduced and Marines are returned to the 
operating forces. Marine Corps recruit- 
ing successes during the past several years 
are a direct reflection of the superior ef- 
forts of a quality recruiting force and the 
supporting arms of effective marketing 
and advertising programs. 



296 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



I 



The Marine Corps Recruiting Com- 
mand achieved unprecedented success in 
FY 2010 by making 100.1 percent of our 
enlisted shipping objectives to include 
exceeding all Department of Defense and 
Marine Corps quality standards. For ex- 
ample, 99.7 percent of those shipped to 
recruit training were Tier 1 high school 
graduates, above the DoD and Marine 
Corps standards of 90 and 95 percent, 
respectively. Additionally, 72.8 percent 
were in the I-IIIA upper mental group 
— again, well above the DoD and Marine 
Corps standards of 60 percent and 63 
percent, respectively. The Marine Corps 
Reserve achieved 100.0 percent of its re- 
cruiting goals with the accession of 5,868 
Non-Prior Service Marines. Of these, 99.7 
percent were Tier I high school graduates 
and 74.6 percent were in the I-IIIA men- 
tal groups. In addition, the Marine Corps 
recruiting command accessed 4,209 Prior 
Service Marines into the Marine Corps 
Reserves, achieving 100 percent of the 
objective. 

Success was also achieved by obtain- 
ing 100.2 percent of the officer mission. 
The U.S. Naval Academy and Naval Re- 
serve Officer Training Corps are con- 
tributing an appropriate percent to meet 
the overall annual officer requirement. 
In doing so, our Officer Selection Teams 
are now able to focus on the college cam- 
pus market for contracting future officers 



through the Platoon Leaders Class Pro- 
gram. This will ensure that the quality 
of our future Officer Corps is maintained 
well into the future. 

In all recruiting efforts, diversity in 
the enlisted and officer ranks remains an 
important priority for the Marine Corps 
Recruiting Command. Increased aware- 
ness in underrepresented markets will 
remain a key aspect of our marketing and 
advertising campaigns. This will be aug- 
mented by our enhanced outreach efforts, 
as we strive to have a physical presence at 
key events interacting with prospective 
applicants and their influencers. This in- 
creased focus on diversity must continue 
as we work to better mirror the diversity 
of our country. 

The superior results achieved by the 
Marine Corps Recruiting Command dur- 
ing FY 2010 ensured that the command 
continued its legacy of success. Marine 
Corps Recruiting Command recognizes 
that during FY 2011 and beyond there 
will be new challenges, both expected, 
and unexpected; however, the command 
is well positioned for continued success. 
The Marines of Marine Corps Recruiting 
Command will move into the next fiscal 
year with the same level of intensity as 
they generated in the past. This inten- 
sity was a key to our past success and is a 
foundation for our future prosperity. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 297 



MARINE CORPS RECRUITING INFORMATION SUPPORT SYSTEM 
(MCRISS) - RECRUITING SUB-STATION (MCRISS-RSS), OFFICER 
SELECTION SYSTEM (MCRISS-OSS) AND PRIOR SERVICE 
RECRUITING (MCRISS-PSR) 



DESCRIPTION 

The deployment of the Marine Corps 
Recruiting Information Support Sys- 
tem - Recruiting Station (MCRISS-RS) 
streamlines the entire enlistment process 
and provides immediate benefits in man- 
hour savings by eliminating redundant 
data entry and improving the quality of 
information available. Moreover, the sys- 
tem directly interfaces with and supports 
key information technology initiatives 
from the U.S. Military Entrance Process- 
ing Command by electronically schedul- 
ing applicants for processing and receives 
electronic processing results. MCRISS- 
RS interfaces with the Office of Person- 
nel Management to ensure security back- 
ground checks are fully completed on 
each applicant. MCRISS-RS harnesses 
state-of-the-art technology and provides 
the Marine Corps Recruiting Command 
with a solid foundation from which to 
grow future manpower information sys- 
tems such as MCRISS-Recruiting Sub- 
Station (RSS) and MCRISS-Officer Selec- 
tion System (OSS). 

The development and deployment of 
MCRISS-RSS/OSS promises to automate 
both the officer and enlisted side of re- 
cruiting at the recruiter/officer selection 
officer (OSO) level by organizing every 
effort and providing the proven frame- 
work of systematic recruiting. System- 
atic recruiting establishes procedures for 
standardization, management/planning, 
training, and action by focusing the OSO, 
RSS SNCOIC and recruiter on those ac- 
tivities and programs vital to effective 
recruiting. MCRISS-RSS will encompass 



all eleven components of enlisted system- 
atic recruiting while MCRISS-OSS will 
encompass the fourteen components of 
officer systematic recruiting. This effort 
will further eliminate redundant data 
entry and save the most valuable asset: 
time. 

OPERATIONAL IMPACT 

Time is the officer or enlisted recruit- 
er's greatest challenge and most precious 
asset. A recruiter's achievement and suc- 
cess is measured only by the number of 
qualified quality individuals interviewed, 
contracted, and shipped to recruit training 
or Officer Candidate School. MCRISS- 
RSS/OSS, coupled with solid skills, will 
systematically organize the recruiter's 
day, week, and month, thereby saving 
time and making the demanding task of 
"mission accomplishment" more efficient 
and effective. With added organization, 
the recruiter will be armed to conduct 
prospecting in an efficient manner, thus 
saving time and ensuring consistency in 
the execution of prospecting plans. 

PROGRAM STATUS 

Procurement Profile: FY 201 1 efforts 
will deploy MCRISS-RSS and MCRISS- 
PSR, which is the Prior Service Recruit- 
ing (PSR) tool to prospect for former 
Marines to fill the ranks of the Marine 
Corps Reserve. 

Developer/Manufacturer: 
Stanley Associates, Arlington, VA 



298 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



MARINE CORPS RETENTION 



I 




ENLISTED PERSONNEL 

Enlisted retention achievements con- 
tribute to the Marine Corps' success in 
reaching key end-strength milestones and 
ensuring the proper grade shape and ex- 
perience in the enlisted career force. The 
Marine Corps continues to retain both 
first-term and subsequent-term enlisted 
Marines at unprecedented levels in order 
to shape the Non-Commissioned Officer 
and Staff Non-Commissioned Officer 
leadership required for a 202,100 active 
component end strength. Our reten- 
tion efforts match the required skills and 
grades necessary for a 1:2 deployment-to- 
dwell time ratio. In FY 2010, we achieved 
our desired end strength and enforced 
strict first-term boat-space caps. Achiev- 



ing mission seven months into the fiscal 
year, we achieved an unprecedented 99.6 
percent military occupational specialty 
match, which ensures proper grade shap- 
ing for the future career force. Retention 
goals will remain aggressive as the Marine 
Corps continues to shape the enlisted 
career force. The Selective Reenlistment 
Bonus Program (SRBP) clearly aided re- 
enlistment endeavors and improved re- 
tention for some critical skill shortages. 
The creation of new operational units 
has led to shortages in many occupa- 
tional specialties that span the Marine Air 
Ground Task Force, such as intelligence, 
explosive ordnance disposal, reconnais- 
sance, and artillery, thereby justifying 
SRBP funding levels. 

Although the SRBP greatly assists 
with this retention success, intangible at- 
tributes such as pride of service and the 
satisfaction of leadership remain signifi- 
cant influences on retention. All lead- 
ers within the officer and enlisted ranks 
must ensure Marines are educated on the 
importance of retention and on evolving 
retention policies and incentives. Leaders 
must emphasize the intangibles of service 
to aid quality Marines in their individual 
reenlistment decisions. 

Marine Corps retention efforts are 
enhanced by the 432 career planners who 
specialize and assist commanders in the 
retention of Marines. Also supporting 
retention efforts is the Enlisted Career 
Counseling and Performance Evaluation 
Unit resident in the Enlisted Assignments 
Branch at Headquarters Marine Corps. 
The Marines in this unit provide career 

CHAPTER 3: PROG I 299 



guidance to enlisted career Marines, per- 
formance evaluations on retention and 
retirement requests, and informational 
briefs to commands throughout the 
Marine Corps. The unit also provides 
formal instruction on promotion and 
career progression to all academies, the 
Sergeants Course, Career Course, Ad- 
vanced Course, and Infantry Unit Lead- 
ers Course. It conducts command visits 
at home and abroad, reaching more than 
150,000 personnel per year. 

OFFICERS 

The Marine Corps officer retention 
goal is to retain the best and most fully 
qualified officers in the right grades and 
with the right skills to provide the capa- 
bilities required in the operating forces. 
Historically, the aggregate officer re- 
tention rate has been 90.5 percent. For 
FY 2010 we achieved a retention rate of 



93.6 percent. Regardless of this great 
success, the Marine Corps continues to 
look for indicators of higher attrition in 
future years. 

Although overall officer retention 
is excellent, shortages do exist in cer- 
tain grades and skills, requiring careful 
management and innovative solutions. 
To this end, the Marine Corps has active 
programs in place, both monetary and 
non-monetary, to ensure officer retention 
remains high. Monetary tools already 
implemented include Aviation Continu- 
ation Pay and Law School Education 
Debt Subsidy. Non-monetary programs 
include voluntary lateral moves, inter- 
service transfers to the Marine Corps, and 
Return to Active Duty. All of these pro- 
grams provide incentives to officers for 
continued service while retaining Marine 
Corps flexibility to meet requirements 
across the Marine Corps Total Force. 



300 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



CIVILIAN MARINES 




Civilian Marines are valuable assets 
to our Total Force team. Marines at all 
ranks recognize, more than ever before, 
the importance of our Civilian Marines 
who provide critical support in numer- 
ous areas throughout the Corps. Having 
grown in force by more than 5,000 in re- 
cent years, Civilian Marines currently to- 
tal approximately 25,000. 

Civilian Marines are taking on more 
challenging and diverse roles. Serving 
primarily as a major element of the sup- 
porting establishment, Civilian Marines 
are now called upon to serve in positions 
traditionally occupied by military per- 
sonnel and deploy along with our opera- 
tional forces. 

The Marine Corps is focused on en- 
suring we have a Civilian Marine work- 
force equipped with the leadership skills 
and technical competencies necessary 
to meet the challenges of today as well 
as in the future. Flexibilities in how we 
manage and reward our Civilian Marines 
also play a key role in helping the Marine 
Corps meet its mission. 

CIVILIAN WORKFORCE 
DEVELOPMENT 

The Marine Corps is committed to 
improving the leadership skills and op- 



portunities for training and education 
for Civilian Marines. Civilian Marines 
are afforded the opportunity to advance 
their career development through cen- 
trally managed programs administered 
through the Training and Education 
Command. Opportunities exist for both 
new/entry level and senior/expert level 
employees to participate in numerous 
programs, courses, and seminars. For 
example, the Marine Corps Accultura- 
tion Program provides Civilian Marines 
with the opportunity to understand their 
role(s) in supporting the mission of the 
Marine Corps. They learn about Marine 
Corps culture and history as well as the 
strategic mission of local commands. 

The Civilian Marine Mentoring Pro- 
gram enhances the Corps' ability to trans- 
form our civilian workforce into a high- 
performance culture providing a skilled, 
capable workforce to face the challenges 
of the future. Mentoring is supported 
through leadership development as a 
technical professional development ini- 
tiative. 

The Civilian Workforce Develop- 
ment Application (CWDA) assists the 
Marine Corps in managing civilian work- 
force development activities. CWDA is a 
web application that contains data related 
to leadership and functional core compe- 
tencies of the Communities of Interest. 
The long-term vision for CWDA is that it 
will facilitate organizational management 
and workforce shaping. 

COMMUNITY MANAGEMENT 

Communities of Interest (COIs) pro- 
vide enterprise-wide communications, 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 301 



collect and share best practices, focus on 
technical aspects and training needs, and 
ensure competencies and career paths 
are developed for the community. In the 
Marine Corps, there are twenty commu- 
nities that encompass more than 350 job 
series. COIs are led by senior civilians 
of the community, typically members of 
the Senior Executive Service. They are re- 
sponsible for establishing the community 
vision and plan and serve as advocates for 
Civilian Marines who work in the job se- 
ries within their COL 

STRATEGIC WORKFORCE 
ASSESSMENT AND PLANNING 

. Across the Nation, Federal agencies 
and the private sector alike are experienc- 
ing the impacts of an aging workforce as 
greater numbers of employees retire. The 
shape and size of the civilian workforce is 
often challenged by developing technol- 
ogy and funding constraints. The Marine 
Corps has begun a new initiative to adapt 
to these changes called Strategic Work- 
force Assessment and Planning (SWAP). 
SWAP aims to understand trends and up- 
coming changes in the civilian workforce 
through demographic analysis, pinpoint- 
ing the areas which will be most affected 
by these trends and implementing new 
policies to improve programs and plan- 
ning. Findings from SWAP analyses aid in 
employee recruitment by identifying cur- 
rent and upcoming skill gaps and develop- 
ing targeted recruitment programs to fill 
these gaps. Data collected through SWAP 
also helps the Marine Corps assess the ex- 
perience level and expertise of its existing 
workforce, ensuring that civilian work- 



force development can implement human 
capital management programs for em- 
ployee development that are in line with 
the workforce's current and future needs. 
In addition, SWAP aims to formulate goals 
and objectives that will make the Civilian 
Marine hiring process more efficient. 

A Human Capital Management As- 
sessment is published annually to illus- 
trate the results of SWAP analyses and 
their impact on the Marine Corps, and 
to ensure that the civilian workforce is 
aligned with the Marine Corps mission 
now and in the future. 

LABOR RELATIONS 

The Marine Corps maintains rela- 
tions with nine Federal unions represent- 
ing 17,000 Civilian Marines throughout 
the Marine Corps. Federal unions have a 
representative role established by statute 
and are kept informed of programs and 
changes that will impact employees. To 
enhance morale and productivity, limit 
job turnover, and help organizations in- 
crease performance and improve business 
results, the Marine Corps has negotiated 
contracts with local labor organizations 
at various installations. These are in ad- 
dition to the Master Labor Agreement 
with the American Federation of Govern- 
ment Employees, the largest labor orga- 
nization representing appropriated fund 
and non-appropriated fund employees 
throughout the Marine Corps. The key 
function of labor relations is to develop 
strategies for effective communication 
and investigating and establishing work/ 
life balance initiatives to create a more 
positive workplace environment. 



302 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



MARINE CORPS RESERVE 



I 



Reserve Marines understand the 
need to protect the American way of life. 
Dedicated men and women continue to 
volunteer to serve their country in the 
Marine Corps Reserve and share the sac- 
rifices made by the Total Force in today's 
conflicts. The Marine Corps Reserve fills 
critical requirements in support of over- 
seas contingency operations, operations 
and non-contingency Combatant Com- 
mander requirements. At home, Marine 
Forces Reserve maintains Reserve Marines 
and assets pre-positioned throughout the 
country that are ready to assist not only 
national defense missions, but also civil- 
military missions such as providing disas- 
ter relief. 

Despite the current high operational 
tempo, the Marine Corps Reserve con- 
tinues to meet its recruitment objectives. 
New Marines are accessed into the Marine 
Corps Reserve at a rate of 20 to 25 percent 
of the Selected Reserve's end strength 
per year, enabling continued capabil- 
ity to augment and reinforce the Active 
Component. The Marine Corps Reserve 



has implemented the Officer Candidate 
Course - Reserve (OCC-R) in order to 
increase the number of company grade 
officers serving with the reserve compo- 
nent. This program will enable the Ma- 
rine Corps Reserve to meet the Defense 
Planning and Programming Guidance 
and increase manning levels to a mini- 
mum 95 percent level for these billets. 

The Marine Corps Reserve is a full 
partner of the Marine Corps' Total Force. 
Reserve Marines continue to prove their 
dedication to their country and fellow 
citizens. Their honor, courage, and com- 
mitment to warfighting excellence while 
maintaining close ties to their commu- 
nity truly set them apart as "citizen sol- 
diers." They recognize that they have a 
crucial mission and the American people 
expect the most from them while con- 
tinuing to support them. Marine Forces 
Reserve, with its well-equipped, well-led, 
and well-trained professional men and 
women, will continue to be an integral 
part of the Marine Corps. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRA • I 303 



WOUNDED WARRIOR REGIMENT (WWR) 



Established in 2007, the Marine Corps' 
Wounded Warrior Regiment (WWR) 
provides and facilitates non-medical care 
to combat and non-combat wounded, ill, 
and injured (WII) Marines, and Sailors 
attached to or in direct support of Ma- 
rine units, and their family members in 
order to assist them as they return to duty 
or transition to civilian life. The Regi- 
mental Headquarters element, located in 
Quantico, VA, commands the operations 
of two Wounded Warrior Battalions lo- 
cated at Camp Pendleton, CA, and Camp 
Lejeune, NC, and multiple detachments 
in locations around the globe. 

In just a few years, the WWR has 
quickly become a proven unit providing 
WII Marines, their families, and care- 
givers support to help them through the 
processes of recovery and transition. The 
Marine Corps care model is unique in 
that its approach is to ensure recovering 
Marines return to their units as quickly 
as their medical conditions will allow. Al- 
lowing Marines to "stay in the fight" is 
what makes the Marine Corps care model 
successful. 

Whether a WII Marine is assigned 
to the WWR (or one of its subordinate 
elements) or remains with their parent 
command, each one requires varying 
levels of support and care, depending on 
their stage of recovery. There is no "one 
size fits all" response to warrior care. The 
WWR has evolved its structure to ensure 
that WII Marines and families receive in- 
dividualized care, proportionate to their 
existing needs. The Regiment achieves 
this individualized care by synergizing 



its diverse assets and external assets (e.g., 
federal agencies and private organiza- 
tions) around the essential point of focus: 
the mind, body, spirit, and family of the 
WII Marine. Primary WWR assets and 
support include: 

• Marine leaders: Leaders play a key role 
in motivating their Marines to stay fo- 
cused on their abilities to optimize their 
recovery and return to full duty or to 
successfully reintegrate into their civil- 
ian communities. The WWR ensures 
leaders have the tools and information 
they need to help their Marines make 
informed decisions. 

• Recovery Care Coordinators (RCCs): 
RCCs serve as the WII Marine's ulti- 
mate point of contact to help them 
define and meet their individual goals 
for recovery, rehabilitation, and rein- 
tegration, and to identify the services 
and resources needed to achieve these 
goals. RCCs regularly meet with mem- 
bers of their Marines' recovery teams to 
improve care delivery and ensure goals 
stay on track. 

• Medical Section: The WWR headquar- 
ters has a Medical Section that advises 
the Commanding Officer regarding 
medical issues and emerging technolo- 
gies and treatments impacting WII 
Marines. The section includes a Regi- 
mental Surgeon, Mental Health Advi- 
sor, Nurse Case Manager, Psychological 
Health Program Coordinator, Traumat- 
ic Brain Injury Program Coordinator, 
and Licensed Clinical Consultants. To- 
gether, this team works with public and 
private medical providers to ensure the 



304 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



I 



best care for WII Marines, particularly 
in the areas of post-traumatic stress and 
traumatic brain injury. 
Warrior Athlete Reconditioning Pro- 
gram: Under this program (which is 
mandatory for all Marines joined to the 
WWR, but tailored to accommodate 
their medical limitations), Marines en- 
gage in both physical and cognitive ac- 
tivities outside the traditional therapy 
setting. Activities are individualized to 
the WII Marines' needs, and encompass 
more than 18 areas, from aquatic train- 
ing to yoga. Both in individual or team 
settings, the program greatly improves 
WII Marines' overall physical and men- 
tal fitness. 

Charitable Giving Office: This office 
coordinates the reception and distribu- 
tion of donations and invitations. It 
helps WII Marines, Marine veterans, 
and their families who may be strug- 
gling to meet their financial obligations 
or who would benefit from an enter- 
tainment or educational opportunity. 
Chaplain Services: The mission of the 
WWR Chaplain is to provide spiritual 
and emotional care to WII Marines, 
their families, and staff. The WWR has 
chaplains located at the Regiment, its 
Battalions, and Landstuhl, Germany. 
Job Transition Cell: To enhance com- 
munity reintegration for WII Marines 
who will not return to duty, the WWR's 
Job Transition Cell (manned by Marines 
and representatives of the Departments 
of Labor and Veterans Affairs) proac- 
tively reaches out to identify employers 
and job training programs to help them 



obtain positions where they are most 
likely to succeed and enjoy promising 
careers. 

• Sergeant Merlin German Wounded 
Warrior Call Center: The Call Center, 
dedicated to a fallen Marine who was 
severely injured in a roadside blast in 
Iraq in February 2005, is a 24/7 opera- 
tion that receives calls for assistance and 
also conducts outreach calls to Marines 
and Marine veterans to determine if 
their needs are being met, offer assis- 
tance, and follow-on monitoring to en- 
sure issue resolution. The Call Center's 
toll-free number is 1-877-487-6299. 

• District Injured Support Cells (DISCs): 
DISCs are mobilized Reserve Marines 
who are located throughout the coun- 
try to conduct face-to-face visits and 
telephone outreach to WII Marines and 
their families who are recovering within 
their assigned region. 

• Family Support Staff: The WWR's 
Family Support Staff includes Family 
Readiness Officers and Family Support 
Coordinators who provide care to the 
families of WII Marines throughout 
multiple phases of recovery and in geo- 
graphically dispersed locations. 

• Integrated Disability Evaluation Sys- 
tem (IDES) Support: The WWR has 
Regional Limited Duty Coordinators 
who help Marines processing through 
the IDES and Wounded Warrior Attor- 
neys who advise and support WII Ma- 
rines through this process. 

The WWR and its strategically placed 
assets have contacted or provided support 
to nearly 25,000 Marines through 2010. 

CHAPTER 3: PR0GR I 305 




y 






EXPEDITIONARY ENERGY 



I 




On 1 October 2009 the Marine Corps 
reorganized its headquarters staff and cre- 
ated the Expeditionary Energy Office as 
directed by the Commandant of the Ma- 
rine Corps at the USMC Energy Summit, 
held in Washington, D.C. on 13 August 
2009. The Commandant charged the Ex- 
peditionary Energy Office with the mis- 
sion to "analyze, develop, and direct the 
Marine Corps' energy strategy in order to 
optimize expeditionary capabilities across 
all warfighting functions." Scheduled for 
release in early 2011, the USMC Expedi- 
tionary Energy Strategy is the framework 
that communicates the Commandant's 
vision, mission, goals and objectives for 
expeditionary and installation energy. 
The strategy also serves as the foundation 
for energy investments and management 
across the Marine Corps from "Bases to 
Battlefield." Those energy investments 



can be sorted in three primary areas: ex- 
peditionary energy; facilities energy; and 
garrison mobile equipment. 

Seventy percent of Marine Corps lo- 
gistics movement on the battlefield in Af- 
ghanistan is for fuel and water; each day 
our forces consume more than 200,000 
gallons of fuel. Our demand for battle- 
field energy has increased exponentially 
in the last ten years and is rising. The 
total Marine Corps operational petro- 
leum use in 2009 was approximately 5.2 
million barrels, or some 16 percent of the 
Department of the Navy total. Ninety- 
four percent of what we use is for opera- 
tional purposes. 

This demand for battlefield energy 
increases risk and constrains our opera- 
tions. It also costs lives: six Marines were 
wounded during a three-month period 
in 2010 while supporting 299 fuel/water 
convoys. That is one wounded per every 
50 fuel and water convoys. 

The 35th Commandant's Planning 
Guidance directed the Marine Corps to 
transform the way we use energy. The 
priority is to save lives by reducing the 
number of Marines at risk on the road 
hauling fuel and water. Our objective is 
to allow Marines to travel lighter — with 
less — and move faster through the re- 
duction in size and amount of equipment 
and the dependence on bulk supplies. 

In late 2009, in response to CMC di- 
rection, we established the Experimental 
Forward Operating Base, or "ExFOB," 
to identify and evaluate new capabilities 
to make combat units more energy self- 
sufficient in today's fight and in the fu- 
ture. In less than a year's time, we sourced 
commercial and Marine program tech- 

CHAPTER 3: PR0GR I 307 



nologies, trained an Infantry Company 
with renewable energy technology, and 
deployed them to Afghanistan in the 
Winter 2010. 

In early 2011, we issued a compre- 
hensive Expeditionary Energy Strategy 
and Implementation Planning Guidance, 
which set goals, performance metrics, and 
a plan for implementation out to 2025. 
The strategy serves as the foundation for 
energy investments and management 
across the Marine Corps, from "Bases to 
Battlefield." 

Also in early 2011, we took a critical 
step to institutionalize the energy strat- 
egy by establishing formal requirements 
via the Expeditionary Energy, Water, and 
Waste Initial Capabilities Document to 
drive our investments in equipment, 
training, and manning. These require- 
ments aim to reduce energy demand in 
our platforms and systems, increase the 
use of renewable energy, and build an 
ethos around energy efficiency in the 
Corps. 

The Marine Corps is driving energy 
performance requirements into its ongo- 
ing procurement activities and is initiat- 
ing programs to upgrade its current sys- 
tems. It is prominently including energy 
concerns into its priorities for Science 
and Technology (S&T) and Research and 
Development (R&D), and actively pur- 
suing emergent technologies to meet its 
needs. 

Initial investments in current pro- 
grams and new areas put us on track to 
achieve our energy-efficiency goals for 
2025. These include: 



• Implementing mobile electric power 
sources to achieve 17 percent fuel effi- 
ciency improvement, beginning in 2010 
(Army funded development/Marine 
Corps funded procurement) 

• Fielding Enhanced Efficiency Envi- 
ronmental Control Units (E3CU) to 
achieve 15-30 percent power efficiency 
improvement. This next-generation 
family of ECUs will begin entering 
service in 2014 

• Implementing deployable renewable 
energy alternative modules and ground 
renewable expeditionary energy sys- 
tems (SPACES and GREENS and On- 
Board Vehicle Power) 

• Implementing improved environmen- 
tal control units in vehicles and trailers 
(e.g., MRAPs/LAVs) 

• Developing hybridization and other 
fuel economy improvement ECPs for 
MTVRs to reduce the total ownership 
cost. 

Additional efforts to drive energy ef- 
ficient, combat capability development 
include: 

• Urgent Statement of Needs (USONs) 
for Energy-Efficient Lighting for Expe- 
ditionary Shelter System 

• USONs for Expeditionary Shelter Sys- 
tem Energy-Efficient Insulating Liner 

• Office of Research and Development 
change for Family of Tactical Soft Wall 
Shelters 

• Energy Efficiency Key Performance 
Parameter (KPP) to be included in 
Ground-Based Optical Surveillance 
System (Expeditionary) (G-BOSS(E)) 
Capability Development Document. 



308 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



I 



The Marine Corps will be the leader 
in expeditionary energy capabilities for 
the U.S. military. Current S&T invest- 
ments, via ONR and MCWL, to drive 
future capabilities including: 

• Improved power density in battery, 
chargers, and power adaptors for highly 
mobile forces 

• Advanced integrated solutions for elec- 
trical power generation and distribution 

• Lightweight Power Systems for Dis- 
mounted Marine Squad Applications 



Increase energy harvest from the sun in 
a small light weight package that can be 
deploy from the sea and handle the rig- 
ors of an expeditionary environment 
Improved fuel efficiency of vehicles and 
aircraft 

Improved training and education that 
includes energy and resource efficiency 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 309 



INSTALLATIONS ENERGY 




The Marine Corps recognizes the 
operational imperative to address energy 
strategy at all levels of leadership and in 
all theaters of operation, from our "Bases 
to the Battlefields" Critical to the suc- 
cess of this imperative is a shared "ethos" 
within our force that efficient use of vital 
resources increases our combat effective- 
ness. We must educate and inform every- 
one who lives, trains, and works on our 
installations — the energy users — about 
their daily impact on the energy foot- 
print and then provide them with the 
tools to manage and improve their energy 
and water use. Awareness starts with an 
understanding of the value of energy, at 
home and to the mission, and then ends 
with accountability. 

The Marine Corps energy strategy 
as it applies to installations is based on 
the Commandant's Facilities Energy and 
Water Management Program Campaign 
Plan ("Ten by Ten"). These goals, devel- 
oped as a proactive response to increasing 
federal energy and water mandates, set 
the Marine Corps on the path toward ef- 
ficient and judicious use of resources. The 
Commandant's intent for this over-arch- 
ing effort is to: (1) ensure a secure and 
reliable energy and water supply to sup- 
port the operating forces and their fami- 



lies through the efficient management of 
energy and water facilities infrastructure; 
(2) achieve energy and water-efficiency 
goals mandated by the President and 
Congress to support national efforts to 
lower greenhouse gas emissions, reduce 
the Nation's dependence on foreign oil, 
and promote conservation of water sup- 
plies; and (3) reduce life-cycle operating 
costs of Marine Corps facilities and man- 
age future commodity price volatility. 

The USMC Expeditionary Energy 
Strategy expands on the "Ten by Ten," 
incorporates commercial vehicle energy 
usage, and provides the additional guid- 
ance and -the specific actions required to 
implement the strategy. There are five 
key enabling concepts to strategy imple- 
mentation: awareness and accountability; 
measuring and improving performance; 
energy efficiency as a component of plan- 
ning; proactive employment of new tech- 
nologies; and energy security and envi- 
ronmental stewardship. 

GARRISON MOBILE 
EQUIPMENT (GME) 

GME is a centrally managed program 
of off-the-shelf, commercially available 
equipment that focuses on supporting in- 
stallations transportation requirements. 



310 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



I 



These assets are used to perform ground 
transportation, fire fighting (buildings/ 
grounds and aircraft), rescue functions, 
construction, material handling and 
maintenance functions at Marine Corps 
installations. The fleet includes more than 
14,000 sedans, station wagons, buses, gen- 
eral-purpose heavy and light trucks, fire 
and refuse collection trucks and tractors, 
engineer and construction equipment, 
forklifts, warehouse cranes, and platform 
trucks. The GME fleet exists to support 
the day-to-day operations of the installa- 
tion and directly supports the operating 
forces in order to minimize use of tactical 
vehicles in garrison. 

The Marine Corps has an aggressive 
program to pursue petroleum fuel reduc- 
tion and conservation in the GME fleet. 
The Marine Corps has repeatedly exceed- 



ed the Energy Policy Act of 1992 Alterna- 
tive Fuel Vehicle acquisition requirements 
and has been a leader in the Department 
of Defense and other Federal agencies in 
the adoption of efficient vehicle technol- 
ogies and the use of alternative fuels, in- 
cluding electricity, E85, compressed natu- 
ral gas, hybrids, biodiesel, and hydrogen. 
Recognizing the difficulties of using some 
alternative fuel vehicles without adequate 
refueling infrastructure, the Marine 
Corps is investing in alternative refueling 
stations where needed to complement the 
increase in alternative fueled vehicles. 

Of special note, the Marine Corps 
is testing hydrogen-powered fuel cell ve- 
hicle operations and has established a hy- 
drogen generation and refueling station 
at Camp Pendleton, California. A second 
facility is planned for use in Hawaii. 



CHAPTER 3: PROGRAMS I 311 



I 



MARINE CORPSE 



INTRODUCTION 

This chapter provides a brief snapshot of the Marine Corps at the end of Fiscal Year 
2010. It includes a brief description of Marine Corps demographics, fiscal posture, and 
the age of primary equipment. As such it gives some insight into the resources that we 
fuse together to create the world's premier fighting force. 



CHAPTER 4: MARIN[ I 313 



ACTIVE DUTY OFFICER ACCESSIONS IN FISCAL YEAR 2010 



Type 


Number 


NROTC 


243 


Platoon Leader Course 


451 


Officer Candidate Course 


492 


Military Academy 


269 


Enlisted Commissioning Programs 


183 


Warrant Officer Program 


242 


Other 


29 


Total 


1909 



ACTIVE DUTY OFFICER AGE DISTRIBUTION 





Age 


Number 


Percent 




<22 


20 


0.1% 




22 


310 


1.5% 






23 


841 


3.8% 






24 


1,119 


5.3% 






25 


1,299 


6.1% 






26 


1,183 


5.6% 






27 


1,144 


5.4% 






28 


1,094 


5.1% 




29 


1,055 


5.0% 




30 


1,029 


4.8% 






31-35 


4,254 


20.0% 




36-40 


4,390 


20.6% 




41 + 


3,569 


16.7% 




Total 


21,307 





314 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



ACTIVE DUTY OFFICER GRADE DISTRIBUTION 





Rank 


Number 


Percent 






Warrant Officers 


2,006 


9.4% 




Second Lieutenant 


3,063 


14.4% 






First Lieutenant 


3,619 


17.0% 






Captain 


6,167 


28.9% 






Major 


3,800 


17.9% 






Lieutenant Colonel 


1,875 


8.8% 






Colonel 


686 


3.2% 






General Officers 


91 


0.4% 






Total 


21,307 


100% 





I 



CHAPTER 4: MARINE CORPS ALM-\. I 315 



ACTIVE DUTY OFFICER OCCUPATIONAL FIELD DISTRIBUTION 



Primary 
MOS Code 


Description 


Female 
Officer 


Male 
Officer 


Total 

Officer 


01 


Personnel & Administration 


185 


532 


717 


02 


Intelligence 


76 


1 ,304 


1,380 


03 


Infantry 





2,486 


2,486 


04 


Logistics 


186 


1,507 


1,693 


06 


Communications 


81 


1,164 


1,245 


08 


Field Artillery 





1016 


1016 


09 


Training 





4 


4 


11 


Utilities 


3 


42 


45 


13 


Engineer 


48 


606 


654 


18 


Tank & AAV 





354 


354 


21 


Ground Ordnance Maintenance 


3 


137 


140 


23 


Ammunition & EOD 


2 


127 


129 


26 


Signals Intelligence 


2 


37 


39 


28 


Ground Electronics Maintenance 


4 


103 


107 


30 


Supply Administration & Operations 


84 


648 


732 


31 


Distribution Management 


5 


24 


29 


33 


Food Service 


5 


36 


41 


34 


Financial Management 


35 


308 


343 


35 


Motor Transport 


1 


99 


100 


41 


Marine Corps Community Services 


2 


7 


9 


43 


Public Affairs 


35 


111 


146 


44 


Legal Services 


72 


476 


548 


46 


Combat Camera 


3 


17 


20 


48 


Recruiting & Retention 





15 


15 


55 


Music 


2 


21 


23 


57 


CBRN Defense 





122 


122 


58 


Military Police & Corrections 


17 


251 


268 


59 


Electronics Maintenance 


2 


75 


77 


60 


Aircraft Maintenance 


23 


406 


429 


63 


Organizational Avionics Maint. 


2 


133 


135 


65 


Aviation Ordnance 


3 


86 


89 


66 


Aviation Logistics 


23 


256 


279 


68 


Meteorology & Oceanography 


1 


33 


34 


70 


Airfield Services 


1 


36 


37 


72 


Air Control, Support & Anti-Air 


59 


601 


660 


73 


Navigation Officer 





13 


13 


75 


Pilot/NFO 


183 


5,454 


5,637 


80 


Miscellaneous Requirements 


118 


1,394 


1,512 


Total 


1,266 


20,041 


21,307 



316 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



ACTIVE DUTY OFFICER GENDER DISTRIBUTION 



I 





Number 


Percent 


Female 


1,266 


5.9% 


Male 


20,041 


94.1% 








Total 21,307 100% 



ACTIVE DUTY OFFICER GRADE BY GENDER 





Rank 


#Male 


% Male 


# Female 


% Female 


Total 




WOl 


223 


i.i% 


14 


1.1% 


237 




CW02 


808 


4.0% 


35 


2.8% 


843 




CW03 


503 


2.5% 


39 


3.1% 


542 
285 
99 




CW04 


271 


1 .4% 


14 


1.1% 




CW05 


92 


0.5% 


7 


0.6% 




2ndLt 


2,816 


14.1%. 


247 


19.5% 


3,063 




IstLt 


3,330 


16.5% 


289 


22.7% 


3,619 




Capt 


5,765 


28.8% 


402 


31.8% 


6,167 






Maj 


3,640 


18.2% 


160 


12.6% 


3,800 






LtCol 


1,839 


9.2% 


36 


2.8% 


1,875 




Col 


665 


3.3% 


21 


1.7% 


686 




General 


89 


0.4% 


2 


0.2% 


91 










l,_oo 


100% 


21,307 



ACTIVE DUTY OFFICER MARINE FAMILIES 



Civilian 
Spouses 


Military 
Spouses 


Guard/Reserve 
Spouses 


Children/Other 
Dependents 


13,607 


850 


59 


22,804 



CHAPTER 4: MARINE CORF I 317 



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31 8 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



ACTIVE AND RESERVE ENLISTED ACCESSIONS 



I 



Non-prior Service Accessions 


28,019 




Prior Service Accessions 


21 










Total Active Accessions 


28,040 


Non-prior Service Accessions 


5,868 


Prior Service Accessions 


4,209 




Total Reserve Accessions 


10,077 




Total USMC 


38,117 



ACTIVE DUTY ENLISTED AGE DISTRIBUTION 





Age 


Number 


Percent 




17 


289 


0.2% 




18 


7,321 


4.0% 




19 


15,023 


8.3% 




20 


21,857 


12.1% 






21 


23,388 


13.0% 






22 


19,423 


10.6% 






23 


15,320 


8.5% 






24 


13,229 


7.3% 






25 


11,285 


6.2% 






26-30 


29,653 


16.4% 




31-35 


13,224 


7.3% 


36-40 


7,829 


4.3% 




41 + 


3,293 


1.8% 




Total 


181,134 


100% 



CHAPTER 4: MARINE CORPS ALMAN-; I 319 



ACTIVE DUTY ENLISTED GRADE DISTRIBUTION 







Rank 


Number 


Percent 






Private 


11,676 


6.4% 




Private First Class 


18,645 


10.3% 








Lance Corporal 


53,551 


29.6% 






Corporal 


36,775 


20.3% 








Sergeant 


29,425 


16.2% 






Staff Sergeant 


16,409 


9.1% 








Gunnery Sergeant 


9,057 


5.0% 






IstSgt/MSgt 


4,006 


2.2% 






SgtMaj/MGySgt 


1,590 


0.9% 






Total 


181,134 





320 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



ACTIVE DUTY ENLISTED OCCUPATIONAL FIELD DISTRIBUTION 



Primary 
MOS Code 


Description 


Female 
Enlisted 


Male 
Enlisted 


Total 
Enlisted 


01 


Personnel & Administration 


1,844 


6,153 


7,997 


02 


Intelligence 


372 


2,955 


3,327 


03 


Infantry 





34,480 


34,480 


04 


Logistics 


478 


3,702 


4,180 


05 


MAGTF Plans 


40 


372 


412 


06 


Communications 


1,277 


13,958 


15,235 


08 


Field Artillery 





4,801 


4,801 


11 


Utilities 


249 


2,806 


3,055 


13 


Engineer 


261 


8,440 


8,701 


18 


Tank & AAV 





3,039 


3,059 


21 


Ground Ordnance Maintenance 


71 


4,560 


4,631 


23 


Ammunition & EOD 


209 


2,036 


2,245 


26 


Signals Intelligence 


368 


2,697 


3,065 


28 


Ground Electronics Maintenance 


139 


4,901 


5,040 


30 


Supply Administration & Operations 


1,471 


5,933 


7,404 


31 


Distribution Management 


121 


512 


633 


33 


Food Service 


358 


2,123 


2,481 


34 


Financial Management 


244 


1,151 


1,395 


35 


Motor Transport 


625 


14,440 


15,065 


41 


Marine Corps Community Services 


14 


137 


151 


43 


Public Affairs 


121 


359 


480 


44 


Legal Services 


128 


429 


557 


46 


Combat Camera 


112 


455 


567 


48 


Recruiting & Retention 


74 


377 


451 


55 


Music 


169 


837 


1,006 


57 


CBRN Defense 


60 


899 


959 


58 


Military Police & Corrections 


365 


4,773 


3,140 


59 


Electronics Maintenance 


100 


1,651 


1,751 


60 


Aircraft Maintenance 


452 


4,81b 


5,278 


61 


Aircraft Maintenance (Rotary Wing) 


226 


6,670 


6,896 


62 


Aircraft Maintenance (Fixed Wing) 


152 


3,987 


4, 1 39 


63 


Organizational Avionics Maint. 


320 


3,923 


4,243 


64 


Intermediate Avionics Maintenance 


218 


2,735 


2,953 


65 


Aviation Ordnance 


160 


2,597 


2,757 


66 


Aviation Logistics 


418 


1,923 


2,341 


68 


Meteorology & Oceanography 


30 


321 


,5, 


70 


Airfield Services 


222 


2,199 


2,421 


72 


Air Control, Support & Anti-Air 


91 


1,874 


1 ,965 


73 


Navigation Officer 


16 


371 


389 


80 


Miscellaneous Requirements 


323 


6,466 


6,989 


84 


Career Recruiting 


12 


519 


531 


89 


SgtMaj/lstSgt 


81 


1,513 


1,613 






12,203 168,931 181,134 



I 



CHAPTER 4: MARINE CORi I 321 



ACTIVE DUTY ENLISTED GENDER DISTRIBUTION 





Number 


Percent 


Female 


12,203 


6.7% 


Male 


168,931 


93.3% 








Total 181,134 100% 



ACTIVE DUTY ENLISTED GRADE BY GENDER 



Rank 


#Male 


% Male 


# Female 


% Female 


Total 


Pvt 


11,300 


6.6% 


885 


7.5% 


11,676 


PFC 


21,726 


12.7% 


1,554 


13.2% 


18,645 


LCpl 


46,815 


27.5% 


2,975 


25.3% 


53,551 


Cpl 


34,621 


20.3% 


2,715 


23.1% 


36,775 















Sgt 


27,559 


16.2% 


1,946 


16.6% 


29,425 


SSgt 


14,858 


8.7% 


919 


7.8% 


16,409 


GySgt 


8,374 


4.9% 


495 


4.2% 


9,057 


IstSgt/MSgt 


3,624 


2.1% 


190 


1.6% 


4,006 


SgtMaj/MGySgt 


1,530 


0.9% 


61 


0.5% 


1,590 




170,407 




11,740 




181,134 



ACTIVE DUTY ENLISTED MARINE FAMILIES 



Civilian 
Spouses 



Military 
Spouses 



Guard/Reserve 
Spouses 



Children/ 
Other Dependents 



76,261 



7,331 



400 



86,575 



322 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 201 



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ZL 






CHAPTER 4: MARINE CORF I 323 



RESERVE OFFICER AGE DISTRIBUTION 



Age 


Number 


Percent 


<22 





0.0% 


22 


4 


0.4% 


23 


24 


0.8% 


24 


37 


0.9% 


25 


27 


1.2% 


26 


28 


1.0% 


27 


41 


1.6% 


28 


61 


2.0% 


29 


69 


2.2% 


30 


78 


2.5'h, 


31-35 


576 


17.4% 


36-40 


1,009 


26.5% 


41-45 


811 


25.4% 


46-50 


585 


15.0% 


51-55 


140 


2.8% 


56-60 


16 


0.3% 


61 + 


2 


0.0% 




Total 


3,799 


100% 





RESERVE OFFICER GRADE DISTRIBUTION 





Rank 


Number 


Percent 




Warrant Officers 


324 


8.5% 




Second Lieutenant 


207 


5.5% 




First Lieutenant 


135 


3.6% 


Captain 


666 


17.5% 


Major 


1,073 


28.2% 


Lieutenant Colonel 


1,076 


28.3% 


Colonel 


308 


8.1% 


General Officers 


10 


0.3% 


Total | 3,799 100% 



324 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



SELECTED MARINE CORPS RESERVE OFFICER OCCUPATIONAL FIELD DISTRIBUTION 



Primary 
MOS Code 


Description 


Female 
Officer 


Male 
Officer 


Total 
Officer 


01 


Personnel & Administration 


48 


97 


145 


02 


Intelligence 


22 


312 


334 


03 


Infantry 





495 


495 


04 


Logistics 


52 


293 


345 


05 


MAGTF Plans 





1 


1 


06 


Communications 


20 


191 


211 


08 


Field Artillery 





199 


199 


" 


Utilities 





11 


11 


13 


Engineer 


8 


145 


153 


18 


Tank and AAV 





107 


107 


21 


Ground Ordnance Maintenance 





13 


13 


23 


Ammunition 8c EOD 


1 


7 


« 


26 


Signals Intelligence 





2 


2 


28 


Ground Electronics Maintenance 





10 


10 


30 


Supply Administration & Operations 


16 


141 


157 


31 


Distribution Management 





2 


2 


34 


Financial Management 


5 


30 


35 


35 


Motor Transport 





21 


21 


43 


Public Affairs 


9 


22 


31 


44 


Legal Services 


18 


201 


219 


57 


CBRN Defense 


1 


35 


36 


58 


Military Police 8c Corrections 


4 


41 


45 


59 


Electronics Maintenance 





2 


2 


60 


Aircraft Maintenance 


2 


44 


46 


63 


Organizational Avionics Maint. 





5 


5 


65 


Aviation Ordnance 





9 


9 


66 


Aviation Logistics 


6 


27' 


33 


68 


Meteorology 8c Oceanography 





1 


1 


70 


Airfield Services 





7 


7 


72 


Air Control, Support 8c Anti-Air 


12 


84 


96 


73 


Navigation Officer 





4 


4 


75 


Pilot/NFO 


16 


612 


628 


80 


Miscellaneous Requirements 


18 


370 


388 








3,541 


3,799 



CHAPTER 4: MARINE CORP I 325 



RESERVE ENLISTED AGE DISTRIBUTION 



Age 


Number 


Percent 


17-18 


948 


2.7", 


19 


2,740 


7.7% 


20 


3,516 


9.9% 


21 


3,712 


10.5% 


22 


3,833 


10.8% 


23 


3,903 


11.0% 


24 


3,508 


9.9% 


25 


2,643 


7.5% 


26-30 


6,375 


18.0% 


31-35 


2,149 


6.1% 


36-40 


1,157 


3.4° o 


41-45 


635 


1.8% 


46-50 


227 


0.6% 


51-55 


47 


0.1% 


56-60 


10 


0.0% 


61 + 





0.0% 




35,423 100% 



RESERVE ENLISTED GRADE DISTRIBUTION 



Rank 


Number 


Percent 


Private 


1,753 


5.0% 


Private First Class 


3,845 


10.8% 


Lance Corporal 


14,477 


40.9% 


Corporal 


6,684 


18.8% 


Sergeant 


4,575 


12.9% 


Staff Sergeant 


2,161 


6.1% 


Gunnery Sergeant 


1,265 


3.6% 


IstSgt/MSgt 


447 


1.3% 


SgtMaj/MGySgt 


216 


0.6% 





326 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



RESERVE ENLISTED OCCUPATIONAL FIELD DISTRIBUTION 



Primary 
MOS Code 


Description 


Female 
Enlisted 


Male 
Enlisted 


Total 
Enlisted 


01 


Personnel & Administration 


349 


1,309 


1,658 




02 


Intelligence 


35 


535 


570 




03 


Infantry 





8,286 


8,286 




04 


Logistics 


101 


1,191 


1,292 




05 


MAGTF Plans 


1 


38 


39 


06 


Communications 


146 


3,075 


3,221 




08 


Field Artillery 





1,110 


1,110 


ii 


Utilities 


60 


678 


738 




13 


Engineer 


92 


3,058 


3,150 


18 


Tank 8c AAV 





702 


702 




21 


Ground Ordnance Maintenance 


13 


882 


895 


23 


Ammunition 8c EOD 


31 


457 


488 




26 


Signals Intelligence 


8 


36 


44 


28 


Ground Electronics Maintenance 


8 


611 


619 


30 


Supply Administration 8c Operations 


231 


1,321 


1,552 




31 


Distribution Management 


31 


111 


142 


33 


Food Service 


50 


477 


527 


34 


Financial Management 


6 


31 


37 




35 


Motor Transport 


143 


3,911 


4,054 


43 


Public Affairs 


4 


18 


22 


44 


Legal Services 


4 


12 


16 


46 


Combat Camera 


6 


4 


10 


48 


Recruiting 8c Retention 


9 


63 


72 


55 


Music 





2 


2 




57 


CBRN Defense 


6 


204 


210 


58 


Military Police 8c Corrections 


29 


831 


860 




59 


Electronics Maintenance 


4 


103 


107 


60 


Aircraft Maintenance 


39 


339 


378 




61 


Aircraft Maintenance (Rotary Wing) 


8 


344 


352 


62 


Aircraft Maintenance (Fixed Wing) 


5 


214 


219 


63 


Organizational Avionics Maint. 


11 


187 


198 


64 


Intermediate Avionics Maintenance 


8 


141 


149 


65 


Aviation Ordnance 


10 


183 


193 




66 


Aviation Logistics 


36 


176 


212 


68 


Meteorology 8c Oceanography 


4 


45 


49 


70 


Airfield Services 


36 


330 


366 


72 


Air Control, Support 8c Anti-Air 


17 


166 


183 


73 


Navigation Officer 


1 


33 


34 


80 


Miscellaneous Requirements 


65 


2,365 


2,430 


84 


Career Recruiting 


1 


37 


38 




89 


SgtMaj/lstSgt 


5 


194 


199 




1,613 


33,810 


35,423 



CHAPTER 4: MARINE CORPS ALMANAC I 327 



MARINE CORPS FISCAL RESOURCE OVERVIEW 



50| 
45-' 
40' 

35 -'" 

30-' 

25 -'' 

20' 

15 

10 

5 





$B 



■ OCO BISOG 

■ Baseline BISOG 
t OCO Green 

■ Baseline Green 



48.2 



45.1 45.2 44.0 



41.3 



29.1 



••I,. I.. I- 



vm 



iiiiiiiinrii 



FY00 FY01 FY02 FY03 FY04 FY05 FY06 FY07 FY08 FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 



MARINE CORPS FISCAL LANDSCAPE 



18.00 




0.00 
FY10 



FY13 



FY14 



FY15 



FY16 



328 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



MARINE CORPS FISCAL YEAR 2012 TOTAL BASELINE TOA ($ in million) 



$1,030 $ 9 



■ MPMC 

■ RPMC 
■ DHAMC 
□ DHAMCR 

■ OMMC 
SOMMCR 

■ PMC 

■ PANMC 

■ RDTEN 

■ MCN 
□ MCNR 



$307 




$135 $ 678 

$1,125 



MARINE CORPS FISCAL YEAR 2012 APPROPRIATIONS 



MCON/FH 
$1.4B-5% 



Investment 
2B-11% 




CHAPTER 4: MARINE CORPS ALMANAC I 329 



MARINE CORPS PROCUREMENT SUMMARY ($ in million) 




FY03 FY04 FY05 FY06 FY07 FY08 FY09 FY10 FY11 FY 12 



MARINE CORPS SELECTED GROUND EQUIPMENT AGE 




330 I OSMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



MARINE CORPS SELECTED AVIATION EQUIPMENT AGE 



■ Program Service Life 

□ Average Equipment Age 

□ Age of Oldest In Inventory 




CHAPTER 4: MARINE CORPS ALMANAC I 331 



INDEX 



A 

Acoustic hailing devices, 1 54 
Acquisition, 58-59 

categories, 58, 88, 91, 99, 100, 102. 123. 

130,151 

Decision Memorandum 93, 285 

Life Cycle, 75, 87, 93, 128 

milestones, 59 

phases, 59, 1 1 7 

non-development item (NDI), 59, 1 21 , 206 
Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System 
(AFATDS), vi, 85, 1 02, 1 45, 1 50-1 53 
Advanced Gunnery Training System (AGTS), 249 
Advanced Tactical Airborne Reconnaissance System 
(ATARS), 119 

After action review (AAR), 248, 251 , 258, 260-264 
Air defense (AD), 

Ground-based Air Defense Transformation 

(GBAD-T),ix, 186,283 
Air Naval Gun Fire Liaison Company (ANGUCO), 27, 

b: 3- 

Air tasking order (ATO), 92 
Aircraft, 9, 331 

crash fire rescue, P-19, vii, 191 

fixed wing, 1 78, 243 

modernization, 1 61 , 1 62 

rotary wing, 125, 161. 165, 178. 230, 243, 283 

unmanned, 113, 119, 161. 165, 182, 186, 190 
Almanac, Marine Corps, iii, ix, 312-331 
Ammunition, viii, 74, 142, 149, 166, 191, 200, 201. 
215.216.230 
Amphibious, ii, 1 , 1 8 

Ready Group (ARG), 17, 224, 225, 233 

warships, 6, 17, 25, 226, 228 
Amphibious Combat Vehicle, vi, 126, 127. 128. 
132,330 

Approved acquisition objective (AAO), 63, 64, 87, 94, 
96, 99, 103, 104, 116, 126, 130, 137, 139, 142, 153, 
1 57, 1 87, 1 89, 1 90, 1 91 , 21 7, 282, 284, 286 
Area of responsibility (AOR), 50, 227 
Assault Amphibious Vehicle (AAV), v, vi, 126, 127, 
128, 132,249,330 

turret trainer, 249 

upgrades, 126, 128 
Assault echelon (AE). 127, 132. 225 
Assistant Commandant of the 
Marine Corps (ACMC), 21 
Atmospherics, 250. 257 
Aviation, vii 

Combat Element (ACE), vii, 15,91,118,12,1 63. 
166-168, 185, 188,211,225 



Ground Support (AGS), vii, 161, 166, 167, 169 

Marine Aviation Logistics (MALS), vii, 185, 196 

strategy, vii, 161 

Training System (ATS), vii, 169, 170 

B 

Battle Staff Training Program (BSTP), 48, 49 
Biometric Automated Toolset (BAT), 285 
Blue Force Tracker (BFT), v, 1 00, 1 95 
Blunt impact munitions, 1 54 

c 

Camp Fuji, Combined Arms Training Center, 30 

Camp Mujuk, 30 

Capability Development Document (CDD). 23. 59. 66. 

138, 157, 191,209,228,308 

Casualty evacuation (CASEVAC), 129, 209, 210 

Center for Advanced Operational Culture and 

Learning (CAOCL), 46-47 

Center for Irregular Warfare (CIW), 23 

Civil Affairs Group (CAG), 34 

Civil Military Operations (CMO), 44. 45. 52 

Civilian, Marines, ix 

American Federation of Government Employees 

(AFGE), 302 

civilian workforce development application 

(CWDA), 301 

communities of interest (COI), 301 . 302 

labor relations, 302 

senior executive service (SES), 302 
Chemical Biological Incident Response Force (CBIRF). 
26,27,41-42 

Chemical Biological Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN). 
ix, 15,40,281,282,289 

Assessment and Consequence Management 

(ACM), 282 
Combat Logistics Regiment (CLR), 1 6 
Combat operations center (COC), AN/TSQ-239(V), v, 
91.95 

Combat Vehicle Training System (CVTS), 249 
Combatant Commanders (COCOM), 7, 8. 19. 24. 
41,42 

unified, 24 

geographic, 2, 17. 24, 41, 123, 207 
Combined Arms Command and Control Training 
Upgrade System (CACCTUS), 248 
Combined Arms Military Operations in Urban Terrain 
(CAMOUT), 254, 255 
Combined Arms Staff Training (CAST), 248 



332 i . -■■: :- nce pts &progr£' 



Command and control (C2), 8, 49, 71 , 81 , 82. 86, 89, 

91, 92, 94, 95, 97, 99, 100, 102, 108, 129, 135, 150, 

153, 193, 201,204,258, 283 

Command and Control Personal Computer (C2PC), 

99, 102 

Command Element (CE), 1 5, 92, 1 1 7, 1 1 8, 1 23, 21 1 

Command, control, communication, computer, and 

intelligence (C4I), 42, 94, 167, 217, 248 

Commandant of the Marine Corps (CMC), ii-iii, 3, 4, 

21, 154,278, 295,307 

Priorities, 7 
Commercial off the shelf (COTS), 69, 88, 89, 95, 112. 
119, 121, 178, 183, 189. 191. 285 
Common Aviation Command and Control System 
(CAC2S), v, 58, 85, 91 , 1 61 , 1 86, 1 88 
Common operational picture (COP), 93, 95, 99, 114, 
152, 167, 194 

Communication Electronics Equipment Maintenance 
Complex (CEEMC), 217 

Communication Emitter Sensing and Attack System 
(CESAS).v, 112 

Composite Tracking Network (CTN), v, 94, 161 , 186. 
188,284 

Computer network defense (CND), 40 
Continental United States (CONUS), 20, 89, 168, 276 
Continuous Process Improvement (CPI), ix, 185, 196, 
279 

Core Capabilities, Marine Corps, 4, 82, 107, 126, 
222, 237, 261 

Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC), 94, 284 
Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower, 4, 
221,231 

Counter Rado-controlled Improvised Explosive Device 
(RCIED) Electronic Warfare (CREW), ix, 251 

Vehicle receiver/jammer (CVRJ), 286 

Joint CREW (JCREW), 286 
Counterinsurgency, 6, 38 
Counterintelligence (CI), 108, 110, 114, 123, 130 

Equipment Program (CIHEP), v, 1 14 
Counterterrorism (CT), 38 
Cyber, 2, 8, 39-40, 82, 83, 84 

D 

Data Distribution System (DDS), 85, 101 

Defense Policy Review Initiative (DPRI), 9 

Defense Readiness Reporting System (DRSS), v, 90 

Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office (DRMO), 51 

Department of Defense (DOD), 3, 4, 58, 87, 112, 127, 

1 52, 1 54, 1 80, 200, 201 , 21 7, 241 , 285, 297, 31 1 



Department of State (DOS), 54 
Deployment. 

ratio to dwell, 10, 11,299 
Deputy Commandant (DC), 21 

Aviation (AVN). 21 

Combat Development and Integration (CD&I), 

21,23, 121, 158, 191, 289 

Installations and Logistics (l&L), 21 , 49, 289 

Manpower and Reserve Affairs (M&RA), 21 . 22 

Plans. Policy and Operations (PP&O). 21 . 49. 

289 

Programs and Resources (P&R), 21 
Direct Action (DA), 38 
Director, 21 

Command, Control, Communications, and 

Computers (C4), 21 , 84 

Expeditionary Energy. 21 

Health Services, 21 

Intelligence, 21 

Marine Corps Staff (DMCS), 21 

Public Affairs, 21 

Safety, 21 
Doctrine, organization, training, material, logistics, 
personnel, facilities (DOTMLPF), 46. 47 

DOTMLPF Change Request (DCR). 42 
Distributed Common Ground System (DCGS), v. 108, 
111, 113 
Dual Vehicle Adapter (DVA), 67. 68 



Egress Trainers, Underwater (UET), 265 

Electronic countermeasure (ECM), 103. 286 

Electronic Maintenance Support System (EMSS), vii, 

201 , 202 

Electronic warfare (EW), 52, 112. 118, 121, 164, 166. 

171, 173, 180, 182.286 

Eleventh Marine Expeditionary Unit (1 1th MEU), 30, 31 

Embedded Platform Logistics System (EPLS), vii, 201 , 

202, 203 

Energy, ix, 8, 9, 21 1 , 278, 307-31 1 

Enhanced company operations (ECO), 71 , 246 

Environmental control equipment, viii, 21 1 

Environmental management, ix 

Escalation of force (EOF), 154, 155, 158 

mission module (EOF-MM), vi, 154, 158 
Evening Parade, 55 

dates and times, 55 

parking, 55 

reservations, 55 
Exceptional Family Member Program (EFMP), 291 



INDEX I 333 



Expeditionary Airfield (EAF), 167 

Expeditionary Energy Office, 9, 307 

Expeditionary Field Kitchen (EFK), 208 

Expeditionary Fire Support System (EFSS), vi, 145, 

149, 215 

Expeditionary Logistics, vii, 88, 185, 198, 205 

strategy, 193 
Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD), 42, 129, 233, 
234, 281 , 299 



Families, ix, 10, 1 1 

Fifteenth Marine Expeditionary Unit (15th MEU), 30, 31 

Fire support, vi 

naval surface fire support (NSFS), 1 52, 231 , 

232, 266 

triad, 145, 149,232,233 
First Marine Aircraft Wing (1st MAW), 30, 33 
First Marine Division (1st MARDIV), 30, 31 
First Marine Expeditionary Brigade (1st MEB), 30, 31 
First Marine Expeditionary Force (I MEF), 16, 24, 30, 
31 

First Marine Logistics Group (1st MLG), 30, 31 
Fixed wing, 331 

AV-8 Harrier, 1 63 

C-9Skytrain, 183 

C-20 Gulfstream, 183, 184 

E/A-6 Prowler, 164-165 

F/A-1 8 Hornet, 152, 164, 171, 173 

F-35B Lightning, Joint Strike Fighter (JSF), vii, 

164, 171-173,255 

KC-130 Hercules, vii, 178, 186 

UC-35 Citation, 183 
Flame Resistant Organizational Gear (FROG), 69, 72, 
73 

Fleet Anti-terrorism Security Team (FAST), 42, 43 
Fleet Marine Forces (FMF), 30 
Food service, viii, 208 
Force protection (FP), ix, 127, 154, 281, 285, 289 

capability sets, 158 
Force Structure Review Group (FSRG), 8, 25 
Foreign Area Officer (FAO), 1 
Foreign Internal Defense (FID), 38 
Fortitudine, 270 
Forward-in-store (FIS), 51 
Fourth Marine Air Wing (4th MAW), 34, 35-36 
Fourth Marine Division (4th MARDIV), 34, 35 
Fourth Marine Logistics Group (4th MLG), 34, 36 



Full operational capability (FOC), 59, 66, 68, 78, 86, 

93, 102, 114, 121, 148, 151, 152, 188, 191, 196, 

197.217,286,288 

Full Spectrum Battle Equipment (FSBE), 72 



Garrison mobile equipment (GME), 307, 310-31 1 

Global Combat Support System (GCSS), v, 59, 85, 

88, 89, 193-197, 200, 202, 204 

Global Command and Control System (GCCS), v, 85, 

87, 90, 207 

Global Information Grid (GIG), 40, 97 

Global Positioning System (GPS), 75, 146, 152, 195, 

206 

Integrated GPS Radio System (IGRS), 263 
Global Status of Resources and Training System 
(GSORTS), 87. 90 
Green Beam Laser Systems, 1 55 

Designator III (GBD), 155 
Ground Aviation Task Oriented Radar (G/ATOR), vii, 
58,94, 161, 186, 187, 188 
Ground-Based Operational Surveillance System (G- 
BOSS), ix, 281 ,288, 308 

Ground Combat Element (GCE), 15, 47, 48, 69, 118, 
1 26, 1 32, 1 34, 1 65, 1 86, 21 1 , 239, 287 
Ground Position Location Information (G-PLI), 251 , 259 
Guam, 9, 16,20,276 



Hailing and warning laser systems, 155 

Green Beam, 1 55 
Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps (HQMC), iv, 21 , 70, 
90, 199,205, 210,299 

organization, 21 
High frequency (HF), 104, 112, 188, 189, 195 
High Mobility Multi-Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV), vi, 
115, 121, 126, 137, 150, 156, 157, 168, 186, 188, 
189, 197,265,288,330 

Expanded capacity vehicle (ECV), 137, 330 
High Mobility Artillery Rocket System (HIMARS), vi, 
31,35, 140, 145, 148, 149,330 
History Division, viii, 270 
Home Station Training Lanes (HSTL), 256, 264 
Housing, ix 

bachelor enlisted housing (BEQ), 278, 

family housing, 278 
Howitzer, lightweight, 155mm, (LW155), M777A2, vi, 
145, 146, 147, 149, 330 
Human Electro-muscular Incapacitation (HEMI), 154 



334 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



I 



Human Intelligence (HUMINT), 108, 110, 1 14, 123 
exploitation team (HET), 114 



Identity Dominance System (IDS), ix, 285 
Illumination systems, 76, 79, 1 78 

advanced target pointer illumination aiming light 

(ATPIAL), AN/PEQ-15, 79 

mini integrated pointer illuminator module 

(MIPIM), AN/PEG-16A, 79 
Improvised explosive device (IED), 73, 113, 127, 129, 
140, 143, 155, 231, 234, 243, 251, 256, 262, 281, 
287, 288 

defeat, 143,231 
detector dog (IDD), ix , 287 
Joint IED Defeat Organization (JIEDDO), 257, 264 
Incident Response Force (IRF), 42 
Infantry, 15, 16, 43, 62, 64, 67, 69, 70-71, 127, 128, 
145, 157,287,300,308 
Infantry Automatic Rifle (IAR), iv, 62 
Infantry Combat Equipment (ICE), v, 72-74 
Infantry Immersive Trainer (IIT), 191 , 246, 257, 260, 264 
Information Operations (IO), 38, 52, 53, 112, 239 
Information Technology (IT), 40, 82, 84-85, 86, 89, 
185, 193,267 

Initial Capabilities Document (ICD), 81, 126, 138, 
231 , 283 

Initial operational capability (IOC), 59 
Installations, ix, 245, 258, 264, 274-279 
Instrumentation Training System (ITS), 251 , 258 
Instrumented Tactical Engagement System (l-TESS), 
258, 263 
Intelligence, 52, 94, 95, 106, 119, 285 

analysis system (IAS), vi, 111, 114, 117 

expeditionary support, vi, 123 

operations workstation (IOW), 93, 99, 1 1 7 

signals (SIGINT), 118, 121, 180 

surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR), 99, 107, 

111, 152, 171, 190 
Interim Fast Attack Vehicle (IFAV), 134 
Internally Transportable Vehicle (ITV), vi, 134 
Intra/lnter Squad Radio (IISR), AN/PRC-153, 67, 195 

J 

Joint Battle Command Platform (JBC-P), v, 85, 98 

Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), 21 , 92, 241 

Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation (JCATS), 

Joint High Speed Vessel (JHSV), viii, 174, 227 



Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization 

(JIEDDO), 264 

Joint Intergovernmental and Multinational Training 

(JIM), viii, 241 

Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (J LTV), vi, 58, 71 , 126, 

138, 197 

Joint non-lethal weapons program (JNLWP), vi, 154 

Joint Operations Planning and Execution System 

(JOPES), 87 

Joint personnel adjudication system (J PAS), 

Joint Precision Aerial Delivery System - Ultra Light 

Weight (JPADS-ULW), vii, 206 

Joint Requirement Oversight Council (JROC), 81 , 111, 

130,228, 231 

Joint Strike Fighter (JSF), vii, 1 61 , 1 64, 1 65, 1 71 - 1 72, 

225, 245 

transition plan, vii, 173 
Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System 
(JSTARS), v, 113 

Joint Tactical Common Operational Picture Worksta- 
tion (JTCW), v, 99, 152, 194 
Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS), 58, 68 
Joint task force (JTF), 16, 17, 19 
Joint Terminal Attack Controller (JTAC), 152, 190, 266 

K 

Key Performance Parameters (KPP), 126, 179, 
206, 308 



Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC), viii, 174, 226, 228 

Language Learning Resource Center (LLRC), 46 

Laser targeting, 63, 76, 78, 180 

Learning Resource Center (LRC), 267 

Light Armored Vehicle (LAV), 121, 135-136, 197, 203, 

217,249,308 

Logistics, vii, 3, 49, 50, 88, 165, 182, 192-219, 307 

Autonomic, vii, 197, 200, 203, 204 

chain management (LCM), 88, 200 

Combat Element (LCE), 15, 49, 167, 194, 195, 

211 

distribution, 207 

modernization (LOGMOD), vii, 88, 197, 198, 200 

naval logistics integration (NLI), vii, 196, 197, 

202, 205 

sense and respond, vii, 200 
Logistics Vehicle System Replacement (LVSR), vi, 58, 
142,209 



INDEX I 335 



Man-portable air defense system (MANPADS), 283 
Manpower, ix, 9, 13, 314, 327 

accessions, officer, 314, enlisted, 319 

distribution, age, 314, 319, 324, 326 

distribution, gender, 317, 318, 322, 323 

distribution, grade, 315, 320, 324, 326 

families, 317, 322 

occupational fields, officer, 316, 325, enlisted, 

321,327 

recruiting and retention, ix, 271 , 293, 295-297, 

299-300 
Marine Air Command and Control System (MACCS), 
vii, 91, 161, 188 

Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF), iv, 8, 9, 14- 
19, 20,40, 51,52, 53 

capabilities, 4 

composition, 15 

distribution, vii, 196, 198, 207 

types of MAGTFs, 16 

Secondary Imagery Dissemination System 

(MSIDS), vi, 119-120 

Special, 16, 18-19 

sustainability, 19 

training, viii, 47-48 
Marine Aircraft Group (MAG), 1 6 
Marine Aircraft Wing (MAW), 1 5 
Marine Aviation Weapons and Tactics Squadron 
(MAWTS), 49 

Marine Band, The President's Own, 55 
Marine Barracks, Washington, 8th&l, iv, 21 , 55 

evening parade, 55 

sunset parade, 55 
Marine Corps Air Facility (MCAF), 

MCAF Quantico, 25 
Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center (MCAGCC), 
30,31,32,47 

Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS), 26, 27, 28, 30, 31 , 
32,33 

MCAS Beaufort, 25, 27, 28 

MCAS Camp Pendleton, 30 

MCAS Cherry Point, 25, 27 

MCAS Futenma, 30 

MCAS Iwakuni, 30 

MCAS Miramar, 30 

MCAS New River, 25, 27 

MCAS Yuma, 30 
Marine Corps Almanac, 31 3-331 

fiscal year 2012 data, 329-330 

enlisted manpower, 319-323, 326-327 

officer manpower, 314-318, 324-325 



Marine Corps Base (MCB), 26, 30 

MCB Camp Butler, 30 

MCB Camp Lejeune, 26, 27, 37 

MCB Camp Pendleton, 30 

MCB Hawaii, 30 

MCB Quantico, 22, 26, 44, 52, 54 

Marine Corps Bases, Atlantic, 26 

Marine Corps Bases, Japan, 30 

Marine Corps Bases Korea, 30 

Marine Corps Bases, Pacific, 30 
Marine Corps Combat Development Command 
(MCCDC), 21 , 23 

organization, 23 
Marine Corps Community Services (MCCS), 1 1 , 22, 
291 

Marine Corps Distance Learning (MCDL), viii, 267 
Marine Corps Embassy Security Group (MCESG), iv, 
54 

headquarters, 54 

locations, 54 

mission, 54 
Marine Corps Enterprise Information Technology 
System (MCEITS), v, 84, 86 
Marine Corps Enterprise Network (MCEN), 40, 82, 
84-85 

Marine Corps Forces Component Command 
(MARFOR), 16,41, 44,45 

Marine Corps Forces Africa (MARFORAF), 1 9 

Marine Corps Forces Central (MARFORCENT), 19 

Marine Corps Forces Command 

(MARFORCOM), 16, 24, 25-28, 34, 40, 41 
organization, 26 
units, 27-28 

Marine Corps Forces Cyber (MARFORCYBER), 

23, 39-40 

Units, 40 
Marine Corps Force North (MARFORNORTH), 34 
Marine Corps Forces Pacific (MARFORPAC), 16, 

24, 29-33 

organization, 30 

units, 31-33 
Marine Corps Forces Reserves (MARFORRES), 
34-36, 50 

organization, 35 

units, 36 
Marine Corps Forces Special Operations 
(MARFORSOC), 8, 24, 37-39 

capabilities, 38 

organization, 38 

units, 38-39 
Marine Corps Forces Strategic 
(MARFORSTRAT), 23 



336 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



I 



Marine Corps Heritage Foundation, 271 

Marine Corps Information Enterprise Strategy 

(MCIENT), v, 82-85 

Marine Corps Information Operations Center (MCIOC), 

52-53 

capabilities, 52 
Marine Corps Installations (MCI), 26, 30 

MCl-East, 26 

MCl-West, 30 
Marine Corps Institute (MCI), 55 
Marine Corps Instrumentation Training System (MC- 
ITS), 262-263 

Marine Corps Intelligence Activity (MCIA), 1 10, 123 
Marine Corps Intelligence Surveillance and Recon- 
naissance Enterprise (MCISR-E), v, 107-109 
Marine Corps Logistics Base (MCLB), 26, 30 

MCLB Albany, 26, 49, 50 

MCLB Barstow, 30, 50 
Marine Corps Logistics Command (MCLC), 49-52 
Marine Corps Logistics Operations Group (MCLOG), 49 
Marine Corps Mountain Warfare Training Center, 
Bridgeport, 30 

Marine Corps Network Operations and Security 
Center (MCNOSC), 40 
Marine Corps Operating Concepts, Third edition, 4, 5 

crisis response, 4,5 

engagement, 4,5 

power projection, 4,5 
Marine Corps Prepositioning Program - Norway 
(MCPP-N), 20, 50, 229 
Marine Corps Recruit Depot (MCRD), 23 
Marine Corps Recruiting Command (MCRC), 21 , 22, 
295, 297, 298 

organization, 22 
Marine Corps Recruiting Information Support System- 
Recruiting Station (MCRISS-RS), ix. 298 

MCRISS-Office Selection System (OSS). 298 
Marine Corps Reserve, ix, 22, 34-36, 297, 324-327 
Marine Corps Security Force Regiment, 2, 27, 42-43 
Marine Corps Support Facility, Blount Island, 25, 50 
Marine Corps Systems Command 
(MARCORSYSCOM), 21 
Marine Corps Tactics and Operations Group 
(MCTOG), 8, 45, 47-49 

Marine Corps Training and Advisory Group (MCTAG), 
2, 8, 26, 40-41 

Marine Corps University (MCU), viii, 10, 268 
Marine Corps Warfighting Lab (MCWL), 23, 309 
Marine Cryptologic Support Battalion, 40 
Marine Division, 15, 16 



Marine Enhancement Program (MEP), iv, 69 
Marine Expeditionary Brigade (MEB), 16-17, 26 
Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF), 9, 16, 26, 40, 47, 50 
Marine Expeditionary Rifle Squad (MERS), v, 70-71 
Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU), 16, 17-18, 26 

MEU Augmentation Program (MAP), 51 
Marine Logistics Group (MLG), 15, 51 
Marine Personnel Carrier (MPC), vi, 132-133, 197 
Marine Security Guard (MSG), 54 
Marine Special Operations Battalion (MSOB), 37, 39 
Marine Special Operations Company (MSOC), 37, 39 
Marine Special Operations Regiment (MSOR), 37, 39 
Marine Special Operations School (MSOS), 37, 39 
Marine Special Operations Support Group (MSOSG), 
37,39 

Marine Special Operations Team (MSOT), 37, 39 
Maritime, viii, 2, 4, 5, 220-235 

Expeditionary Operations, viii, 221-224 

Prepositioning Force (MPF), viii, 20, 50. 229-230 

Prepositioning Ships (MPS), 20, 229-230 

MPS Squadrons (MPSRON), 20, 229-230 
Medical, viii, 10, 11, 178, 209, 292, 304-305 

Field equipment, 210 
Medium Tactical Vehicle Replacement (MTVR), vi, 140, 
186, 197,203,308,330 
Military construction (MILCON), 221 , 278, 328 
Military Occupational Specialty (MOS), 316, 321 , 
325, 327 

Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT), 154, 198. 
254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 260 
Military Sealift Command (MSC), 229 
Mine Counter Measures, viii, 233-235 
Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP), vi. 112. 
121, 129-131, 143, 156, 288,308 

All terrain vehicle (M-ATV), 129-131 

Cougar, 97, 129-131 

egress trainer (MET), 265 
Mission Assurance, ix, 289 

Mission Payload Module Nonlethal Weapons System 
(MPM-NLWS). vi. 157 

Mobile Modular Command and Control System 
(M2C2), v, 97 

Mobile Tactical Air Operations Module (MTAOM). \ ii, 
186, 188, 189, 284 
Mobile Trauma Bay (MTB), viii, 209 
Mobilization Command (MOBCOM), 34 
Modeling and Simulation (M&S), viii, 237, 246-247 

MAGTF Training Simulations Division (MTSD). 246 
Modular Sleep System (MSS), 73 

INDEX I 337 



Modular Tactical Vest (MTV), 69, 71 , 72 

Modular Weapon System (MWS), iv, 63 

Mountain Cold Weather Layering System (MCWLS), 73 

Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS), 148 

Multi-Shot Grenade Launcher, 65 

N 

National Capital Region (NCR), 21 , 50 

National Museum of the Marine Corps (NMMC), viii, 

270,271-272 

National Security Strategy, 7 

National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace, 39 

Naval Operations Concept 2010,4 

Naval Surface Fire Support (NSFS), viii, 231-232, 266 

Navy Marine Corps Intranet (NMCI), 

Next Generation Enterprise Network (NGEN), 84, 

Noncommissioned officer (NCO), 10 

Non-lethal weapons, 154-156 

Green Beam, 155 

VENOM, 156 
Non-secure Internet Protocol Routing Network 
(NIPRNET), 97 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 42, 
189,230 

Office of Personnel Management (OPM), 298 

Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), 3, 241 , 294 

Officer Candidate School (OCS), 298, 303 

Operating forces, iv, 7, 24- 43, 57, 72, 86, 92, 102, 

154, 242, 269, 276, 281, 289, 296, 300, 310, 

Operational Stress Control and Readiness (OSCAR), 

163,292 

Operational Support Airlift (OSA), vii, 183, 

Operations, 4, 5-6 

counterinsurgency, 6, 268 

distributed, 7, 8, 71 

Enduring Freedom (OEF), 8, 50, 95, 135, 181, 

196, 214,217, 237, 240 

Humanitarian, 3, 6 

Iraqi Freedom (OIF), 50, 65, 95, 135, 194, 196, 

217,237, 240, 

Range of Military (ROMO), 2, 7 
Operations and Tactics Training Program (OTTP), 47, 48 
Optics, v, 63, 76, 78 

machine gun day optic (MDO), 76 

rifle combat optic (RCO), 

squad day optic (SDO), 76 

thermal, 78 



Pre-deployment training program (PTP), 47, 242, 258, 

260, 

Exercise Mojave Viper, 1 83. 240, 243 
Mission Rehearsal Exercise (MRX). 242 
Exercise Mountain Warrior, 243 

Prepositioning, 50, 125, 166, 221, 222, 229-230 

President's Own, The, 55 

Professional Military Education (PME), viii, 10, 267, 

268, 270, 272, 

Program Manager Training Systems Command (PM 

TRASYS), 251,252 



Quality of Life (QOL), ix, 10, 276, 278, 293, 294 



Radar, 1 1 3, 1 63, 1 64, 171,1 75, 226, 231 , 234, 259, 
281 , 283, 288 

air surveillance. AN^PS-59, ix, 94, 188, 284 

Family of Target Acquisition Systems (FTAS), 1 53 

Ground/Air Task Oriented Radar (G/ATOR), 58, 

94, 161, 186 
Radio Battalion (RadBn), 26, 1 1 2, 1 1 4, 1 1 6, 1 1 8, 
121, 165 

Radios, iv, v, 95, 100, 102, 135, 146, 183, 188, 189, 
262, 286 

High frequency (HFR), AN/PRC-150, AN/PRC- 

104, 104 

Intra/lnter squad radio (IISR), AN/PRC-153, 67-68 

Multi-band (MBR), AN/PRC-1 1 7F, AN/PRC-1 1 9, 

97, 103, 152 

Tactical Handheld Radio (THHR), AN/PRC-1 48, 

67-68 
Range and Training Areas (RTA), 244 
Ranges, 249, 251 , 257, 258, 260 

modernization and transformation (RM/T), 245, 

251,253 

multi-capable, 244-245 

status system, 259 

sustainment program, 252 

target system, 253 
Recruiting, ix, 22, 295-297, 298 

enlisted, 297 

Marine Corps Recruiting Command (MCRC), 22, 

295 

officer, 297 
Rifle, 62, 64, 258 

M16A2, 63 

M16A4, 63, 76 

M4, 63, 76 



338 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



I 



Remote Video Viewing Terminal, vii, 190 
Rotary wing, 1 25, 1 61 , 1 65, 1 78, 1 91 , 230, 243, 
283 331 

AH-1Z Viper, 161, 176-177,331 

CH-46E Sea Knight, 162, 174, 226, 265, 331 

CH-53 Super Stallion, 134, 145, 149, 162, 179, 

226, 230, 265, 331 

CH-53K, 134, 149, 161, 162, 179, 226, 331 

MV-22B Osprey, 58, 134, 145, 146, 149, 161, 

163, 174-175, 226,265,331 

UH-1Y Venom, 161, 176-177,331 
Route Reconnaissance and Clearance (R2C), vi, 
129, 143 



Satellite Communications (SATCOM), 97, 102, 103 

Scalable Plate Carrier (SPC), 72 

Seabasing, 174,221,227 

Second Marine Division (2d MARDIV), 26, 27 

Second Marine Aircraft Wing (2d MAW), 26, 27 

Second Marine Expeditionary Force (II MEF), 16, 24, 

26,27,41,42 

Second Marine Expeditionary Brigade (2d MEB), 26, 27 

Second Marine Logistics Group (2d MLG), 26, 27 

Secure Internet Protocol Routing Network 

(SIPRNET), 97 

Security cooperation (SC), 1 , 41 , 44, 45 

Theater Security Cooperation (TSC), 2, 183, 223, 
Security Cooperation Education and Training Center 
(SCETC), 44-45, 241 
Security Force Assistance (SFA), 38, 41 
Semi-Automatic Sniper System (SASS), iv, 64 
Sensitive Compartmented Information Communica- 
tions (SCI Comms), vi, 1 1 5-1 1 6 
Service life extension program (SLEP), 164, 228, 283 
Shelters, 

Communications Electronic Equipment 
Maintenance Complex (CEEMC), viii, 217 
Family of Tactical Soft Shelter (FTSS), viii, 
219,308 
Ship on Land (SOL), 250 
Ship to Shore Connector (SSC), viii, 228, 230 
Short take-off vertical landing (STOVL), 161 , 1 71 , 
172, 173 

Shoulder Launched Multi-purpose Assault Weapon 
(SMAW II), iv, 66 

Signals intelligence (SIGINT), 110, 118, 121 
Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System 
(SINGARS), 67, 103 
Single Vehicle Adapter (SVA), 67 



Special Operations, 37 

forces (SOF), 8, 13, 15, 18,37,64, 

Marine Corps Special Operations Command, I 

24,37-39, 72, 114, 116, 152 
Special Purpose Marine Air Ground Task Force 
(SPMAGTF), 16, 18-19 
Special Reconnaissance (SR), 38 
Squad automatic weapon (SAW), M249, 62, 76 
Squad Immersive Training Environment (SITE), 246, 
260, 261 

Staff noncommissioned officer (SNCO), 54, 298, 
Sunset parade, 55 

dates and times, 55 

location, 55 

parking, 55 
Supporting Arms Virtual Trainers (SAVT), 266 
Supporting Establishment, iv, 44-53, 86, 89, 101, 
275, 301 



Tactical Air Command Center (TACC), 92, 188 

Tactical Combat Operations (TCO), v, 93, 99 

Tactical Data Network (TDN), 101 

Tactical Data Systems (TDS), 95 

Tactical Hand-held Radio (THHR), AN/PRC-148, 67 

Tactical Hydrographic Survey Equipment (THSE), v, 75 

Tactical Language Training System (TLTS), 46 

Tactical MAGTF Integration Course (TMIC), 47, 48, 239 

Tactical operations center (TOC), 100 

Tactical Video Capture System (TVCS), 263, 264 

Targeting, v, 76, 79, 163, 164, 171, 176, 178 

Family of Target Acquisition Systems (FTAS), 

vi, 153 

Target Location Designation and Hand-off 

System (TLDHS), vi, 145, 152 
Team Portable Communications System-Multi 
Platform Capable (TPCS-MPC), vi, 121-122 
Technical Control and Analysis Center (TCAC). vi, 118 
Test Measurement and Diagnostic Equipment (TMDE), 
viii, 212 

Theater Battle Management Core Systems (TBMCS). 
v, 92 

Third Marine Aircraft Wing (3d MAW), 30, 31 
Third Marine Division (3d MARDIV), 30, 33 
Third Marine Expeditionary Brigade (3d MEB), 30, 33 
Third Marine Expeditionary Force (III MEF), 9, 16, 24, 
30,33 

Third Marine Logistics Group (3d MLG). 30, 33 
Thirteenth Marine Expeditionary Unit (13th MEU). 30, 31 



INDEX I 339 



Thirty-first Marine Expeditionary Unit (31st MEU), 18, 

30,33 

Total Life Cycle Management (TLCM), vii, 199 

Training and Education Command (TECOM), 23, 

44-49, 237, 239, 241 , 242, 244, 246, 251 

Training and Readiness (T&R) Manual, 48, 266, 246 

Training Systems, viii, 170, 237 

Aviation, vii, 169 

Collective, viii, 248-250 

Individual, viii, 265-266 

Range, viii, 251-264 
Transition Assistance, 293 
Trojan SPIRIT, AN7TSQ-226, 1 15, 1 16 
Twenty-second Marine Expeditionary Unit (22d MEU), 
26, 27, 222 

Twenty-fourth Marine Expeditionary Unit 24th MEU), 
26, 27, 222 

Twenty-sixth Marine Expeditionary Unit (26th MEU), 
26,27 

u 

Ultra-high frequency (UHF), 103, 114 

Universal Needs Statement (UNS), 97, 100, 140, 158, 

178, 209,288 

Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), vii, 161,1 80-1 82, 

190 



Values-Based Training, 10, 238 

Vehicle borne improvised explosive device (VBIED), 

155 

Vehicles, vi, 58, 124-143 

combat, 102, 126, 127, 128, 132, 135, 

246, 249 

strategy, 125-126 
tactical, 126, 129-130, 134, 137, 138-139, 140-141, 
142, 143,311 

VENOM Non-lethal Tube Launched Munitions System 
(NLTLMS), vi, 156 
Very high frequency (VHF), 104, 189 
Vision and Strategy 2025, Marine Corps, 6 

w 

Warfighter Network Services - Tactical (WFNS-T), v, 1 01 

Water Packaging System, expeditionary (E-WPS), 

viii, 213 

Water Purification System, lightweight (LWPS), viii, 

213, 214 

Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), 282 

Wounded, ill, and injured (Wll), 1 1 , 293, 304, 305 

Wounded Warrior Regiment (WWR), ix, 1 1 , 304-305 



340 I USMC CONCEPTS & PROGRAMS 2011 



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